Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |                demand of health implies higher and higher investments,
  2    I,     2.  1        |               health implies higher and higher investments, it is very
  3    I,     2.  1        |                 four main channels: (i) higher productivity; (ii) higher
  4    I,     2.  1        |               higher productivity; (ii) higher labour supply;(iii) improved
  5    I,     2.  2        |                as long as they meet the higher requirements of this age
  6    I,     2.  3        |                 abortion rates are much higher for foreign than for European
  7    I,     2.  3        |                 and Northern Africa had higher fertility rates than non-immigrants.
  8    I,     2.  4        |            policies have contributed to higher growth and more jobs. Still,
  9    I,     2.  4        |                 premature mortality are higher among those with lower levels
 10    I,     2.  4        |            proportionally faster in the higher socio-economic groups than
 11    I,     2.  4        |            faster mortality declines in higher socio-economic groups were
 12    I,     2.  4        |              socio-economic groups, the higher socio-economic groups tended
 13    I,     2.  4        |                 Apparently, people with higher levels of education have
 14    I,     2.  4        |                of morbidity are usually higher among those with a lower
 15    I,     2.  4        |                 chronic diseases have a higher prevalence in the lower
 16    I,     2.  4        |            incomes will in turn lead to higher poverty rates.~ ~While healthcare
 17    I,     2.  5        |           people aged less than 25 much higher than for those 25 or more
 18    I,     2.  5        |            incomes will in turn lead to higher poverty rates. The 15th
 19    I,     2.  5        |            muscular-skeletal disorders. Higher skilled workers face the
 20    I,     2.  5        |            work-health problems are far higher in small businesses. SMEs
 21    I,     2.  7        |                a huge cut in pollution, higher quality of life and the
 22    I,     2.  8        |                  Lignite~ ~As for coal; higher pollutant emissions and
 23    I,     2.  9        |              the century, which is also higher than projected global warming (
 24    I,     2.  9        |               species northwards and to higher altitudes, changes in life-cycle
 25    I,     2.  9        |            encephalitis are moving into higher altitudes and latitudes.
 26    I,     2. 10.  4    |          identification technologies is higher with other healthcare supply
 27    I,     3.  1        |             these regions have slightly higher fertility rates than elsewhere
 28    I,     3.  1        |                what it currently is. As higher educated women have their
 29    I,     3.  1        |                the number of women with higher education explains about
 30    I,     3.  1        |             most likely have (somewhat) higher fertility in the future.~ ~
 31    I,     3.  1        |            general, the percentages are higher in later birth cohorts;
 32    I,     3.  1        |                More recent cohorts show higher levels, but women from these
 33    I,     3.  1        |          Trussell, 1984; Prioux, 1993). Higher educated women are much
 34    I,     3.  1        |              does not always imply that higher educated women opt voluntarily
 35    I,     3.  1        |                 in becoming pregnant at higher ages. However, there is
 36    I,     3.  1        |                  there is evidence that higher educated women conceive
 37    I,     3.  1        |              rates outside marriage are higher than the birth rates outside
 38    I,     3.  1.  0(2) |                 period TFR would become higher than the cohort rate.~
 39    I,     3.  2        |            growth at the moment (i.e. a higher number of deaths than births)
 40    I,     3.  3        |                 lower fertility than to higher mortality. The pyramid for
 41   II,     4.  1        |                The figures are somewhat higher in the EU15 than in the
 42   II,     4.  1        |           continued to converge towards higher values. These are high convergence
 43   II,     4.  1        |               LE in Japan is four years higher than in both EU27 and USA.
 44   II,     4.  1        |                 LE at birth is one year higher in the EU27 compared to
 45   II,     4.  1        |                have more experience and higher expectations of these indicators.
 46   II,     4.  2        |                 decline in mortality at higher ages had a larger effect
 47   II,     4.  2        |               elderly ages, at slightly higher ages than in the 1980s.
 48   II,     4.  2        |                for men in the 1990s was higher than in the 1980s and in
 49   II,     4.  2        |              for women in the 1980s was higher than for men. Also after
 50   II,     4.  2        |               rate of increase has been higher than in countries where
 51   II,     4.  2        |          expectancy in 1970 is one year higher, the average annual increase
 52   II,     5.  1.  1    |                nephrotoxic drugs are at higher risk for CKD. Currently,
 53   II,     5.  1.  1    |               is likely to determine an higher incidence of food allergy,
 54   II,     5.  2.  1    |                 cancers combined with a higher percentage of women (54%
 55   II,     5.  2.  1    |             Allender et al, 2008) and a higher mortality in the lower socio-economic
 56   II,     5.  2.  2    |                 and mortality rates are higher compared to those of the
 57   II,     5.  2.  2    |             because mortality rates are higher compared to those of Mediterranean
 58   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 years, IHD mortality is higher in men than in women but
 59   II,     5.  2.  3    |                15%. Mortality rates are higher in men than in women and
 60   II,     5.  2.  3    |                there almost eight times higher (in men 72 deaths per 100.
 61   II,     5.  2.  3    |               the MONICA data, this was higher in populations in Northern,
 62   II,     5.  2.  3    |               Warsaw it was three times higher than it was in Catalonia,
 63   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 while it was four times higher in women. The results of
 64   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 heart disease (CHD) was higher in many populations in Southern,
 65   II,     5.  2.  3    |                mortality rates are much higher for men than for women;
 66   II,     5.  2.  3    |              2008). Stroke mortality is higher in men than in women in
 67   II,     5.  2.  3    |                there almost seven times higher. In women it varies from
 68   II,     5.  2.  3    |                there almost eight times higher. As shown in table 5.2.5,
 69   II,     5.  2.  3    |                and recurrent events) is higher in populations in Northern
 70   II,     5.  2.  3    |                Lithuania is three times higher than it is in Italy. A comparison
 71   II,     5.  2.  3    |               greater in countries with higher rates. The decline would
 72   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 with age and that it is higher in women than in men. These
 73   II,     5.  2.  4    |               increases with age and is higher among elderly women.~Table
 74   II,     5.  2.  4    |               men, smoking is generally higher in Southern, Baltic and
 75   II,     5.  2.  4    |               In women, it is generally higher in Northern Europe and Southern
 76   II,     5.  2.  6    |             countries, is about 2 times higher than the risk associated
 77   II,     5.  3.  2    |               and oral cancer rates are higher in ethnic minorities;~-
 78   II,     5.  3.  2    |             individuals and families at higher risk of developing cancer.
 79   II,     5.  3.  5    |                Eastern Europe maintains higher levels (in respect with
 80   II,     5.  3.  5    |         Czech Republic and Slovakia had higher mortality rates than the
 81   II,     5.  3.  5    |            incidence estimated rate was higher than that of males (46 vs
 82   II,     5.  3.  6    |                5-year relative survival higher then 40% for men and 55%
 83   II,     5.  3.  6    |              year relative survival was higher in women than in men in
 84   II,     5.  3.  6    |               lower in Poland (48%) and higher in Sweden (70%) (Figure
 85   II,     5.  3.  6    |                these countries is still higher than in Eastern European
 86   II,     5.  3.  6    |          European mean: 76%) cancer was higher in Nordic countries (except
 87   II,     5.  3.  6    |                in 200002 was generally higher in Northern European countries
 88   II,     5.  4.  3    |         gradient in Europe, with a much higher incidence in the Nordic
 89   II,     5.  4.  3    |               older the population, the higher the percentage.~Smoking.
 90   II,     5.  4.  3    |               older the individual, the higher the incidence.~The annual
 91   II,     5.  5.Int    |                minority groups are at a higher risk for victimisation by
 92   II,     5.  5.Int    |             preliminary evidence showed higher proportions of depression
 93   II,     5.  5.Int    |               late-life depression. The higher risk of depression in older
 94   II,     5.  5.Int    |                of depression includes a higher burden on social security
 95   II,     5.  5.Int    |               that the rates of AD were higher among women of lower education,
 96   II,     5.  5.  1    |               to place an individual at higher risk of suicide including
 97   II,     5.  5.  1    |               States, suicide rates are higher for people over 65 than
 98   II,     5.  5.  1    |              ESEMED countries, a burden higher than that attributable,
 99   II,     5.  5.  1    |          Lifetime suicide attempts were higher among those with a generalised
100   II,     5.  5.  1    |           distress. This percentage was higher in women (20%) than in men (
101   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Slovakia.~3) those with a higher prevalence of psychological
102   II,     5.  5.  1    |         Mortality rates for suicide are higher in EU27 for both men and
103   II,     5.  5.  2    |              were not available for the higher age groups. This was the
104   II,     5.  5.  2    |             could be seen as leading to higher costs for health care and
105   II,     5.  5.  2    |              faced with the prospect of higher costs for healthcare, it
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and weight control, with a higher level for girls (18%) than
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |              born in urban areas show a higher incidence. The data on fluctuation
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Sweden evaluated that the higher mortality rate (23.0% vs.
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  which cannot be due to higher incidence or prevalence
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |               506 is more than 100 fold higher than the value reported
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |               YLD), the portion is even higheri.e. more than two fifths.
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |               with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence of HIV infections
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |         nicotine addicts is three times higher (88%; Punnoose and Belgamwar
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for Europe 2001 were much higher, namely 36% to 45%. This
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |        antipsychotics in Finland is 50% higher than in Sweden, whereas
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |    contradictory; some findings suggest higher rates compared to many other
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Suvisaari et al, 1999), but even higher estimates cannot account
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |                ASD exist. ~ ~Although a higher mortality risk has been
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |          communities having an estimate higher than those previously reported
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2005). The incidence is higher in children and in the elderly (
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 has been reported to be higher in men than in women, although
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |           during different periods. The higher SMRs reported by the French
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |              appear to be substantially higher than that of the general
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in children, and by the higher proportion of neurodeficits
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepsy are reported to be at higher risk of suicide than the
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Suicide rates may be even higher (SMR 87.5; 95% CI 35-180)
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |     underemployment rates are generally higher in patients with epilepsy
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |         countries (RESt-1 Group, 2000). Higher seizure frequency is associated
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |            frequency is associated with higher rates of unemployment (Smeets
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and across regions. The higher prevalence rates of MS reported
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |       prevalence rate of 136, which was higher than that in the city’s
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Sardinia were significantly higher than the national mean rates
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 100 000. Mean rates are higher in northern countries, maybe
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Norway, where prevalence was higher in the population aged 50–
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |              out. Mean rates tend to be higher in countries where the degree
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |           disease investigation is also higher, with better accuracy in
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 of those countries with higher life expectancy are found
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |       expectancy are found to also have higher MS incidence (WHO, 2004),
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 and incidence were much higher: 1,280 to 1,500/100,000
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |               conflicting evidence of a higher prevalence for men: some
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |             advanced stages of PD cause higher healthcare expenditures
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |                similar in most studies. Higher probabilities of participation
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 studies may explain the higher number of cases with mild
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |            found to be about five times higher in advanced stages of PD
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 disorders are generally higher in the old Member States
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |            longitudinal study: two-fold higher incidence in men. ILSA Working
147   II,     5.  6.  3    |                1992). The prevalence is higher in women, and increases
148   II,     5.  6.  3    |          osteoarthritis from a low to a higher radiological score, with
149   II,     5.  6.  3    |               studies the prevalence is higher in women than men (the ratio
150   II,     5.  6.  3    |              the working population and higher between 25 and 64 years
151   II,     5.  7.  1    |        complications which is 2-4 times higher than that of the coeval
152   II,     5.  7.  1    |              with ESRD have a 100 times higher risk (Baigent et al, 2000).
153   II,     5.  7.  1    |            Kidney damage~with normal or higher GFR*~>90~585.1~1-5 T if
154   II,     5.  7.  3    |             rates which are three times higher in the United States compared
155   II,     5.  7.  3    |               to a nephrologist and had higher prevalence of obesity and
156   II,     5.  7.  3    |              increased with age and was higher in males than in females (
157   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 This is partly due to a higher US incidence rate of diabetic
158   II,     5.  7.  3    |               incidence rate of RRT was higher in socially deprived areas
159   II,     5.  7.  3    |                CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in medical databases in
160   II,     5.  7.  3    |              females than in males. The higher prevalence on CKD in females,
161   II,     5.  7.  3    |               i.e. the stages showing a higher risk for CV complications
162   II,     5.  7.  3    |           females (Figure 5.7.3), while higher figures are reported in
163   II,     5.  7.  3    |             females (Germany, Italy) or higher in females (Belgium (Van
164   II,     5.  7.  3    |               age and was more than 50% higher in males compared to females (
165   II,     5.  7.  3    |          transplant recipients was much higher: 32% and 56%, respectively (
166   II,     5.  7.  3    |                CKD was 1.3 to 1.5 times higher in medical databases in
167   II,     5.  7.  3    |              females than in males. The higher prevalence on CKD in females,
168   II,     5.  7.  4    |                nephrotoxic drugs are at higher risk for CKD.~ ~There are
169   II,     5.  7.  4    |               the prevalence of RRT was higher in socially deprived areas
170   II,     5.  7.  5    |          hepatitis (HBC and HBB) are at higher risk for CKD. When the risk
171   II,     5.  7.  6    |                 and quality of life are higher in transplant recipients
172   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  This was significantly higher in smokers (18.8%).~ ~A
173   II,     5.  8.  3    |        prevalence of COPD at stage I or higher was estimated at 26.1%,
174   II,     5.  8.  3    |              gender, and at stage II or higher at 10.7%. A doctor diagnosis
175   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 major organ systems was higher, and a frequency > 1% within
176   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 or COPD proved to be at higher risk of depression (OR 3.
177   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 cost of treatment) were higher for COPD than for asthma (
178   II,     5.  8.  4    |              infections, will result in higher COPD prevalence, morbidity,
179   II,     5.  8.  6    |                6. Future developments~ ~Higher standards of COPD care and
180   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 of allergy. Significant higher prevalence of atopy and
181   II,     5.  9. FB    |              partially explained by the higher physiciansawareness of
182   II,     5.  9.  3    |             where asthma prevalence was higher than 30%, allergic rhinitis
183   II,     5.  9.  3    |          prevalence also resulted to be higher than 15%. In Italy, the
184   II,     5.  9.  3    |                  cost of treatment) was higher for COPD than for asthma.~ ~
185   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Estonia found an incidence higher among females (2.9 cases.
186   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 3, P=0.017). Risks were higher for asthma defined by bronchial
187   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 grass sensitization was higher than that for any other
188   II,     5.  9.  4    |               europea and P. judaica is higher in Southern Europe than
189   II,     5.  9.  4    |    sensitization to the silver birch is higher in Northern Europe than
190   II,     5.  9.  4    |                atopy) was 32.3%, with a higher prevalence in males (35.
191   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 or seasons. Substantial higher levels of specific elements
192   II,     5.  9.  4    |          combination were significantly higher than to Ova or PM alone.
193   II,     5. 10.  1    |          hypersensitivity (FHS) is much higher than the prevalence of clinically
194   II,     5. 10.  3    |                 as 1:200 ( and probably higher) in Europe and the Western
195   II,     5. 11.  3    |                subtypes; this figure is higher than for that for diseases
196   II,     5. 11.  3    |             Williams et al, 1994a) with higher rates in socio-economically
197   II,     5. 11.  3    |             prevalence and region, with higher rates in the South East
198   II,     5. 11.  3    |                correlates with the much higher prevalence of body piercing
199   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 allergic to piercing is higher depending on the number
200   II,     5. 11.  3    |        sensitized require substantially higher concentrations than 0.5
201   II,     5. 11.  3    |                for ear piercing with an higher corrosion resistance and
202   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 melanoma. The rates are higher in men and women in Southern
203   II,     5. 11.  3    |             1990s, incidence rates were higher in northern and Western
204   II,     5. 11.  3    |            Europe whereas mortality was higher in men in eastern and southern
205   II,     5. 11.  3    |               mid-1990s (19931997) are higher in Nordic countries and
206   II,     5. 14.  1    |              low income households have higher caries rates and more unmet
207   II,     5. 14.  1    |              treatment needs than their higher income counterparts. A concern
208   II,     5. 14.  2    |               improve the production of higher quality information in oral
209   II,     5. 14.  3    |              low income households have higher caries rates and more unmet
210   II,     5. 14.  3    |              treatment needs than their higher income counterparts.~ ~Despite
211   II,     5. 14.  3    |            adults might have similar or higher levels of new caries formation
212   II,     5. 14.  3    |                 Dental erosion showed a higher than average prevalence
213   II,     6.  3.  2    |               use in Northern Europe to higher use in Southern Europe;
214   II,     6.  3.  3    |             target the populations at a higher risk. These are the high-incidence
215   II,     6.  3.  3    |               vulnerable populations at higher risk of infection and therefore
216   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 incidence was 4.5 times higher in men than in women.~ ~
217   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 affected. Incidence was higher in men than in women (male
218   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 100 000). Incidence was higher in men than women (male
219   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 out of 23 countries was higher than during the 200304
220   II,     6.  3.  4    |             proportion of B viruses was higher than in the rest of Europe.
221   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 and usually with a much higher disease and death rate than
222   II,     6.  3.  4    |               itself. In countries with higher overall rates, the proportion
223   II,     6.  3.  5    |               last 10 years, an overall higher incidence has been observed
224   II,     6.  3.  6    |                is probably considerably higher than those reported given
225   II,     6.  3.  6    |                the EU. The risk remains higher in imported and wild animal
226   II,     6.  3.  7    |            Finland and 330 from Sweden. Higher than usual incidences were
227   II,     6.  3.  7    |                cases, partly related to higher incidence in its overseas
228   II,     7.  1        |              one area which should rank higher on the political agenda
229   II,     7.  1        |             investments and accordingly higher savings in healthcare and
230   II,     7.  3.  2    |            Lithuania is over five times higher than in the Netherlands,
231   II,     7.  4.  1    |              share of fatal injuries is higher in very young ages (Figure
232   II,     7.  4.  2    |              advanced age account for a higher than average hospitalisation
233   II,     7.  6        | socio-economically disadvantaged people higher on the political agenda.~
234   II,     8.  2.  1    |             health status. For example, higher rates of obesity, mental
235   II,     8.  2.  1    |                to poverty and rates are higher in deprived and urban areas (
236   II,     9            |               al, 2006). Studies report higher rates of antepartum, intrapartum
237   II,     9            |           pregnancies also carry a much higher fetal and neonatal mortality
238   II,     9            |               risk is mostly due to the higher preterm birth rate in multiple
239   II,     9            |                 and morbidity rates are higher among socially disadvantaged
240   II,     9            |           promoted.~ ~Some women are at higher risk of delivering babies
241   II,     9            |                are both associated with higher congenital anomaly risk (
242   II,     9            |               is also associated with a higher risk (Waller, 2007; EUROCAT,
243   II,     9            |             primary school level have a higher risk of health problems
244   II,     9            |               alcohol-related problems. Higher levels of alcohol-related
245   II,     9            |              therapy (Beral, 2003), and higher body mass index (BMI) in
246   II,     9            |                 increase for those with higher levels of education. For
247   II,     9            |                 likely to be exposed to higher levels of indoor air pollution
248   II,     9.  1.  1    |               This median rate was much higher (4.4/1 000) among countries
249   II,     9.  1.  1    |           acceded in 2007, however, was higher at 6.9 per 1 000 births.~ ~F ~ ~
250   II,     9.  1.  1    |               all these groups are at a higher risk of having longer-term
251   II,     9.  1.  1    |         moderately preterm births, have higher mortality and are more likely
252   II,     9.  1.  1    |        developing CP is 60 to 100 times higher in VLBW babies/very preterm
253   II,     9.  1.  2    |               the British Isles was not higher than in many continental
254   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 European countries have higher rates, for example Germany,
255   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  and two areas report a higher prevalenceSicily at 3.
256   II,     9.  1.  2    |               al, 2006). Studies report higher rates of antepartum, intrapartum
257   II,     9.  1.  2    |           pregnancies also carry a much higher fetal and neonatal mortality
258   II,     9.  1.  2    |               risk is mostly due to the higher preterm birth rate in multiple
259   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 and morbidity rates are higher among socially disadvantaged
260   II,     9.  1.  2    |           promoted.~ ~Some women are at higher risk of delivering babies
261   II,     9.  1.  2    |                are both associated with higher congenital anomaly risk (
262   II,     9.  1.  2    |               is also associated with a higher risk (Waller, 2007; EUROCAT,
263   II,     9.  1.  2    |            ethnic groups may experience higher risks due to deprivation,
264   II,     9.  2.  1    |             among 15-year-old girls are higher in Latvia (over 42%) and
265   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 a month was found to be higher among boys and girls, and
266   II,     9.  2.  3    |               body size is consistently higher among girls than boys. The
267   II,     9.  2.  4    |             primary school level have a higher risk of health problems
268   II,     9.  2.  4    |               alcohol-related problems. Higher levels of alcohol-related
269   II,     9.  2.  6    |             permanent nature. This is a higher priority than the analysis
270   II,     9.  2.  6    |              for children needs to move higher up the European and political
271   II,     9.  3.  1    |                the overall rate is much higher in men (White & Holmes,
272   II,     9.  3.  1    |                obesity.~ ~Despite these higher levels of morbidity and
273   II,     9.  3.  1    |        transport accidents is 2.4 times higher than that of females (Niederlaender,
274   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  18-24 yrs) have a much higher accident incidence rate
275   II,     9.  3.  1    |             preliminary evidence showed higher proportions of depression
276   II,     9.  3.  1    |                of depression includes a higher burden on social security
277   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Suicide rates are generally higher among men than among women,
278   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 of suicide attempts are higher among women (EIWH, 2006).
279   II,     9.  3.  1    |        indicated that women also have a higher rate of repeated attacks
280   II,     9.  3.  1    |              and Slovenia are 2-3 times higher than the EU27 average (WHO
281   II,     9.  3.  1    |                with diabetes may have a higher coronary heart diseases (
282   II,     9.  3.  1    |            pressure and a significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure
283   II,     9.  3.  1    |            pancreas. It also leads to a higher risk of developing hypertension,
284   II,     9.  3.  1    |        respectively 4.5. and 4.4. times higher in men than women. Up to
285   II,     9.  3.  1    |               age, with incidence rates higher in Scandinavia than in other
286   II,     9.  3.  1    |                age. Incidence rates are higher amongst women in Scandinavia
287   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 men falling, men have a higher mortality as a result of
288   II,     9.  3.  1    |              therapy (Beral, 2003), and higher body mass index (BMI) in
289   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 increase for those with higher levels of education. For
290   II,     9.  3.  2    |              data show the same or even higher maternal mortality ratios
291   II,     9.  3.  2    |                maternal conditions, the higher multiple birth rates caused
292   II,     9.  3.  2    |            example, some countries have higher rates of obstetrical interventions,
293   II,     9.  3.  2    |                increasing trend towards higher rates of caesarean section
294   II,     9.  3.  2    |            meaning, because some of the higher mortality countries may
295   II,     9.  3.  2    |              preterm babies have a much higher rate of disabling impairments
296   II,     9.  3.  2    |            multiple births – which have higher mortality and morbidity –
297   II,     9.  3.  2    |          childbirth and thus generating higher levels of parental anxiety,
298   II,     9.  3.  3    |               first intercourse is much higher among women compared to
299   II,     9.  3.  3    |             from 5.1 to 5.5 .~ ~Besides higher prevalence of multiple partners,
300   II,     9.  3.  3    |          rural areas, with a moderately higher proportion in Central and
301   II,     9.  3.  3    |             surveys in Finland notice a higher prevalence of multiple partners
302   II,     9.  3.  3    |            recent sexual intercourse is higher for men than for women~ ~
303   II,     9.  3.  3    |                relationship, being in a higher social class, having a higher
304   II,     9.  3.  3    |           higher social class, having a higher level of education and age
305   II,     9.  3.  3    |                age is an indicator of a higher probability of risky behaviours
306   II,     9.  4.  3    |              harm are approximately 26% higher in Europeans over 65 than
307   II,     9.  4.  3    |          countries, the suicide rate is higher in those over 75. More appropriate
308   II,     9.  4.  3    |               late-life depression. The higher risk of depression in older
309   II,     9.  4.  3    |                  therefore, is probably higher than previously believed (
310   II,     9.  4.  3    |           glucose tolerance, is notably higher in older women than in older
311   II,     9.  4.  3    |                Wales and Scotland, show higher rates in the least deprived
312   II,     9.  4.  3    |                 age, show evidence of a higher prevalence of TB in older
313   II,     9.  4.  3    |               highlighted, with general higher prevalence in males. In
314   II,     9.  4.  3    |               that the rates of AD were higher among women of lower education,
315   II,     9.  4.  4    |                 likely to be exposed to higher levels of indoor air pollution
316   II,     9.  4.  5    |              older people have a 30-65% higher risk of almost all chronic
317   II,     9.  4.  5    |           sicker’. Risk of mortality is higher for most chronic conditions
318   II,     9.  4.  5    |                 People of all ages with higher education levels tend to
319   II,     9.  4.  5    |                to enjoy a healthier and higher quality of life for a longer
320   II,     9.  5.  1    |              women’s life expectancy is higher. As the proportion of women
321   II,     9.  5.  1    |                lifetime, women are at a higher risk for experiencing age-related
322   II,     9.  5.  1    |                 more important for men. Higher rates of accidents (traffic
323   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 increase for those with higher levels of education.. The
324   II,     9.  5.  3    |             primary school level have a higher risk of health problems
325   II,     9.  5.  3    |                women; women may be at a higher risk due to lower body weight
326   II,     9.  5.  3    |              therapy (Beral, 2003), and higher body mass index (BMI) in
327   II,     9.  5.  3    |             daily smokers were slightly higher in the ten Accession Countries
328   II,     9.  5.  3    |              2007) with correspondingly higher levels of smoking related
329   II,     9.  5.  3    |              quit smoking. They smoke a higher number of cigarettes per
330   II,     9.  5.  3    |               Müller, 2000). Due to the higher life expectancy of women
331   II,     9.  5.  3    |               providing unpaid care was higher in deprived areas and areas
332   II,     9.  5.  3    |           deprived areas and areas with higher levels of poor health. Carers
333   II,     9.  5.  3    |              and retirement explain the higher inactivity rates observed
334   II,     9.  5.  3    |              domestic work is generally higher for women than for men:
335   II,     9.  5.  3    |            general, men tend to spend a higher proportion of time on gardening,
336  III,    10.  1        |         Potentially sensitive groups at higher risk for damage or disease
337  III,    10.  1        |             environments are exposed to higher concentrations of pollutants.
338  III,    10.  1.  1    |               active children consume a higher percentage of energy as
339  III,    10.  1.  1    |                 marital satisfaction is higher and rates of depression
340  III,    10.  1.  1    |              are lower in families with higher levels of alcohol consumption.
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |                There are countries with higher and lower prevalence of
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |            percentage of smokers is now higher among women than among men,
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |          behavior and mainly a habit of higher socio-economic groups;~·
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 socioeconomic groups or higher among higher socioeconomic
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |    socioeconomic groups or higher among higher socioeconomic groups. Among
346  III,    10.  2.  1    |             first adopted by women from higher socioeconomic groups;~·
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 especially those with a higher educational level. Women
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |                33% in Spain, being much higher than in Finland (17%) and
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |                and Sweden (11%). A much higher proportion of all men (31%)
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |             into account. Generally the higher the level of alcohol consumption,
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 in lower consuming than higher consuming countries partially
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |                occasion binge drinking. Higher prices also delay intentions
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |                sensitive to price, with higher alcohol taxes or prices
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  the full benefits of a higher drinking age are only realized
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |         passengers they are still often higher than the legal limit for
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |              young adults, with usually higher prevalence among males than
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |                is Estonia, where a much higher estimate of 15 cases per
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |                drug users is 6-20 times higher for males and 10-50 times
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |               for males and 10-50 times higher for females, than that of
360  III,    10.  2.  1(13)|                high; this could produce higher estimations than in other
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |             exposure to fluorides imply higher risk of dental caries. Moreover,
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |           plaque and gingivitis is much higher in boys than girls.~ ~Improved
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |            lesser effect on caries than higher dose toothpaste. The effects
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 i.e., toothpaste with a higher concentration of fluoride,
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |               toothpaste increased with higher initial levels of decayed,
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 filled permanent teeth, higher fluoride concentration and
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |               high, but the profits are higher for the manufacturers that
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |            level but ending at slightly higher levels. Since the mid-90s,
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |               shifting from groups with higher socioeconomic status to
370  III,    10.  2.  1    |             people of lower rather than higher socioeconomic status.~ ~
371  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 low toxicity effects, a higher intake might however be
372  III,    10.  2.  1    |               are a further risk group. Higher homocysteine blood levels
373  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 sufficient although the higher D-A-CH recommendations are
374  III,    10.  2.  1    |               or low bioavailability or higher needs as during growth or
375  III,    10.  2.  1    |              the elderly, depression, a higher incidence of infections,
376  III,    10.  2.  1    |         structure of the diet towards a higher energy density diet with
377  III,    10.  2.  1    |               lactating women also have higher needs. While many of them
378  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 generally satisfying, a higher consumption of fruits, vegetables
379  III,    10.  2.  1    |            mineral and vitamins or with higher demand for antioxidants (
380  III,    10.  2.  1    |              basis of a recommended and higher physical activity level.
381  III,    10.  2.  3    |             countries and about 2 times higher than the risk associated
382  III,    10.  2.  5    |         evidenced that adolescents with higher avoidant attachment showed
383  III,    10.  2.  5    |                 family satisfaction was higher in the intervention group,
384  III,    10.  3.  1    |                frequent among people of higher socio-economic status and
385  III,    10.  3.  1    |            transmitters transmit EMF of higher frequency. The European
386  III,    10.  3.  1    |                at lower frequencies and higher frequencies. Proper evaluation
387  III,    10.  3.  1    |              may also experience a much higher cumulative exposure than
388  III,    10.  3.  1    |             integrated assessments of a higher quality. By doing this,
389  III,    10.  3.  2    |               in benefits 2 to 50 times higher than the costs.~ ~ ~Emissions
390  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 of 5% or more per year, higher in countries with the highest
391  III,    10.  3.  2    |              were then about five times higher than the present levels.~ ~
392  III,    10.  3.  2    |               magnitude though slightly higher, while concentration in
393  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 the Faroe islands where higher by factor 2-3. (Kalanzki,
394  III,    10.  3.  2    |                flame retardants and the higher consumption of fish and
395  III,    10.  3.  4    |             female mortality was 1520% higher in all age groups, in Italy
396  III,    10.  3.  4    |              matter and heat-waves with higher intensity and duration increased
397  III,    10.  3.  4    |       developments~ ~Since the observed higher frequency of heatwaves is
398  III,    10.  4.  1    |                in an order of magnitude higher than those for other air
399  III,    10.  4.  1    |              and lower lung function at higher air pollution levels.~ ~
400  III,    10.  4.  1    |                many air pollutants were higher than in Western Europe.
401  III,    10.  4.  1    |              one or more pollutants are higher than the limit value, Member
402  III,    10.  4.  1    |                of an order of magnitude higher than that of the other pollutants (
403  III,    10.  4.  2    |                this food category is of higher risk for consumers.~· Salmonella,
404  III,    10.  4.  2    |           practically possible, even if higher levels would still be safe.
405  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 diarrhoeal diseases are higher in low income groups or
406  III,    10.  4.  3    |                1/100 which is 100 times higher than for any other water
407  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 2006/7/EC) introduces a higher health standard than the
408  III,    10.  4.  5    |               share of imports was even higher, growing from 21%-35%. In
409  III,    10.  5.  1    |                rate is up to four timer higher and also that their exposure
410  III,    10.  5.  1    |              exposure to certain CDs is higher.~ ~Conclusion~ ~In brief,
411  III,    10.  5.  1    |              with regular users showing higher survival rates and better
412  III,    10.  5.  2    |             working age population) are higher in rural areas, with implications
413  III,    10.  5.  2    |                urban and rural areas is higher in Southern countries of
414  III,    10.  5.  2    |                this already indicates a higher demand for health and care
415  III,    10.  5.  2    |              agriculture is usually not higher than 20% (Eurofound, 2006).
416  III,    10.  5.  2    |          Mortality rates were about 22% higher in cities than in most rural areas.
417  III,    10.  5.  2    |        mortality rates are considerably higher for rural settings (16.4
418  III,    10.  5.  2    |               male children is one year higher (66.4 years) in urban settings
419  III,    10.  5.  2    |                 more health problems, a higher prevalence of chronic conditions
420  III,    10.  5.  2    |                100.000 citizens is much higher than in urban settings (
421  III,    10.  5.  2    |        mortality was also significantly higher in villages and rural settings,
422  III,    10.  5.  2    |                 boys the prevalence was higher in urban (14.2%) than in
423  III,    10.  5.  2    |               The authors conclude that higher stress and less stable social
424  III,    10.  5.  3    |                the percentage is 3-fold higher in electricity supply. Maximum
425  III,    10.  5.  3    |             spell. In general, slightly higher figures are reported by
426  III,    10.  5.  3    |            work-health problems are far higher in small businesses. SMEs
427  III,    10.  5.  3    |            transport and health were at higher risk, whereas young workers,
428  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 the EU-countries, being higher in the Mediterranean countries (
429  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 socially patterned with higher risks in lower status people.~ ~
430  III,    10.  6.  2    |             strong social gradient.~The higher exposure of vulnerability
431  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 premature mortality are higher among those with lower levels
432  III,    10.  6.  2    |            proportionally faster in the higher socio-economic groups than
433  III,    10.  6.  2    |            faster mortality declines in higher socio-economic groups were
434  III,    10.  6.  2    |              socio-economic groups, the higher socio-economic groups were
435  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 Apparently, people with higher levels of education have
436  III,    10.  6.  2    |                of morbidity are usually higher among those with a lower
437  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 chronic diseases have a higher prevalence in the lower
438  III,    10.  6.  2    |            incomes will in turn lead to higher poverty rates.~ ~Accessibility
439  III,    10.  6.  3    |               sexual incident. Somewhat higher percentages were recorded
440  III,    10.  6.  3    |                the Netherlands reported higher than average rates (4% and
441   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                 public system may allow higher income groups with private
442   IV,    11.  1.  4    |              population groups, such as higher income earners, which is
443   IV,    11.  1.  4    |         disproportionately in favour of higher income and wealthier individuals
444   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              than for mammography, with higher levels (greater than 70%
445   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               the EU15 countries having higher scores than the new Member
446   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 to be associated with a higher likelihood of perceiving
447   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              Ireland~Fee-for-service if higher income, patient capitation
448   IV,    11.  1.  6    |          Netherlands~Fee-for-service if higher patient income,~capitation
449   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              reclassify patients into a higher paying DRG (Busse et al,
450   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              not to treat patients with higher expected costs than the
451   IV,    11.  1.  6    |            treatment episodes with much higher or lower resource use than
452   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             anticipated implementation, higher than expected costs, and
453   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                countries generally have higher administrative costs (i.e.
454   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 is associated with much higher levels of administrative
455   IV,    11.  2.  1    |            appear to have significantly higher users of outpatient care
456   IV,    11.  2.  1    |           health insurance tend to have higher levels of utilization than
457   IV,    11.  3.  1    |              density over time has been higher in those countries that
458   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                 for pharmacists such as higher margins or additional payments
459   IV,    11.  5.  6    |          Transplantation in general has higher measurable quality indicators
460   IV,    11.  6.  2    |           groups and is associated with higher transactions costs and weaker
461   IV,    11.  6.  2    |        expenditure is in most countries higher than 50% and there is no
462   IV,    11.  6.  2    |            progressive if tax rates are higher for those with higher incomes
463   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               are higher for those with higher incomes and are proportional
464   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               individuals additional or higher quality services than offered
465   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                  PHI constitutes a much higher proportion of private expenditure
466   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               regressive (i.e. benefits higher income earners disproportionately),
467   IV,    11.  6.  2    |    contributions should be highlighted. Higher income earners are benefiting
468   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               Finland, France, Ireland (higher income or Category II patients),
469   IV,    11.  6.  3    |             Payments are progressive if higher income groups pay disproportionately
470   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                redistribute income from higher to the lower income groups
471   IV,    11.  6.  3    |              1980 (this may result from higher value-added taxes on luxury
472   IV,    11.  6.  3    |               indirect taxes (32%) than higher income households (11.3%) (
473   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                of employees, there is a higher degree of risk pooling across
474   IV,    11.  6.  3    |               of services to favour the higher income groups.~ ~While studies
475   IV,    12.  2        |                occasion binge drinking. Higher prices also delay intentions
476   IV,    12.  2        |                sensitive to price, with higher alcohol taxes or prices
477   IV,    12.  2        |                  the full benefits of a higher drinking age are only realized
478   IV,    12.  2        |         passengers they are still often higher than the legal limit for
479   IV,    13.  1        |              countries characterised by higher health-achievements. In
480   IV,    13.  2.  2    |               the share generally being higher in lower-income countries,
481   IV,    13.  2.  2    |            physical environment is much higher in low-income countries
482   IV,    13.  2.  2    |     neuropsychiatric conditions is even higher – more than two fifths.
483   IV,    13.  2.  3    |         Potentially sensitive groups at higher risk for damage or disease
484   IV,    13.  2.  3    |             environments are exposed to higher concentrations of pollutants.
485   IV,    13.  2.  3    |              who are exploited are at a higher risk of injuries due to
486   IV,    13.  2.  4    |       healthcare systems and in an even higher benefit for the population
487   IV,    13.  3        |        vulnerable groups facing an even higher risk.~ ~A number of indicators
488   IV,    13.  3        |        vulnerable groups facing an even higher risk.~ ~ ~
489   IV,    13.  5        |     degenerative illnesses and are at a higher risk of suffering from multiple
490   IV,    13.  5        |               that disability rates are higher among the elderly, population
491   IV,    13.  5        |            terms of regular employment, higher income levels and, consequently,
492   IV,    13.  7.  2    |              and production facilities; higher productivity, increased
493   IV,    13.  7.  2    |          exports, ultimately leading to higher levels of growth and employment.
494   IV,    13.  7.  2    |                 company are three times higher on the other side of the
495   IV,    13.  7.  2    |        high-tech products is noticeably higher in the US (26.8%) than in