Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |                the EU is characterized by low and late fertility, as well
  2    I,     2.  1        |                  fertility, as well as by low and late mortality. Most
  3    I,     2.  2        |                  needs is currently quite low in most Member States, the
  4    I,     2.  3        |             compensate for the effects of low fertility and extended life
  5    I,     2.  3        |               skilled immigrants and more low skilled immigrants compared
  6    I,     2.  3        |                  their descendents remain low in many Member States. Illegal
  7    I,     2.  4        |                   they live in jobless or low work-intensity households
  8    I,     2.  4        |                   in Europe, indicated by low level of education, occupational
  9    I,     2.  5        |            qualified labour as well as in low and medium skills in specific
 10    I,     2.  5        |               skilled immigrants and more low skilled immigrants compared
 11    I,     2.  5        |                  their descendents remain low in many Member States. Illegal
 12    I,     2.  5        |                   employees or those with low training levels; ICT experts
 13    I,     2. 10.  4    |                   hospitals today is very low: it is estimated that less
 14    I,     3.  1        |             Europe with currentlylowest low fertility’ will most likely
 15    I,     3.  2        |             Eastern EU-Member States have low or negative population growth.
 16    I,     3.  2        |               natural growth. The ‘lowest lowfertility rates in these
 17    I,     3.  2        |             compensate for the effects of low fertility and extended life
 18    I,     3.  3        |                   levels of fertility and low levels of mortality which
 19    I,     3.  3        |                the increase is relatively low for Sweden, old-age-dependency
 20    I,     3.  3        |                 Currently, the shares are low in Turkey, Ireland, Poland,
 21    I,     3.  3        |           Slovakia, Cyprus and Malta have low shares, while Greece, Italy,
 22   II,     4.  1        |            highest EU27 values. These are low convergence countries. The
 23   II,     4.  2        |              expectancy used to be rather low, the rate of increase has
 24   II,     5.  1.  1    |               factors (elevated total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol,
 25   II,     5.  1.  1    |                total and LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension,
 26   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   alcohol, free sugar and low consumption of antioxidants
 27   II,     5.  1.  1    |                   fibres, associated with low intake of fruit and vegetables
 28   II,     5.  1.  1    |                    Psychological factors: low self-esteem, feelings of
 29   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  Wallace, 2004). Whilst a low level of education and/or
 30   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                Ischemic Heart Disease~LDL~Low Density Lipoprotein~MRI~
 31   II,     5.  2.  2    |               factors (elevated total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol,
 32   II,     5.  2.  2    |                total and LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension,
 33   II,     5.  2.  3    |              margarine, from whole fat to low fat milk, increasing fruit
 34   II,     5.  2.  3    |                rich in saturated fats but low in antioxidants due to a
 35   II,     5.  2.  3    |                  in antioxidants due to a low intake of fruit and vegetables,
 36   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   alcohol, free sugar and low consumption of fibres, associated
 37   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  are associated with very low CVD risk (Palmieri et al,
 38   II,     5.  2.  5    |                    Daviglus et al, 2007). Low risk individuals live longer
 39   II,     5.  2.  5    |               longer and are eligible for low medical care expenditures
 40   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 to reduce it and those at low risk to maintain this favourable
 41   II,     5.  2.  6    |             elucidated in the same years. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
 42   II,     5.  2.  6    |             patients to 160 mg/dL in very low risk subjects) in the large
 43   II,     5.  2.  7    |              cardiovascular risk profile (Low Risk) and 10-year stroke
 44   II,     5.  3.  2    |                registration is relatively low if we consider that registration
 45   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   above 70%. Particularly low breast cancer survival was
 46   II,     5.  3.  6    |          countries, where it has remained low (data not showed). Even
 47   II,     5.  3.  6    |                and Wales had particularly low survival (<55%) (Sant et
 48   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 estimates remained at the low level of ~42% for the entire
 49   II,     5.  3.  6    |              Italy (from 43% to 68%). The low survival in Denmark and
 50   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 the context of relatively low incidence levels, whereas
 51   II,     5.  3.  7    |           accessibility in countries with low purchasing power. Secondly,
 52   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   of type 2 diabetes. For low and middle-income countries,
 53   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   lack of sanitation, and low cost food constitute a threatening
 54   II,     5.  5.Int    |              Similarly, women living on a low income for an extended period
 55   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 formal health services is low. About one person in four
 56   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   rates were considerably low and very similar among all
 57   II,     5.  5.  1    |          available. Under-recognition and low accessibility to treatment
 58   II,     5.  5.  2    |               death rate and those with a low death rate.~ ~EUROSTAT statistics~ ~
 59   II,     5.  5.  2(23)|                 included countries with a low adult mortality rate (Bulgaria,
 60   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  Wallace, 2004). Whilst a low level of education and/or
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 men older than 25 remains low (Hoek and van Hoeken, 2003).
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Psychological factors: low self-esteem, feelings of
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 United Kingdom has a very low usage of antipsychotics
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |               greater in patients given a low dose of haloperidol than
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Internalized stigma is related to low self-esteem, hopelessness,
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |             unemployment rates are fairly low (15%) in adult patients
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  contrast with the fairly low accident rates in people
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epileptic seizures is extremely low, ranging from 0.02 to 0.
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |               northern Africa, an area at low risk for MS, is believed
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |               believed to account for the low absolute MS risk in the
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |          associated with the disorders is low (Gasser, 2007). Environmental
 72   II,     5.  6.  1    |                   is symptomatic, such as low back pain.~ ~Musculoskeletal
 73   II,     5.  6.  1    |                  3) spinal disorders e.g. low back pain; (4) regional
 74   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  often the situation with low back pain; or may be chronic
 75   II,     5.  6.  3    |                 of disability for many is low to moderate. Musculoskeletal
 76   II,     5.  6.  3    |        radiological osteoarthritis from a low to a higher radiological
 77   II,     5.  6.  3    |               studies.~ ~Osteoporosis and low trauma fractures~ ~Definition~ ~
 78   II,     5.  6.  3    |                disease characterized by a low bone mass and a microarchitectural
 79   II,     5.  6.  3    |                score2.5).~ ~Osteopenia (low bone mass): a BMD value
 80   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  of several risk factors: low body weight, premature menopause,
 81   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  of fracture are falling, low bone mass, i.e. osteoporosis,
 82   II,     5.  6.  3    |                osteoporosis, and previous low trauma fracture. There are
 83   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  increases when combining low bone density with the presence
 84   II,     5.  6.  3    |               European Community 1998).~ ~Low Back pain~ ~Definition~ ~
 85   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  Back pain~ ~Definition~ ~Low back pain is a major health
 86   II,     5.  6.  3    |                   one or more episodes of low back pain in their lives.
 87   II,     5.  6.  3    |                whereas 90% of people with low back pain have no clearly
 88   II,     5.  6.  3    |    pathophysiologic cause.~ ~Non-specific low back pain is usually classified
 89   II,     5.  6.  3    |                history~ ~Most episodes of low back pain settle after a
 90   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  exacerbations of chronic low back pain. Many people with
 91   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  Many people with chronic low back pain also have widespread
 92   II,     5.  6.  3    |                per year; the incidence of low back pain with sciatica
 93   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  is a history of previous low back pain.~ ~Prevalence~ ~
 94   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  risk~ ~The occurrence of low back pain is associated
 95   II,     5.  6.  3    |              guidelines for prevention in low back pain http ). The costs
 96   II,     5.  6.  3    |                  the impact on health and low frequency of return to work
 97   II,     5.  6.  4    |                sick leave over 4 days had low back pain, 20% neck and
 98   II,     5.  6.  4    |           disability pensions. In Norway, low back disorders are the most
 99   II,     5.  6.  6    |                 postmenopausal women with low BMD with or without prevalent
100   II,     5.  7.  7    |           Lombardi C, De Santo NG (2006): Low glomerular filtration in
101   II,     5.  8.  3    |              prevalence of normal BMI and low FFMI was 15%, and of low
102   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  low FFMI was 15%, and of low BMI and low FFMI 11%. Low
103   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   15%, and of low BMI and low FFMI 11%. Low BMI and low
104   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 low BMI and low FFMI 11%. Low BMI and low FFMI were significantly
105   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 low FFMI 11%. Low BMI and low FFMI were significantly
106   II,     5.  9. FB    |                   to ordinary exposure to low doses of allergens, usually
107   II,     5.  9. FB    |                present no risk and have a low cost.~ ~All exposure to
108   II,     5.  9.  3    |                  are high in children and low in adults; nevertheless,
109   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 In fact, countries with a low prevalence of asthma, such
110   II,     5.  9.  3    |                  Greece, presented also a low prevalence of rhinitis,
111   II,     5.  9.  3    |                     Although mortality is low, most asthma deaths result
112   II,     5.  9.  3    |             defined by ICD-10 J45-J46) is low and Standardized Death Rates (
113   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 and centres with high and low prevalence of sensitization
114   II,     5.  9.  4    |          prevalence of ragweed pollen was low (except in the USA), but
115   II,     5.  9.  4    |                      Table 5.9.5. High or low prevalence of sensitization
116   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Belgium~ South Antwerp~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~–~Low~ Antwerp
117   II,     5.  9.  4    |               South Antwerp~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~–~Low~ Antwerp City~
118   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Antwerp~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~–~Low~ Antwerp City~High~
119   II,     5.  9.  4    |                       Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~–~Low~ Antwerp City~High~High~–~–~
120   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Antwerp City~High~High~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~Low~–~France~ Bordeaux~
121   II,     5.  9.  4    |                City~High~High~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~Low~–~France~ Bordeaux~High~–~–~
122   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 High~High~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~Low~–~France~ Bordeaux~High~–~–~
123   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 France~ Bordeaux~High~–~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~–~–~ Grenoble~–~–~
124   II,     5.  9.  4    |            Bordeaux~High~–~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~–~–~ Grenoble~–~–~High~Low~–~–~
125   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~–~–~ Grenoble~–~–~High~Low~–~–~High~–~–~–~ Montpellier~
126   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   High~–~–~–~ Montpellier~Low~High~–~–~High~Low~High~–~
127   II,     5.  9.  4    |             Montpellier~Low~High~–~–~High~Low~High~–~High~–~ Paris~–~–~ ~–~
128   II,     5.  9.  4    |                     High~–~ Paris~–~–~ ~–~Low~–~–~–~–~Germany~ Erfurt~
129   II,     5.  9.  4    |                           Germany~ Erfurt~Low~Low~ND~–~–~High~ND~ND~ND~
130   II,     5.  9.  4    |                       Germany~ Erfurt~Low~Low~ND~–~–~High~ND~ND~ND~ND~
131   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  ND~ND~Iceland~ Reykjavik~Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~
132   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Iceland~ Reykjavik~Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~
133   II,     5.  9.  4    |            Iceland~ Reykjavik~Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~
134   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Reykjavik~Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~
135   II,     5.  9.  4    |             Reykjavik~Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~
136   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Low~–~Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~
137   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~–~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~Low~
138   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~–~Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~
139   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~
140   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~
141   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Italy~ Pavia~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~ Turin~
142   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Pavia~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~ Turin~Low~–~–~ ~–~
143   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~Low~Low~–~Low~–~–~High~Low~ Turin~Low~–~–~ ~–~High~–~
144   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~–~–~High~Low~ Turin~Low~–~–~ ~–~High~–~ Verona~Low~
145   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~–~–~ ~–~High~–~ Verona~Low~Low~–~–~–~–~High~–~High~–~
146   II,     5.  9.  4    |                        High~–~ Verona~Low~Low~–~–~–~–~High~–~High~–~Ireland~
147   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    Ireland~ Dublin~High~–~Low~–~–~Low~–~–~–~–~New Zealand~
148   II,     5.  9.  4    |            Ireland~ Dublin~High~–~Low~–~–~Low~–~–~–~–~New Zealand~ Christchurch~
149   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Hawkes Bay~High~–~–~–~–~High~Low~–~–~High~ Wellington~High~–~
150   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   High~–~High~High~High~–~Low~–~–~High~Norway~ Bergen~
151   II,     5.  9.  4    |                       High~Norway~ Bergen~Low~–~Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~
152   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 High~Norway~ Bergen~Low~–~Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~
153   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Norway~ Bergen~Low~–~Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~Spain~
154   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Bergen~Low~–~Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~Spain~ Albacete~
155   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~–~Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~Spain~ Albacete~
156   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~Spain~ Albacete~Low~
157   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~–~Low~High~Low~Low~Low~Low~Spain~ Albacete~Low~Low~
158   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Spain~ Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~
159   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Spain~ Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~
160   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Spain~ Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~
161   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Spain~ Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~
162   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~ Barcelona~–~–~
163   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Albacete~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~ Barcelona~–~–~
164   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~ Barcelona~–~–~Low~–~–~
165   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~Low~Low~Low~High~Low~–~Low~ Barcelona~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~
166   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~–~Low~ Barcelona~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~High~–~High~–~ Galdakao~
167   II,     5.  9.  4    |                Low~ Barcelona~–~–~Low~–~–~Low~High~–~High~–~ Galdakao~
168   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   High~–~High~–~ Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~
169   II,     5.  9.  4    |               High~–~High~–~ Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~
170   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  High~–~ Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~
171   II,     5.  9.  4    |                      Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~
172   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~
173   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Galdakao~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~
174   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~
175   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~
176   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~
177   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~Low~
178   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Low~Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~
179   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Low~Low~Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~
180   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~ Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~Low~
181   II,     5.  9.  4    |                    Huelva~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~
182   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~
183   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Low~Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~
184   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 Low~–~–~–~Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~
185   II,     5.  9.  4    |                       Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~
186   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~ Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Sweden~
187   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Sweden~ Goteborg~
188   II,     5.  9.  4    |              Oviedo~Low~Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Sweden~ Goteborg~
189   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Sweden~ Goteborg~Low~
190   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~Low~–~Low~Low~–~Low~Low~Sweden~ Goteborg~Low~High~–~–~
191   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~Low~Sweden~ Goteborg~Low~High~–~–~Low~High~–~Low~
192   II,     5.  9.  4    |             Sweden~ Goteborg~Low~High~–~–~Low~High~–~Low~High~–~ Umea~
193   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Low~High~–~–~Low~High~–~Low~High~–~ Umea~Low~High~–~
194   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   High~–~Low~High~–~ Umea~Low~High~–~High~–~High~–~–~ ~
195   II,     5.  9.  4    |                High~–~High~–~–~ ~ Uppsala~Low~High~–~–~–~High~Low~High~
196   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Uppsala~Low~High~–~–~–~High~Low~High~Low~–~Switzerland~
197   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  High~–~–~–~High~Low~High~Low~–~Switzerland~ Basel~Low~–~
198   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  Low~–~Switzerland~ Basel~Low~–~High~–~–~High~High~ND~–~
199   II,     5.  9.  4    |             Netherlands~ Bergen op Zoom~–~Low~Low~–~–~High~Low~Low~–~–~
200   II,     5.  9.  4    |         Netherlands~ Bergen op Zoom~–~Low~Low~–~–~High~Low~Low~–~–~ Geleen~
201   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Zoom~–~Low~Low~–~–~High~Low~Low~–~–~ Geleen~High~High~
202   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Zoom~–~Low~Low~–~–~High~Low~Low~–~–~ Geleen~High~High~High~
203   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  High~High~ Groningen~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~Low~–~UK~
204   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Groningen~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~Low~–~UK~ Caerphilly~
205   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Groningen~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~Low~–~UK~ Caerphilly~High~–~–~ ~–~
206   II,     5.  9.  4    |           Groningen~–~–~Low~–~–~–~Low~Low~Low~–~UK~ Caerphilly~High~–~–~ ~–~
207   II,     5.  9.  4    |                   Caerphilly~High~–~–~ ~–~Low~–~–~High~ Cambridge~–~–~
208   II,     5.  9.  4    |           children from local families of low social status. In the German
209   II,     5.  9.  4    |           serological assays) presented a low frequency of both sensitization
210   II,     5. 10.  2    |                 redundancy and relatively low coverage of allergens by
211   II,     5. 10.  4    |               clinical setting due to the low awareness of health professionals
212   II,     5. 11.  1    |                  profession and give it a low priority in research programmes.
213   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 the chronic exposure to a low concentration of allergenic
214   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   Portugal and Italy) and low in the Nordic countries (
215   II,     5. 12.  5    |                   prevalence has remained low in most of Northern and
216   II,     5. 13        |              cholesterol level, high BMI, low fruit and vegetable intake
217   II,     5. 14.  1    |              indicates that children from low income households have higher
218   II,     5. 14.  3    |           children seems to be relatively low and now similar to what
219   II,     5. 14.  3    |               indicate that children from low income households have higher
220   II,     5. 14.  3    |             people with poor education or low socioeconomic status; ethnic
221   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  to socio-economic level, low income being a strong predictor
222   II,     5. 14.  3    |                  deep pockets (> 5 mm) is low (10.21%); this underlines
223   II,     5. 14.  3    |             across Europe, especially for low income populations. Poor
224   II,     5. 15.  2    |              subsets and their quality is low in general as the studies
225   II,     5. 15.  3    |          prevalence is skewed toward very low numbers. Of the 5,000 RD
226   II,     6.  3.  2    |                  high, medium, as well as low baseline figures (figure
227   II,     6.  3.  2    |                   a general gradient from low use in Northern Europe to
228   II,     6.  3.  2    |                most likely reason for the low levels of resistance to
229   II,     6.  3.  3    |                  which had been extremely low until then started to rise
230   II,     6.  3.  3    |                users (IDU) accounts for a low proportion of total cases,
231   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 declined steadily to very low levels in 200103. In the
232   II,     6.  3.  4    |           countries and have reached very low levels in recent years.
233   II,     6.  3.  4    |              economies where TB rates are low and disease increasingly
234   II,     6.  3.  4    |         drug-resistance among TB cases is low to moderate.~· The Baltic
235   II,     6.  3.  4    |           characterised by high TB rates, low migrant TB and high frequency
236   II,     6.  3.  4    |               resistance and where HIV is low but steadily increasing
237   II,     6.  3.  4    |                   HIV and drug resistance low.~ ~ ~In 2005, the 25 EU
238   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  to 24 year-olds remained low. After 25 years of age,
239   II,     6.  3.  7    |            present, these diseases have a low number of cases, are often
240   II,     6.  3.  7    |               bacteria. The death rate is low, but increases with advancing
241   II,     7.  6        |                 Europe is inappropriately low, when taking into consideration
242   II,     8.  2.  1    |                 to premature delivery and low birth weight, or happen
243   II,     8.  2.  2    |                 society. A major cause of low vision and blindness is
244   II,     8.  2.  2    |                Visual impairment includes low vision as well as blindness.
245   II,     8.  2.  2    |              vision as well as blindness. Low vision is defined as visual
246   II,     8.  2.  2    |          characterization of vision loss, low vision is replaced by two
247   II,     8.  2.  2    |               Prevalence of blindness and low vision~ ~A review and selection,
248   II,     8.  2.  2    |               Prevalence of blindness and low vision, by WHO subregion,
249   II,     8.  2.  2    |               Prevalence of blindness and low vision, by WHO subregion,
250   II,     9            |                the population.~ ~Motherslow folic acid status in the
251   II,     9            |                   direct relation between low birth weight, poor nutrition
252   II,     9            |                 who smoke frequently have low self esteem, impaired psychological
253   II,     9            |                  snacks with high fat and low fibre content during the
254   II,     9            |            educational level. People with low levels of education are
255   II,     9            |                  For example, people with low levels of education have
256   II,     9            |               people, with an emphasis on low intake of saturated fats
257   II,     9.  1        |            throughout Europe: poverty and low social status are associated
258   II,     9.  1        |                 including pre-term birth, low birth weight and perinatal
259   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  2000). Preterm birth and low birth weight are important
260   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  and on the percentage of low birth weight babies. Other
261   II,     9.  1.  1    |               neonatal mortality rates at low gestational ages.~Infant
262   II,     9.  1.  1    |               congenital malformations.~ ~Low birth weight and preterm
263   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   1.1.3 presents rates of low birth weight in the EU.
264   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   preterm, with normal or low birth weights and babies
265   II,     9.  1.  1    |                    Cerebral Palsy in Very Low birth weight Babies~Very
266   II,     9.  1.  1    |                  birth weight Babies~Very Low birth weight (VLBW) is defined
267   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   in primiparous women at low risk in Denmark: population
268   II,     9.  1.  1    |                   multiple births in very low birth weight and infant
269   II,     9.  1.  1    |               palsy among infants of very low birthweight (<1500 g) or
270   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Palsy in Europe~VLBW~Very Low birth weight~ ~
271   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  factors may explain this low prevalence.~ ~In many countries,
272   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   1). It is associated to low socioeconomic status and
273   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  the population.~Motherslow folic acid status in the
274   II,     9.  2.  3    |                   Wales have consistently low levels, while Austria and
275   II,     9.  2.  3    |              physical fighting, with very low levels of fighting reported
276   II,     9.  2.  3    |             incidence rate of syphilis is low and seems to be decreasing
277   II,     9.  2.  3    |                  many countries have very low reporting rates (or may
278   II,     9.  2.  3    |           Overweight in children leads to low self-esteem, depression
279   II,     9.  2.  4    |                   direct relation between low birth weight, poor nutrition
280   II,     9.  2.  4    |                 who smoke frequently have low self esteem, impaired psychological
281   II,     9.  2.  4    |                  snacks with high fat and low fibre content during the
282   II,     9.  2.  7    |             Disease and Associations With Low Birthweight. NeoReviews
283   II,     9.  3.  1    |                   characterized by a very low death rate), the majority
284   II,     9.  3.  1    |              Similarly, women living on a low income for an extended period
285   II,     9.  3.  1    |                figures for both sexes are low in all age groups (EUROSTAT).
286   II,     9.  3.  1    |                   of chronic infection is low, but there is a notable
287   II,     9.  3.  1    |             incidence rate of syphilis is low and seems to be decreasing.
288   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  many countries have very low reporting rates. Gonorrhea
289   II,     9.  3.  1    |             commonly regarded as being of low risk with regard to malignancy (
290   II,     9.  3.  1    |              fractures increase with age. Low bone mass at menopause can
291   II,     9.  3.  1    |                loss may be exacerbated by low levels of physical activity
292   II,     9.  3.  1    |                poor nutrition, especially low calcium intake. Severe bone
293   II,     9.  3.  1    |            educational level. People with low levels of education are
294   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  For example, people with low levels of education have
295   II,     9.  3.  1    |               problems: perspectives from low and middle income countries.
296   II,     9.  3.  2    |                   in primiparous women at low risk in Denmark: population
297   II,     9.  3.  2    |                   multiple births in very low birth weight and infant
298   II,     9.  3.  2    |               palsy among infants of very low birthweight (<1500 g) or
299   II,     9.  4.  3    |               Wrongly considered to be at low risk, post-menopausal women
300   II,     9.  4.  4    |               people, with an emphasis on low intake of saturated fats
301   II,     9.  5.  1    |                women’s life expectancy is low by historical standards (
302   II,     9.  5.  3    |         Individuals of either gender with low levels of education are
303   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 who smoke frequently have low self esteem, impaired psychological
304   II,     9.  5.  3    |            undertake physical activity is low. In 2002, over 40% of adults
305   II,     9.  5.  3    |          dissatisfaction with body shape, low self-esteem and lack of
306   II,     9.  5.  6    |                  A Cross-National View of Low Income Older Women. Income
307   II,     9.  5.  6    |               problems: perspectives from low and middle income countries.
308  III,    10.  1        |                 case of cancer/radon to a low likelihood as in the case
309  III,    10.  1        |            multiple chemical exposures at low doses~ ~Note: many stressors,
310  III,    10.  1.  1    |              products (e.g. smuggling and low quality cigarettes), availability
311  III,    10.  1.  1    |              caloric intake combined with low energy output is a behavioural
312  III,    10.  1.  1    |               compared to children with a low activity level (Parsons
313  III,    10.  1.  1    |           drinking, psychological stress, low self-esteem, and a family
314  III,    10.  1.  1    |                   to publication bias and low study quality (Gil-González,
315  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Reproductive effects in women: low birth weight~Cervix~Reproductive
316  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   growth restrictions and low birth weight~- Increased
317  III,    10.  2.  1    |            effects of tobacco smoking was low until the late 1980s. These
318  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  labels such as "light", "low tar", and "mild";~· education,
319  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 It is undisputed that the low smoking prevalence, and
320  III,    10.  2.  1    |         prevalence, and consequently, the low smoking-attributable mortality
321  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   prevalence of snuff use low, despite its availability.
322  III,    10.  2.  1    |                shifting its focus towards low income population, youth
323  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 trans-border sales due to low taxes on alcohol).~ ~Despite
324  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   This contrasts with the low levels found in France,
325  III,    10.  2.  1    |             number of countries, (i.e. as low as zero or 0.2g/l in a number
326  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 driver with a BAL above a low level, for reducing repeat
327  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  20012002. Croatia has a low prevalence of HIV among
328  III,    10.  2.  1    |          infections have overall remained low during recent years but
329  III,    10.  2.  1    |             prevalence countries and many low prevalence countries has
330  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   poor living conditions; low education; lack of traditions,
331  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   suggest that the use of low dose fluoride (250 ppm)
332  III,    10.  2.  1    |         inactivity (defined as no or very low levels of activity) (Bull
333  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   be active) (WHO 2006a). Low physical activity disproportionately
334  III,    10.  2.  1    |              cholesterol level, high BMI, low fruit and vegetable intake
335  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   1989). For instance, in low income countries, obesity
336  III,    10.  2.  1    |                lipoprotein cholesterol, a low level of high-density lipoprotein
337  III,    10.  2.  1    |          nutrients. Surveys have revealed low intakes and status in almost
338  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Austrian elderly showing low serum concentrations (<5.
339  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 of the subjects with very low levels (<3 µg/l) in 20%.
340  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    The ENHR confirmed the low intake in other member countries.~
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 folate deficiency and the low toxicity effects, a higher
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   uptake of vitamin B12 . Low status of cobalamin was
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |           exposure to sunlight can be too low to ascertain a sufficient
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |                this element are generally low. Proportions of deficient
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  example due to bleeding, low intakes due to small contents
346  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 small contents in food or low bioavailability or higher
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   by other countries with low status being particularly
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  hospitalized subjects. A low status was also found in
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |        vegetarians and especially vegans. Low intakes were observed in
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 pregnant women also had a low supply of this vitamin.
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Europe are generally rather low although not reaching a
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |               state. Studies suggest that low selenium status may be associated
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |             vegans that avoid or eat very low amounts of animal food products
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  micronutrient supply are low intakes due to dieting or
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  on the basis of habitual low physical activity level.
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |              should we adjust FBDG to the low and decreasing physical activity
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |              nutritional claims (such as “low fat”, “high fibre” and “
358  III,    10.  2.  2    |             patients to 160 mg/dL in very low risk subjects) in the large
359  III,    10.  2.  3    |                  blood pressure levels as low as 115 mmHg systolic and
360  III,    10.  2.  4    |                  are monogenic and have a low frequency in European populations.
361  III,    10.  2.  4    |      identification of high, moderate and low risk groups; the stratification
362  III,    10.  2.  4    |          following a mendelian trait) and low or moderate penetrance (
363  III,    10.  2.  4    |               such as high-throughput and low cost sequencing, are already
364  III,    10.  2.  5    |                   the association between low birth weight or height and
365  III,    10.  2.  5    |            Netherlands and UK have linked low birth weight to mental disorders
366  III,    10.  2.  5    |         Association of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass index,
367  III,    10.  3.  1    |                frequencies.~ELF~Extremely Low Frequency~EMF~Electromagnetic
368  III,    10.  3.  1    |                   radiation in Europe are low in general, but there are
369  III,    10.  3.  1    |              electrical appliances are of low frequency. Mobile telephones
370  III,    10.  3.  1    |                  frequency (IF) extremely low frequency (ELF), and static (
371  III,    10.  3.  1    |             health effects of exposure to low intensity Radio Frequency
372  III,    10.  3.  1    |             technologies.~ ~For Extremely Low Frequency magnetic fields (
373  III,    10.  3.  2    |             causing long-term exposure to low levels of chemical mixtures.
374  III,    10.  3.  2    |               resulting from exposures to low levels of an increasing
375  III,    10.  3.  2    |                   sensitisation can be as low as 0.05μg/m3 air for previously
376  III,    10.  3.  2    |             relevance of these hazards at low concentrations is still
377  III,    10.  3.  2    |            multiple chemical exposures at low doses~Source: European Environment
378  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  effects on mammalians at low concentrations. The most
379  III,    10.  3.  2    |                   tributyltin oxide is as low as 0.00025 mg/kg bodyweight
380  III,    10.  3.  2    |           especially seafood); additional low exposures may come from
381  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 levels in Europe are very low. There have been recent
382  III,    10.  3.  3    |           countries with high, medium and low baseline figures, shows
383  III,    10.  3.  4    |          temperatures are periods of very low (cold spells) or high (heatwaves)
384  III,    10.  3.  4    |            Northern latitudes, where very low temperatures can be reached
385  III,    10.  3.  4    |                minorities and people with low incomes are more vulnerable
386  III,    10.  3.  4    |              regulations are not updated. Low water levels in rivers can
387  III,    10.  3.  4    |                  mortality rates are very low, and mainly arise from drowning
388  III,    10.  4.  1    |                 age of the vehicle fleet, low quality and high sulphur
389  III,    10.  4.  1    |       historically would be considered as low levels of air pollution.
390  III,    10.  4.  2    |          important to be able to estimate low and high percentile consumption
391  III,    10.  4.  2    |         Trichinellosis and Echinococcosis~Low, but severe consequences~ ~
392  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    Aeromonas spp.~GR5~ ~ ~Low~Arcobacter spp.~GE~ ~ ~Low?~
393  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Low~Arcobacter spp.~GE~ ~ ~Low?~Brucella melitensis /abortus/
394  III,    10.  4.  2    |               avium ssp. avium~ ~ ~COPD12~Low~Mycobacterium bovis~ ~Extra
395  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      with Crohn’s disease~Low~Salmonella (para)typhi~ ~
396  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Shigella spp.~Dysentery~HUS~ ~Low~Vibrio cholerae~Cholera~ ~ ~
397  III,    10.  4.  2    |               Vibrio cholerae~Cholera~ ~ ~Low~Vibriomarine species~
398  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  especially vomiting)~ ~ ~Low~Clostridium botulinum~ ~
399  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Clostridium perfringens~GE~ ~ ~Low~Staphylococcus aureus~GE~ ~ ~
400  III,    10.  4.  2    |              Staphylococcus aureus~GE~ ~ ~Low~ ~Viruses~ ~ ~ ~ ~Adenovirus~
401  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 children)~Malabsorption~ ~Low~ ~ ~intussusception~ ~ ~ ~
402  III,    10.  4.  2    |    intussusception~ ~ ~ ~Sapovirus~GE~ ~ ~Low~ ~Prions~ ~ ~BSE prion~ ~ ~ ~
403  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   and echinococcosis, was low in humans, but relevant
404  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   levels shall be kept as low as can be reasonably achieved
405  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  ALARA principle, i.e. as low as reasonably achievable,
406  III,    10.  4.  2    |               harm and which should be as low as practically possible,
407  III,    10.  4.  2    |        essentially obsolete pesticides as low as possible. Therefore,
408  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  effects on mammalians at low concentrations. The most
409  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   tributyltin oxide is as low as 0. 00025 mg/kg body weight
410  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  conduction,~at extremely low~concentrations: tingling~
411  III,    10.  4.  2    |               value that would indicate a low concern from a public health
412  III,    10.  4.  2    |                that might be considered a low priority for risk management
413  III,    10.  4.  2    |                nuclear transfer (SCNT) is low. This is due to incomplete
414  III,    10.  4.  3    | drinking-water-related health impacts are low. The access to safe drinking-water
415  III,    10.  4.  3    |         diarrhoeal diseases are higher in low income groups or countries
416  III,    10.  4.  3    |                the health consequences of low levels of arsenic in drinking
417  III,    10.  4.  4    |                   products. For instance, low exposures to tin compounds,
418  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 such as birth defects and low birth weight. Despite some
419  III,    10.  4.  5    |                mercury vapour, emitted at low concentration together with
420  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 such as birth defects and low birth weight. Despite the
421  III,    10.  4.  5    |          quantities and many at extremely low concentrations.~ ~Gas emitted
422  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   vapour being emitted at low concentrations, and a mixture
423  III,    10.  5.  1    |                  of staircases and doors, low window sills, slippery floor
424  III,    10.  5.  1    |                study in west-Europe found low ventilation rate in most
425  III,    10.  5.  1    |                   to facilitate cleaning. Low emitting building material
426  III,    10.  5.  2    |                    respectively) also for low self-reported health status.
427  III,    10.  5.  2    |                    24~ ~EU countries with low GDP~Estonia, Hungary, Latvia,
428  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   lack of job control and low social support is also common:
429  III,    10.  5.  3    |           One-third of all workers report low social support from colleagues.~
430  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   employees or those with low training levels; ICT experts
431  III,    10.  6.  1    |                  and Victor, 1988). Poor, low quality social networks
432  III,    10.  6.  1    |           Netherlands and Sweden declared low levels of poor social support;
433  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 or graffiti (indicating a low community spirit and, in
434  III,    10.  6.  1    |                  spirit and, in effect, a low social control), and social
435  III,    10.  6.  2    |               entire society depending on low education, low occupational
436  III,    10.  6.  2    |               depending on low education, low occupational standing and/
437  III,    10.  6.  2    |          emotional support is elevated in low status people.~With regard
438  III,    10.  6.  2    |                   in Europe, indicated by low level of education, occupational
439  III,    10.  6.  2    |                Task Force’ is a Norwegian low barrier method to provide
440  III,    10.  6.  3    |                 that risks are relatively low for each type of contact
441  III,    10.  6.  3    |                 or graffiti (indicating a low community spirit and, in
442  III,    10.  6.  3    |                  spirit and, in effect, a low social control), and social
443   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 set prices at a level too low for providers to survive (
444   IV,    11.  2.  1    |             partly owing to the extremely low service intensity seen in
445   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                 countries have relatively low proportion of total beds
446   IV,    11.  2.  2    |                   Health data 2007). Very low levels of funding are seen
447   IV,    11.  4        |                such as Diabetes type-2 or low back pain, to alerts on
448   IV,    11.  5.  4    |         favourable transplant outcome and low donor risk.~The extent to
449   IV,    11.  6.  2    |            expenditure is also relatively low, accounting for less than
450   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 access for individuals on low income. Moreover, the negative
451   IV,    11.  6.  2    |           Slovenia~- Spain~- UK~ ~Certain low income persons:~- Austria~-
452   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                 where fewer tax bands and low marginal tax rates will
453   IV,    11.  6.  4    |             living alone, welfare status, low birthweight (and rural cost
454   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              numbers of uninsured is very low. In CEE countries, while
455   IV,    12.  2        |                  labels such as "light", "low tar", and "mild";~education,
456   IV,    12.  2        |                   of countries, and is as low as zero or 0.2g/l in a number
457   IV,    12.  2        |                 driver with a BAL above a low level, for reducing repeat
458   IV,    12. 10        |                    Yes~Physical stressors~Low~Regional~ ~Human settlements~
459   IV,    12. 10        |           National~--~Public health forum~Low~--~--~Human therapeutic
460   IV,    12. 10        |                   foodstuff in Germany is low. The results of the annually
461   IV,    12. 10        |                  AIDS)~ ~Personal hygiene~Low~ ~ ~Safety awareness~High~
462   IV,    12. 10        |         communication services, including low and high bandwidth access
463   IV,    12. 10        |              public to accuse any case of low and improper quality food,
464   IV,    12. 10        |                   uninsured citizens with low income in the public hospitals
465   IV,    12. 10        |                Genomics and public health~Low~ ~ ~Hypertension~Intermediate~ ~
466   IV,    12. 10        |          prevention part~Personal hygiene~low~ ~Campaign for oral hygiene
467   IV,    12. 10        |                Strategy~Physical activity~low~ Sports Law~ ~ Framework
468   IV,    12. 10        |          Intermediate for public hygiene, low for personal hygiene~Different
469   IV,    12. 10        |                places)~ ~Safety awareness~low~ ~ ~Environmental determinants
470   IV,    12. 10        |             Strategy~ ~Physical stressors~low~ Different regulations on
471   IV,    12. 10        |                Strategy~Human settlements~low~ ~ ~Transportation including
472   IV,    12. 10        |                 weather events and health~low~ ~ ~Poverty~intermediate~ ~
473   IV,    12. 10        |              field~ ~Deprivation factors~ low~ ~Special targetsEquity
474   IV,    12. 10        |          Psychosocial health determinants~low~ ~ Special targetsImproving
475   IV,    12. 10        |           Strategy~Personal determinants~ low~ ~ ~Obesity~ intermediate~
476   IV,    12. 10        |          Physical activity~ Intermediate~ Low VAT for health clubs~ National
477   IV,    12. 10        |               conditions~Safety awareness~Low~ ~Home and leisure accidents (
478   IV,    12. 10        |             programs for students~Others~ low~ ~ ~Psychosocial health
479   IV,    12. 10        |         Psychosocial health determinants~ Low~Decision 374/04/2006 on
480   IV,    12. 10        |          illnesses in children~ ~Obesity~ Low~Law about public health
481   IV,    12. 10        |        Interactions amongst determinants~ low~Determinants for cardiovascular
482   IV,    12. 10        |            inequality~ ~Proportion with a low economic standard among
483   IV,    12. 10        |         Percentage of young people with a low economic standard~Domain
484   IV,    12. 10        |             monitoring~Physical stressors~Low~ At local level~ ~Human
485   IV,    12. 10        |                 level~ ~Human settlements~Low~ At local level~ ~Transportation
486   IV,    13.Acr        |                 1990 to 5% in 2004). Very low levels of funding are seen
487   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                 of disability for many is low to moderate; generally the
488   IV,    13.  3        |            themselves stuck in a cycle of low pay/no pay. Looking at the
489   IV,    13.  4        |             market. The main issue is the low level of qualification of