Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |                has been structured into 8 sections: (i) Introduction; (
  2    I,     2.  4        |            rates in the EU25 range from 8% in the Nordic countries,
  3    I,     2.  5        |              even taking into account 1.8 million immigrating into
  4    I,     2.  6        |             expected to decline from 91.8 and 91.6 millions in 2002
  5    I,     2.  8        |                                       2.8. Energy production~ ~Due
  6    I,     2.  9        |          temperature has increased by 0.8 °C compared with pre-industrial
  7    I,     2.  9        |             projected global warming (1.84.0 °C).~ ~European glaciers
  8    I,     2. 10.  4    |             healthcare costs but only 6-8% in the retail industry
  9    I,     3.  1        |               and even lower in France (8%). More recent cohorts show
 10    I,     3.  3        |                 followed by Germany (26.8), Sweden (26.4) and Belgium (
 11    I,     3.  3        |      old-age-dependency ratio rose by 2.8% in the period from 2000
 12    I,     3.  3        |              recent value amounts to 26.8 for 2004, which corresponds
 13   II,     4.  1        |               the 12 new Member States (8 years) than elsewhere in
 14   II,     4.  1        |             remaining HLY still reaches 8.8 years for men and 9.9
 15   II,     4.  1        |           remaining HLY still reaches 8.8 years for men and 9.9 years
 16   II,     4.  2        |               expectancy increased by 1.8 years in the 1970s, 2.1
 17   II,     4.  2        |               diseases (causes 6, 7 and 8 in table 3) has contributed
 18   II,     4.  2        |                 in the 1980s for men in 8 out of the 13 selected countries
 19   II,     5.  1.  1    |            cigarettes per day was about 8, compared to non-smokers.
 20   II,     5.  2.  4    |              mmHg; 160 mmHg).~Table 5.2.8 shows data on total cholesterol:
 21   II,     5.  2.  4    |                 2 mmol/l, 6.2, 6.5 or 7.8) and difficulties in the
 22   II,     5.  2.  4    |             countries (see also Chapter 8).~ ~Table 5.2.7. Estimated
 23   II,     5.  2.  4    |               EU countries.~ ~Table 5.2.8. Estimated mean values of
 24   II,     5.  2.  6    |            intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8 g) per day, an increased
 25   II,     5.  3.  3    |                Registry were provided ( 8% export from registry database
 26   II,     5.  3.  5    |           mortality trends (Figures 5.3.8) are decreasing both for
 27   II,     5.  3.  6    |                2% in 19921994 and from 8.1% to 9.8% in women (Sant
 28   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 1994 and from 8.1% to 9.8% in women (Sant et al, 2003).~ ~
 29   II,     5.  3.  9    |                                     5.3.8 References~ ~Berrino F,
 30   II,     5.  3.  9    |       EUROCARE-4 study. Lancet Oncology 8 (9):773-783.~ ~Boyle P,
 31   II,     5.  3.  9    |        EUROCARE-4 data. Lancet Oncology 8 (9): 784-796.~ ~WCRF (2007):
 32   II,     5.  4.  1    |            affected, and North America (8.4%). The highest numbers
 33   II,     5.  4.  1    |               followed by China with 39.8 million, USA, Russia, Germany,
 34   II,     5.  4.  1    |             European Region is around 7.8% (about 48 million people),
 35   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 reports a prevalence of 8.5% in the EU 27 Member States,
 36   II,     5.  4.  1    |                prevalence rates with 11.8% and 11.1%, while the UK
 37   II,     5.  4.  1    |             estimated to increase up to 8.0% in 2025.~Another important
 38   II,     5.  4.  1    |                 with type 2 diabetes in 8 EU countries: Belgium, France,
 39   II,     5.  4.  1    |          Jonsson et al 2002). For these 8 countries, the average annual
 40   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                   5.4.2.8. National drug sales~ ~Some
 41   II,     5.  4.  2    |               in Europe with a total of 8 countries achieving a percentage
 42   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 increase were 6.3% (4.1-8.5%) for children aged 0-
 43   II,     5.  4.  3    |             aged 0-4 years, 3.1% (1.5-4.8%) for 5-9 years, and 2.4% (
 44   II,     5.  4.  3    |                9 years, and 2.4% (1.0-3.8%) for 10-14 years (Green,
 45   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  In 2006, approximately 8.7% of the adult (20-79 years)
 46   II,     5.  4.  3    |            Renal failure. In EUCID only 8 countries provided data,
 47   II,     5.  4.  4    |              median=3%) and IDF (median=8.7%) data is difficult to
 48   II,     5.  4.  8    |                                     5.4.8. References~Armesto SG,
 49   II,     5.  4.  8    |             costs of medical care 1 and 8 years after diagnosis of
 50   II,     5.  4.  8    |               1997 Aug 30;315(7107):524-8.~Pap L (1993): Utilization
 51   II,     5.  4.  8    |                TRIGR). Pediatr Diabetes 8(3):117-37~Waug A (2007):
 52   II,     5.  5.  1    |               14 age group (Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates were
 53   II,     5.  5.  1    |              and Ireland.~ ~Table 5.5.1.8. Number of deaths (N) and
 54   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Epidemiol Community Health 57(8):594-600.~ ~C J (2008).
 55   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 EQ-5D. Qual Life Res 15(8):1403-14.~ ~Schmidtke A.,
 56   II,     5.  5.  3    |              girls (18%) than for boys (8%). Again, dissatisfaction
 57   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.1.8 Acronyms~ ~DSMR-IV classification~
 58   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 world wide, of which 17.8% in the WHO European Region (
 59   II,     5.  5.  3    |             from Western Europe note 17.8%, while estimates in the
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |             psychiatrists ranges from 1.8 to 25, of psychiatric nurses
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Council (Figure 5.5.3.3.8). Although not all countries
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 account.~Figure 5.5.3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Public Health Bull 13(7):155-8.~Andlin-Sobocki P, & Rössler
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Br J Psychiatry 171:502-8.~Buizza C, Schulze B, Bertocchi
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Wien Klin Wochenschr 118 (7-8):196-206.~European Commission (
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |               World Psychiatry 5(3):130-8.~Häfner H, Maurer K, Ruhrmann
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |                of General Psychiatry 56(8):733-40.~NOMESCO. Health
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |              cost £2.7 billion (Euros 3.8 billion) annually, yet for
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |              features) occurred in 15% (8.7 per 100,000 per year),
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |   localization-related epilepsy in 16% (8.8 per 100,000 per year),
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    | localization-related epilepsy in 16% (8.8 per 100,000 per year), symptomatic
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |   localization-related epilepsy in 15% (8.4 per 100,000 per year),
 73   II,     5.  5.  3    |           epilepsy ranges from 3.2 to 7.8 per 1,000 (Table 5.5.3.4.
 74   II,     5.  5.  3    |              All ages ~MR review~428 ~4.8 ~Olafsson and Hauser, 1999 (*)~
 75   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 All ages ~MR review~337.8 ~ ~Zielinski, 1974 (*)~Spain ~
 76   II,     5.  5.  3    |              unclassifiable seizures in 8-17%. The corresponding numbers
 77   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 17%, absence epilepsy 6-8%, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
 78   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 1-5%, West syndrome 0.5-8%, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
 79   II,     5.  5.  3    |               epilepsy ranges from 1 to 8 per 100,000 population per
 80   II,     5.  5.  3    |         community-based studies and 1.9-8.7 in institutionalised populations (
 81   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Prevalent cohort~218~121.0~1.8~Zielinski, 1974~Sweden~GP/
 82   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Cross-sectional~105~12.0~8.7~Alstrom, 1942 (*)~ ~NC/
 83   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Prevalent cohort~160~67.8~2.4~Alstrom, 1950 (*)~ ~
 84   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 3 RR of death (95% CI 3.8-22.7) compared with patients
 85   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and the SMRs from 1 and 5.8. The wide difference in
 86   II,     5.  5.  3    |             causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3) vs. 7.9 (95% CI 2.6-18.
 87   II,     5.  5.  3    |         followed by schizophrenia (PR 5.8).~ ~Prognosis~Treatment
 88   II,     5.  5.  3    |             accidents (rate ratio, RR 1.8)(Vaa, 2005) and the risk
 89   II,     5.  5.  3    |               would add an additional8 billion. The cost per MS
 90   II,     5.  5.  3    |               year period. Eur J Neurol 8:463-469.~Confavreux C, Compston
 91   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Evros, Greece. Eur Neurol 49:8-12.~Poser CM, Paty DW, Scheinberg
 92   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Germany. Neuroepidemiology 8:207-213.~Potemkowski A (
 93   II,     5.  5.  3    |               cost study. Mult Scler 13(8):1054-64. Erratum in: Mult
 94   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.5.8. Acronyms~ ~ADL~Activities
 95   II,     5.  5.  3    |             reports that SMR is about 1.8 (Hely et al, 2005; Hely
 96   II,     5.  5.  3    |            double by 2030 to results in 8.7 to 9.3 million (Dorsey
 97   II,     5.  5.  3    |              study. J Am Geriatr Soc 48(8):938-942.~Anderson DW, Rocca
 98   II,     5.  5.  3    |            through 1987. Arch Neurol 48(8):854-857.~Hely MA, Morris
 99   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Parkinsonism Relat Disord 8(5):297-309.~LePen C, Wait
100   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Germany. Pharmacoeconomics 23(8):817-836.~Sutcliffe RL,
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |                                 5.5.3.6.8. Acronyms~ ~EBC~European
102   II,     5.  6.  3    |              with a rheumatic disorder, 8.2% were disabled and of
103   II,     5.  6.  3    |           health care costs compared to 8.1% for mental retardation.
104   II,     5.  6.  3    |                diseases accounted for 4.8%. This study only considered
105   II,     5.  6.  3    |               in an odds ratio of about 8.0 for developing OA knee (
106   II,     5.  6.  3    |               likely to fall (Table 5.6.8) and those who may have
107   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Melton, 1995).~ ~Table 5.6.8. Risk Factors for Falling
108   II,     5.  7.  1    |               estimated that in Italy 1.8% of the total health care
109   II,     5.  7.  3    |         incidence rate of 3-5 CKD was 7.8 per 1000 patients x years (
110   II,     5.  7.  3    |                14.5% (NHANES III) to 16.8% (NHANES IV) (Tonelli et
111   II,     5.  7.  3    |                 respectively (Table 5.7.8). Five-year mortality in
112   II,     5.  7.  3    |               et al, 2000).~ ~Table 5.7.8. 90-day, one-, two- and
113   II,     5.  7.  5    |                prevention~ ~See Chapter 8~ ~Secondary prevention~ ~
114   II,     5.  7.  7    |                failure. Lancet 2000 Jul 8;356(9224):147-52.~Boulware
115   II,     5.  7.  7    |              Nephrol 2005 Jan;16(1):180-8.~de Zeeuw D, Hillege HL,
116   II,     5.  7.  7    |                 Int 2005 Dec;68(6):2801-8.~Hallan SI, Coresh J, Astor
117   II,     5.  7.  7    |              Nephrol 2002 Nov;22(6):441-8.~Otero A, Gayoso P, Garcia
118   II,     5.  7.  7    |             Dial Transplant 2006 Aug;21(8):2178-83.~Tonelli M, Wiebe
119   II,     5.  8        |                                       5.8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary
120   II,     5.  8.  1    |                                       5.8.1. Introduction~ ~The term
121   II,     5.  8.  1    |              diseases, accounting for 3.8% of total deaths and is
122   II,     5.  8.  2    |                                       5.8.2. Data sources~ ~The data
123   II,     5.  8.  2    |            Viegi et al 2004).~ ~Table 5.8.2.1. ICD10 Codes for pulmonary
124   II,     5.  8.  2    |             Centrilobular emphysema~J43.8~ ~Other emphysema~J43.9~ ~
125   II,     5.  8.  2    |           exacerbation, unspecified~J44.8~ ~Other specified chronic
126   II,     5.  8.  3    |                                       5.8.3. Data description and
127   II,     5.  8.  3    |     significantly higher in smokers (18.8%).~ ~A study by Johannessen
128   II,     5.  8.  3    |               of GOLD-defined COPD of 1.8% in never smokers, in a
129   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 four estimates (Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.8.1. Prevalence
130   II,     5.  8.  3    |                  Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.8.1. Prevalence estimates
131   II,     5.  8.  3    |              Romania, Hungary (Figure 5.8.1).~ ~ ~ ~In two model studies
132   II,     5.  8.  3    |                are reported in Figure 5.8.2.~ ~Figure 5.8.2. Prevalence
133   II,     5.  8.  3    |                Figure 5.8.2.~ ~Figure 5.8.2. Prevalence of the GOLD
134   II,     5.  8.  3    |                II was 10.1% overall, 11.8% for men, and 8.5% for women (
135   II,     5.  8.  3    |             overall, 11.8% for men, and 8.5% for women (Buist et al,
136   II,     5.  8.  3    |            severe 0.6% (GOLD-COPD: mild 8.2%, moderate 5.3%, severe
137   II,     5.  8.  3    |                2005) in males and 3..9, 8.1, 2.3, 0.4, respectively,
138   II,     5.  8.  3    |             pulmonary embolism (Table 5.8.2).~ ~Table 5.8.2. Incidence
139   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 Table 5.8.2).~ ~Table 5.8.2. Incidence of comorbidities
140   II,     5.  8.  4    |                                       5.8.4. Risk factors~ ~Active
141   II,     5.  8.  4    |                is presented in Figure 5.8.3.~ ~Figure 5.8.3. Incidence
142   II,     5.  8.  4    |                Figure 5.8.3.~ ~Figure 5.8.3. Incidence rates of COPD
143   II,     5.  8.  4    |            cigarettes per day was about 8, compared to non-smokers.
144   II,     5.  8.  4    |             with prevalence rates of 11.8% for the pre-clinical stage,
145   II,     5.  8.  5    |                                       5.8.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
146   II,     5.  8.  6    |                                       5.8.6. Future developments~ ~
147   II,     5.  8.  6    |                  or at home (37.4% vs 2.8%, p<0.05) than people with
148   II,     5.  8.  7    |                                       5.8.7. References~ ~ ~American
149   II,     5.  9. FB    |           former East Germany only 6 to 8 years after the Germany
150   II,     5.  9. FB    |                 RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8). The combined results from
151   II,     5.  9. FB    |                                    5.FB.8. Future developments~ ~Allergic
152   II,     5.  9.  2    |              493.9~Detergent asthma 507.8~Wood asthma 95.8~Miner’s
153   II,     5.  9.  2    |             asthma 507.8~Wood asthma 95.8~Miner’s asthma 500)~· Extrinsic
154   II,     5.  9.  2    |              due to other allergens 477.8Allergic rhinitis (non
155   II,     5.  9.  3    |           overall remission rate was 45.8% (41.6% in women and 49.
156   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 earlier age at onset (7.8 vs 15.9 years, P 001) and
157   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 to the age at onset (62.8% and 15.0% in the <10- and >
158   II,     5.  9.  3    |              total population), Latvia (8.2%), Czech Rep.(8% of the
159   II,     5.  9.  3    |               Latvia (8.2%), Czech Rep.(8% of the general population:
160   II,     5.  9.  3    |                  9.1% in children and 6.8% in adults), Spain (6.3%),
161   II,     5.  9.  3    |              Greece 27.5%, Macedonia 20.8%, Bulgaria 18.3%, Latvia
162   II,     5.  9.  3    |                  Spain 10.6% and Poland 8.5% and Germany 3%. These
163   II,     5.  9.  3    |               the emergency admissions, 8 patients died. (Lung Health
164   II,     5.  9.  3    |          indirect costs amounting to €9.8 billion) (Lung Health in
165   II,     5.  9.  3    |                and ambulatory care (€ 3.8 billion), drugs (€ 3.6 billion)
166   II,     5.  9.  4    |                was 17.1%, the median 36.8% and the highest 54.8%.
167   II,     5.  9.  4    |                36.8% and the highest 54.8%. Sensitization to D. pteronyssinus,
168   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively). Timothy
169   II,     5.  9.  4    |               centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively). Timothy
170   II,     5.  9.  4    |               from current hay fever, 6.8% from asthma, 4.5% from
171   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 7%) than in females (28.8%). Skin sensitization was
172   II,     5.  9.  4    |            followed by house dust mite (8.9%), silver birch pollen (
173   II,     5.  9.  4    |                9%) and cat epithelia (3.8%).~A very recent study investigated
174   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  12.4% of the males and 8.0% of the females (P=0.03).
175   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 2.5) and asthma (OR = 3.8); and the child's history
176   II,     5.  9.  4    |               and atopic eczema (OR = 3.8) in the first 2 years of
177   II,     5.  9.  4    |                  1.3%) and rhinitis (15.8%) symptoms, but that these
178   II,     5.  9.  7    |             Immunol. 2007 May;18(3):201-8~ ~Erwin EA, Custis N, Ronmark
179   II,     5.  9.  7    |               Barc). 2007 Feb;66(2):154-8~ ~The UCB Institute of Allergy (
180   II,     5.  9.  7    |           Immunol. 2003 Jun;111(6):1232-8~ ~von Mutius (2006): The
181   II,     5.  9.  7    |               Ther Umsch. May;58(5):253-8~ ~ ~
182   II,     5. 10.  3    |             items, include chocolate (4.8%), followed by apple and
183   II,     5. 10.  3    |                3%), shrimps and eggs (2.8), oysters (2.3) and fish (
184   II,     5. 10.  3    |        confirmed with food challenge (0.8-2.4%) (EU SCOOP, 1998).~ ~
185   II,     5. 10.  7    |              labelling? Allergy 59:1262-8.~ ~Mills ENC, Mackie AR,
186   II,     5. 11.  3    |                15.2% Point prevalence=5.8%~Girolomoni G, et al~ ~Danish
187   II,     5. 11.  3    |        questionnaire survey)~Prevalence=8% (including mild cases)~
188   II,     5. 11.  3    |               children in London, where 8.5% were known to have visible
189   II,     5. 11.  3    |         decreased significantly from 24.8% to 9.2% over a 12-year
190   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 market showed that only 8% of the tested piercing
191   II,     5. 11.  3    |          significantly from 36.7% to 25.8% among German women below
192   II,     5. 11.  3    |              revealed percentages of 20.8% and 21.9 % for nickel allergy,
193   II,     5. 11.  3    |           disease was found to affect 2.8% of the population, mainly
194   II,     5. 11.  3    |            medical care with 7.3%, 3.4% 8.9% and 3.8% in the following
195   II,     5. 11.  3    |              with 7.3%, 3.4% 8.9% and 3.8% in the following age groups:
196   II,     5. 11.  3    |      prevalences ranging from 0.2% to 4.8%. The highest prevalence,
197   II,     5. 11.  3    |               and the Faeroe Islands (2.8%), with the average for
198   II,     5. 11.  3    |        increased by 13.5% in men and 18.8% in women. Head and neck
199   II,     5. 12.  3    |                6, Ireland from 3.4 to 4.8, England and Wales from
200   II,     5. 12.  3    |           England and Wales from 3.6 to 8.9, Scotland from 7.8 to
201   II,     5. 12.  3    |                 to 8.9, Scotland from 7.8 to 20.3, Bulgaria from 12.
202   II,     5. 12.  5    |         European countries.~See Chapter 8 for what concerns prevention
203   II,     5. 12.  7    |              review. Int J Cancer 111:1-8.~ ~Poynard T, Naveau S,
204   II,     5. 13        |                were estimated to be €32.8 billion per year (Fry and
205   II,     5. 14.  1    |            molars in children aged 6 to 8 years. Retention of primary
206   II,     5. 14.  3    |             DMFT teeth. In contrast, 10.8% of all children have a
207   II,     5. 14.  3    |           within European countries (12.8% in Italy, 16.3% in France,
208   II,     5. 14.  3    |               55.6% of 12-year-olds; 17.8% of children aged 6 had
209   II,     5. 14.  3    |              Europe, which represents 4-8% of the total health expenses,
210   II,     5. 14.  3    |                expenditures represent 3.8 to 8% of all health care
211   II,     5. 14.  3    |           expenditures represent 3.8 to 8% of all health care expenditures.
212   II,     5. 14.  3    |             most for its oral health: 0.8% of the GDP. France falls
213   II,     5. 14.  5    |          control of smoking see Chapter 8; for the control of excessive
214   II,     5. 14.  5    |                 consumption see Chapter 8 ; and for diabetes mellitus
215   II,     5. 14.  8    |                                    5.14.8. References~ ~Bourgeois
216   II,     5. 14.  8    |             article online, accessed on 8 February 2008).~Petersen
217   II,     5. 15.  1    |             there are between 5 000 and 8 000 distinct rare diseases,
218   II,     5. 15.  3    |            deaths, and in particular to 8.3% of deaths before the
219   II,     6.  3.  1    |          million and to salmonellosis8.8 million. Extrapolated
220   II,     6.  3.  1    |                and to salmonellosis € 8.8 million. Extrapolated to
221   II,     6.  3.  3    |                per 100 000), Lithuania (8.61 per 100 000) and Estonia (
222   II,     6.  3.  3    |               per 100 000) and Estonia (8.24 per 100 000), with the
223   II,     6.  3.  4    |                in 200003 (from 4.2% to 8.3%) associated with recent
224   II,     6.  3.  4    |                SARS-CoV had resulted in 8 098 SARS cases in 26 countries,
225   II,     6.  3.  5    |            disease remains high (around 8%) and survivors may suffer
226   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 scanty. In 2005, almost 8 000 cases were reported
227   II,     6.  3.  7    |           decrease since 2000 (Figure 6.8).~ ~Figure 6.8. Malaria
228   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 Figure 6.8).~ ~Figure 6.8. Malaria trends in Europe~ ~
229   II,     7.  2.  8    |                                     7.2.8. Surveys~ ~Household surveys
230   II,     7.  3.  3    |                 injury is approximately 8 days, adding up to an estimated
231   II,     7.  3.  3    |                data indicate that up to 8% of retirements on the grounds
232   II,     7.  3.  4    |               road fatalities (Figure 7.8).Even the high share of
233   II,     7.  3.  4    |                project (htt ~ ~Figure 7.8. Fatalities per road user
234   II,     7.  4        |              injuries account for about 8% of all hospital admissions.
235   II,     7.  4        |                data indicate that up to 8% of retirement on the grounds
236   II,     7.  4.  2    |                  which represents about 8 million cases per year in
237   II,     7.  4.  3    |                 7.20; see also Figure 7.8. Fatalities per road user
238   II,     7.  4.  3    |               cyclists. Approximately 1.8 million vulnerable road
239   II,     7.  4.  4    |        basketball (50%), racket sports (8%), winter sports (7%), gymnastics
240   II,     8            |                                         8. DISABILITIES~ ~
241   II,     8.  1        |                                         8.1. OVERALL DISABILITY DATA
242   II,     8.  1.  1    |                                         8.1.1. Introduction~ ~Physically
243   II,     8.  1.  2    |                                         8.1.2. Data Sources~ ~The
244   II,     8.  1.  3    |                                         8.1.3. Data Presentation~ ~
245   II,     8.  1.  3    |               women aged 16-64.~ ~Table 8.1. Proportion of people
246   II,     8.  1.  4    |                                         8.1.4. Future developments~ ~
247   II,     8.  1.  5    |                                         8.1.5. Policies and control
248   II,     8.  1.  6    |                                         8.1.6. References~ ~APPLICA &
249   II,     8.  2        |                                         8.2. SPECIFIC DISABILITIES~ ~ ~ ~
250   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1. Intellectual disability~ ~ ~
251   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.1. Introduction~ ~Intellectual
252   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.2. Data sources~ ~Population-based
253   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.3. Data description
254   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.4. Risk factors~ ~Causes
255   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.5. Control tools and
256   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.5.1. Primary prevention~ ~
257   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.6. Future developments~ ~
258   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.7. References~ ~American
259   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                         8.2.1.8. Acronyms~ ~DIS~Disability
260   II,     8.  2.  1    |                                   8.2.1.8. Acronyms~ ~DIS~Disability
261   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2. Visual impairment and
262   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.1. Introduction~ ~Blindness
263   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.2. Data Sources~ ~The
264   II,     8.  2.  2    |              Candidate Countries (Table 8.2) due to different assumptions
265   II,     8.  2.  2    |            Murray et al, 2001).~ ~Table 8.2. Prevalence of blindness
266   II,     8.  2.  2    |               in EUR-B countries (Table 8.3). Glaucoma and diabetic
267   II,     8.  2.  2    |            developed countries.~ ~Table 8.3. Causes of blindness as
268   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.3. Data Description~ ~
269   II,     8.  2.  2    |              Candidate Countries (Table 8.2) due to different assumptions
270   II,     8.  2.  2    |            Murray et al, 2001).~ ~Table 8.2. Prevalence of blindness
271   II,     8.  2.  2    |               in EUR-B countries (Table 8.3). Glaucoma and diabetic
272   II,     8.  2.  2    |            developed countries.~ ~Table 8.3. Causes of blindness as
273   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.4. Future developments~ ~
274   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.5. Control tools and
275   II,     8.  2.  2    |                                         8.2.2.6. References~ ~Donnelly
276   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3. Hearing loss~ ~
277   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3.1. Introduction~ ~Hearing
278   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3.2. Data Sources~ ~Studies
279   II,     8.  2.  3    |      performance are presented in Table 8.4. Available data have been
280   II,     8.  2.  3    |           H90-H91) (WHO, 2002).~ ~Table 8.4. WHO grades of hearing
281   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3.3. Data description~ ~
282   II,     8.  2.  3    |             obtained are shown in Table 8.5. An additional study carried
283   II,     8.  2.  3    |                 be 0.1 to 0.2%.~ ~Table 8.5. Estimated prevalence
284   II,     8.  2.  3    |                to be 3.3% (males) and 2.8% (females) in the WHO EUR-A
285   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3.4. References~ ~Davis
286   II,     8.  2.  3    |                                         8.2.3.5. Acronyms~ ~HL:~Hearing
287   II,     9.  1        |        additional 40 000 (approximately 8 per 1 000 survivors) experience
288   II,     9.  1.  1    |               than three times greater (8.5/1 000) among countries
289   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Gynecol 2002;186(2):274-8.~Bertollini R, DiLallo D,
290   II,     9.  1.  1    |          gyneco-obstetrique situes dans 8 pays differents. J Gynecol
291   II,     9.  1.  2    |              congenital anomalies of 23.8 per 1 000 births for 2000-
292   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 000), urinary system (2.8 per 1 000) and nervous system
293   II,     9.  1.  2    |           recorded in France (5.6 and 5.8 per 1 000 births respectively).
294   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 Table 9.1.2.3). Up to 0.8% (Switzerland) of foetuses
295   II,     9.  1.  2    |             data report a prevalence of 8-10 per 1 000. The reported
296   II,     9.  1.  2    |                is documented in Chapter 8. Figure 9.1.2.2 shows the
297   II,     9.  1.  2    |              Ethers", Epidemiology, Vol 8, No 4, pp 355-363.~Cordier
298   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 2002a): “EUROCAT Report 8: Surveillance of Congenital
299   II,     9.  1.  2    |                HTA Assessment 2004; Vol 8, no. 33.~Hansen M, Bower
300   II,     9.  1.  2    |                                   9.1.2.8. Acronyms~ ~TOPFA Terminations
301   II,     9.  2.  3    |               as 18.4% for Scotland, 16.8% for Wales, 15.3% for England,
302   II,     9.  2.  3    |               behaviours, compared with 8.8% of girls who reported
303   II,     9.  2.  3    |             behaviours, compared with 8.8% of girls who reported having
304   II,     9.  2.  8    |                                     9.2.8. Acronyms~ ~CEHAPE~Children’
305   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 a cut off of 230 ng/dL (8 nmol/L) of total testosterone
306   II,     9.  3.  1    |               incidence rate as high as 8. to 10.5%.~ ~
307   II,     9.  3.  1    |          prostate carcinoma. Cancer 104(8): 1633-1637~ ~Lim LS, Fitzpatrick
308   II,     9.  3.  1    |              data." The Lancet Oncology 8(9): 784-796.~ ~Verlato G,
309   II,     9.  3.  1    |                                   9.3.1.8. Acronyms~ ~ADAM~Androgen
310   II,     9.  3.  2    |             pregnancy, ranges from 0.07-8.23% with a case-fatality
311   II,     9.  3.  2    |                 Gynecol 2002;186(2):274-8.~ ~Bertollini R, DiLallo
312   II,     9.  3.  2    |          gyneco-obstetrique situes dans 8 pays differents.~J Gynecol
313   II,     9.  3.  2    |                                   9.3.2.8. Acronyms~ ~IVF In-Vitro
314   II,     9.  4.  8    |                                     9.4.8. Acronyms~ ~AD~Alzheimer’
315   II,     9.  5.  3    |         estimated at £5.7 billion (Euro 8.4 billion), with an extra £
316   II,     9.  5.  3    |                 and the Netherlands (30.8 per 100.000). (WHO HFA-DB,
317   II,     9.  5.  3    |  physical activity at work.~ ~Table 9.5.8. Days of vigorous physical activity
318   II,     9.  5.  3    |                in the EU27, compared to 8.1% for men. This period
319   II,     9.  5.  3    |          Lithuania and Slovenia (around 8 hours a day) and the least
320  III,    10.  1.  3    |                 Med Sci Sports Exerc 29(8):1076-1089.~Kuntsche E,
321  III,    10.  1.  3    |             Relat Metab Disord 23 Suppl 8: S1-S107.~Rehm J, Ashley
322  III,    10.  1.  3    |              Barlett Publishers; p. 205-8.~Tappy L, Binnert C, Schneiter
323  III,    10.  2.  1    |             twice the global average of 8.9% (Warren et al, 2006).~ ~
324  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 at home had declined by 8.7%, while the prevalence
325  III,    10.  2.  1    |              whole EU though, over 1 in 8 (13%) of 15-16 year old
326  III,    10.  2.  1    |          imports, thereby contributing8.9bn to the goods account
327  III,    10.  2.  1    |                use was reported by 0 to 8% of school children with
328  III,    10.  2.  1    |                of roughly between 1 and 8 cases per 1000 inhabitants
329  III,    10.  2.  1    |                countries (Figure 10.2.3.8). From 1999 to 2005 the
330  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the EU.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.3.8. Trend in the distribution
331  III,    10.  2.  1    |        gingivitis was observed among 5, 8 and 12 year olds. Among
332  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 2005, to a total of 600.8 million units sold in 2005.
333  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Data are available for 8 EU Member States and Candidate
334  III,    10.  2.  1    |                but then decreased to 36.8% in 2002 (Lamprecht and
335  III,    10.  2.  1    |                were estimated to be €32.8 billion per year (Fry and
336  III,    10.  2.  1    |              2006), of 19.5% in Sweden (8 years old) (Becker and Enghardt-Barbieri,
337  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Netherlands (boys: 11.6%; girls: 8.6%) and Denmark (boys: 12.
338  III,    10.  2.  1    |               et al, 2005), Romania (45.8%) (Statistical Office of
339  III,    10.  2.  1    |                6% among men and between 8.9% and 26.0% among women.~ ~
340  III,    10.  2.  1    |              the numbers increased from 8% to 20% between 1974 and
341  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                10.2.1.7.8. References~ ~Overweight
342  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Becker
343  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Bostrom
344  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Branca
345  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Bromley
346  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Bromley
347  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Cole TJ,
348  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Department
349  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Dietz WH (
350  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Ebbeling
351  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Elgar FJ,
352  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~European
353  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~European
354  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Helakorpi
355  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~l'Institut
356  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Johannsson
357  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Kanagalingam
358  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Ministry
359  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~National
360  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~National
361  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~RIVM (2006):
362  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Statistical
363  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Statistical
364  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Statistical
365  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Statistics
366  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Statistics
367  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~Summerbell
368  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO (2002):
369  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO (2003):
370  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO (2004):
371  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO (2004):
372  III,    10.  2.  1    |            database online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO Regional
373  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October2007).~ ~WHO Regional
374  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO Regional
375  III,    10.  2.  1    |              report online, accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~WHO Regional
376  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Int J Nurs Pract. 12: 110-8.~ ~Chen J, Berry MJ (2003):
377  III,    10.  2.  1    |            lifestyles in Europe 22(1):1-8.~ ~Gennari C (2001): Calcium
378  III,    10.  2.  1    |           elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 22: 1-8.~ ~Scientific Committee
379  III,    10.  2.  3    |            intake to less than 1,5 g (3,8 g) per day, an increased
380  III,    10.  2.  5    |             Diabetologia 2006;49:2853 - 8~ ~Gale CR, Martyn CN (2004):
381  III,    10.  3.  1    |              and a night time period of 8 hours) to inform the public
382  III,    10.  3.  1    |                 normal sleep for almost 8% several times a week (Swedish
383  III,    10.  3.  1    |             possible as shown in Figure 8.1.1.1.~ ~Figure 10.3.1.1.
384  III,    10.  3.  1    |             logarithmic scale of Figure 8.1.1.2. It was also estimated
385  III,    10.  3.  1    |              and a night time period of 8 hours. The noise indicator
386  III,    10.  3.  1    |               period, Lnight will cover 8 hours starting at 23.00
387  III,    10.  3.  1    |             Physics, vol.92, no. 4, 371-8.~Lucas R, McMichael T, Smith
388  III,    10.  3.  2    |              only dealt with in Chapter 8.2.2 and not in the present
389  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 The first round in 1987/8 included 12 European countries
390  III,    10.  3.  4    |          collective reduction target of 8% for 2008-2012. Additional
391  III,    10.  3.  4    |               and transport to around € 8 bn.~ ~New research confirms
392  III,    10.  4.  2    |        genetically modified organisms; (8) dietetic products, nutrition
393  III,    10.  4.  2(31)|                            OJ L 224, 18.8.1990, p.19~
394  III,    10.  4.  2    |               per 100 000~Increasing (7.8% in 2005)~Poultry meat and
395  III,    10.  4.  2    |            cases in 2005 increased by 7.8% compared to the previous
396  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 and dioxin-like~PCBs in 8% of the~population was above~
397  III,    10.  4.  2(35)|                 on cereals (OJ L 221, 7.8.1986, p 37).~
398  III,    10.  4.  2(36)|              animal origin (OJ L 221, 7.8.1986, p 43).~
399  III,    10.  4.  2    |               Biomonitoring” in Chapter 8.1.2. has pointed out how
400  III,    10.  4.  2    |         genetically modified organisms (8).~ ~Guidelines for risk-benefit
401  III,    10.  4.  2    |         European Communities No. L 117, 8 May 1990. Available at:~htt ~ ~
402  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 of the outbreaks and 34.8% of the cases of illnesses.
403  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 agent was implicated (0.8% of the cases of illness).
404  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 priority substances and 8 other pollutants) that pose
405  III,    10.  4.  3    |          Council Directive 76/160/EC of 8 December 1975 concerning
406  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 priority substances and 8 other pollutants. COM(2006)
407  III,    10.  4.  3    |            Burden of Disease Series, No 8. Geneva.~Water Information
408  III,    10.  4.  4    |              manufacturing (see Chapter 8.1.2.) and use of consumer
409  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 priority substances and 8 other pollutants. COM(2006)
410  III,    10.  4.  5    |                900 million tonnes, or 3.8 - 4.1 tonnes of waste per
411  III,    10.  4.  5    |           estimates show that more than 8 % (or nearly 250 000 sites)
412  III,    10.  4.  5    |            related to exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD and related compounds)
413  III,    10.  5.  1    |             population across the EU is 8-12 million, mainly concentrated
414  III,    10.  5.  1    |                                  10.5.1.8. References~Bagaeen SG (
415  III,    10.  5.  1    |            November 1998, pp. 1389-1396(8)~ ~European Child Safety
416  III,    10.  5.  1    |                Public Health. 28(3):174-8, 2000 Sep.~Hänninen, O,
417  III,    10.  5.  2    |         Lithuania, 2006~ ~Figure 10.5.2.8. Mortality rates in urban
418  III,    10.  5.  2    |               difference is 2 years (77.8 years in urban and 75.7
419  III,    10.  5.  2    |               rural and urban settings (8.5%), while for boys the
420  III,    10.  5.  2    |              injuries (see also Section 8.3.1.)~Different than for
421  III,    10.  5.  2    |      observational study. BMJ, 317: 576-8.~ ~Van Bergen JEAM et al. (
422  III,    10.  5.  3    |              affected resulting in app. 8 days per employee and 27
423  III,    10.  5.  3    |           population) at a cost of € 10.8 billion. Thus, premature
424  III,    10.  5.  3    |          disease in 2000 summed up to 2.8 billion Euro in 7 European
425  III,    10.  5.  3    |                their work (table 10.5.3.8). This perceived impact
426  III,    10.  5.  3    |              their work.~ ~Table 10.5.3.8. Perceived impact of work
427  III,    10.  5.  3    |                to 64 years, stood at 63.8% in 2005 in the EU25, 3.
428  III,    10.  5.  3    |             from 2.0% in Slovakia to 49.8% in the Netherlands.~· 164.
429  III,    10.  5.  3    |               in the Netherlands.~· 164.8 million workers were employees.
430  III,    10.  5.  3    |              which 48.9% were women and 8.0% were people aged 55-64).~·
431  III,    10.  5.  3    |              were people aged 55-64).~· 8.7 million were in long term
432  III,    10.  5.  3    |     unemployment (one year and more).~· 8.4% of the young people aged
433  III,    10.  5.  3    |                net migration rate was 2.8 per 1000 pople in EU25.
434  III,    10.  5.  3    |              even taking into account 1.8 million immigrating into
435  III,    10.  6.  1    |            range from 3 to 14. Scores 3-8 are considered to reflect
436  III,    10.  6.  1    |            Britain) to 84% (France). In 8 of the countries/regions
437  III,    10.  6.  2    |           against communicable diseases~8. Safe sexuality and good
438   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 most adverse events (81.8%) (Wilson et al, 1995).
439   IV,    11.  1.  5    |      consequently, have hospitals stays 8 to 12 days longer than they
440   IV,    11.  1.  5    |             from 0 (least satisfied) to 8 (most satisfied). Highest
441   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               health system (scale of 1-8)~ ~
442   IV,    11.  1.  6    |         accounting standards (including 8 (1%), 214 (12%), and 18
443   IV,    11.  2.  1    |               EU15 and an increase of 0.8. hospitals in the new Member
444   IV,    11.  3.  2    |               between 1995 and 2005), 3.8 in Belgium, 4 in Sweden,
445   IV,    11.  3.  2    |          company agreements.~ ~Table 11.8. Contribution of European
446   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                exceed that of Europe (4.8%). This trend is expected
447   IV,    11.  4        |               covered by HTA (Figure 11.8).~ ~Figure 11.8. HTA as
448   IV,    11.  4        |               Figure 11.8).~ ~Figure 11.8. HTA as an input to priority-setting
449   IV,    11.  5.  3    |               different settings~ ~Only 8 countries have binding official
450   IV,    11.  6.  1    |             Ireland, economic growth of 8.8% in the 1990s explains
451   IV,    11.  6.  1    |           Ireland, economic growth of 8.8% in the 1990s explains the
452   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                in spending from 7.3% to 8.3% GDP in a four-year period (
453   IV,    11.  6.  2    |        Mossialos, 2008) (see Section 11.8.3 on Progressivity).~ ~Social
454   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                CSG) have fallen from 11.8% to 0.75% of gross earnings.
455   IV,    11.  6.  2    |            Austria (€4.25) and the UK (€8.80), whereas a fixed deductible
456   IV,    11.  6.  4    |            Finance~Department of Health~8 health boards~No capitation.
457   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                SCHIA allocates funds to 8 regional funds~ ~Size and
458   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               Czech partner, since 2007 8 funds are present in Czech Republic;
459   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               in Health Care 11(3): 233-8.~ ~Dovey SM, Phillips RL
460   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              for the NHS." BMJ 320: 197-8.~ ~Mossialos E, Le Grand
461   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 and Community Health 58(8): 655-8.~ ~Øvretveit J (
462   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Community Health 58(8): 655-8.~ ~Øvretveit J (2001): "
463   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Journal of Medicine 294:582-8.~ ~Saltman RB (2004): Social
464   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 Pharmacotherapy 26: 422-8.~ ~Taxis K, Barber N (2003): "
465   IV,    12.  1        |                   Art. 95 (3), (6) and (8) concerning health in relation
466   IV,    12.  2        |          imports, thereby contributing8.9 bn to the goods account
467   IV,    12.  4        |                 is provided in Table 12.8.~ ~ ~Table 12.8. Financial
468   IV,    12.  4        |                Table 12.8.~ ~ ~Table 12.8. Financial community instruments
469   IV,    12.  8        |                                      12.8. International initiatives~ ~
470   IV,    12. 10        |          Federal Ministry of Health and 8 federal states, see http .~“
471   IV,    12. 10        |          Ministerial Decisions 76017 (1-8-2002) and 82942 (12-9-2003)
472   IV,    12. 10        |         neahygeia.gr/foreas.php?IssueID=8&lang=en). It enumerates
473   IV,    12. 10        |            family and professional life~8. supporting job desegregation~
474   IV,    12. 10        |             according with Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament
475   IV,    12. 10        |              months~Domain of objective 8~ ~Education policy~Public
476   IV,    12. 10        |                ages~Domain of objective 8~ ~Health and medical care
477   IV,    12. 10        |         inhabitants~Domain of objective 8~ ~Justice policy~Education
478   IV,    12. 10        |           against communicable diseases~8. Safe sexuality and a good
479   IV,    13.Acr        |                 the Netherlands (from 2.8% in 1990 to 5% in 2004).
480   IV,    13.  2.  3    |           estimated to be 4.1%, 4.4%, 2.8%, 2.3%, respectively. Worldwide,
481   IV,    13.  2.  4    |            European countries (Table 13.8).~ ~ ~Table 13.6. WHO estimates
482   IV,    13.  3        |                 always guaranteed. Some 8% of EU citizens live at
483   IV,    13.  7.  2    |         noticeably higher in the US (26.8%) than in the EU (18.4%)
484   IV,    13.  7.  5    |            regard (EU, 1995).~ ~Article 8 of the Directive on the
485   IV,    13.  7.  5    |             more or less copied Article 8 as described above, though
486   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                  Paragraph 3 of Article 8 might provide a legal basis
487   IV,    13.  7.  5    |               the paragraphs of Article 8 of the Directive relevant
488   IV,    13.  8        |                                      13.8. Civil society involvement