Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |           health determinants, health systems and health policies as well
  2    I,     2.  3        |         specific challenges to health systems, not least if they are not
  3    I,     2.  4        |             rates.~ ~While healthcare systems have contributed to significant
  4    I,     2.  5        |           more complex and productive systems for organising productive
  5    I,     2.  5        |            base for social protection systems and adequacy and sustainability
  6    I,     2.  5        |              modernisation of pension systems can promote active ageing
  7    I,     2.  6        |        different national educational systems.~ ~Figure 2.4. Early school
  8    I,     2.  7        |      self-sufficient water and energy systems. The city is being designed
  9    I,     2.  8        |      containable by effective control systems. Debate about long terni
 10    I,     2.  8        |              both in district heating systems and in individual houses.
 11    I,     2. 10.  1    |               the healthcare delivery systems. Medicine and public health
 12    I,     2. 10.  1    |           statistics and surveillance systems do not cover underlying
 13    I,     2. 10.  1    |       individualisation in healthcare systems. Indicators and statistics
 14    I,     2. 10.  1    |            profile.~So far healthcare systems, policy makers and industries
 15    I,     2. 10.  1    |         Moreover, findings from model systems may be transferred into
 16    I,     2. 10.  3    |           Advanced Grid technologies, systems and services.~- Embedded
 17    I,     2. 10.  3    |              and services.~- Embedded systems.~- Software and services.~-
 18    I,     2. 10.  3    |  Semantic-based knowledge and content systems.~ ~Other activities included
 19    I,     2. 10.  4    |        developments has made possible systems that using bar-codes or
 20    I,     2. 10.  4    |              Automatic identification systems have a very wide range of
 21    I,     2. 10.  4    |    introduction of robotic dispensing systems, recording implant serial
 22    I,     2. 10.  4    |       authentication and traceability systems. All these applications
 23    I,     2. 10.  4    |            All these applications and systems enable the realisation of
 24    I,     2. 10.  4    |               electronic prescription systems and robotic dispensing systems
 25    I,     2. 10.  4    |        systems and robotic dispensing systems will significantly reduce
 26    I,     2. 10.  4    |       authentication and traceability systems that will make it much more
 27    I,     2. 10.  4    |        Increasing efficiency~ ~Manual systems and processes in hospitals
 28    I,     2. 10.  4    |       identification and traceability systems allow automating and hence
 29    I,     2. 10.  4    |              automatic identification systems in hospitals today is very
 30    I,     2. 10.  4    |       implement national traceability systems for pharmaceuticals. Again,
 31    I,     2. 10.  4    |       identification and traceability systems. Open, technology-independent
 32    I,     2. 10.  4    |           complexity of the myriad of systems required for various local
 33    I,     2. 10.  4    |               products and for coding systems used within healthcare settings,
 34   II,     5.  3.  2    |      strengthening health information systems. See: www.tumori.net/eurochip/~ ~
 35   II,     5.  3.  3    |               from civil registration systems in countries. The data available
 36   II,     5.  3.  3    |           national vital registration systems, with underlying cause of
 37   II,     5.  3.  7    |       addressed up front. Health care systems and the pharmaceutical industry
 38   II,     5.  3.  8    |           ways of reducing the Health Systems expenditures in Europe while
 39   II,     5.  4.  1    |             and fragmented accounting systems. Thus, data mostly relies
 40   II,     5.  4.  2    |             harmonised by information systems linking individual clinical
 41   II,     5.  4.  2    |             underpins many monitoring systems currently existing in Europe,
 42   II,     5.  4.  2    |             of national reimbursement systems in most countries, mostly
 43   II,     5.  4.  4    |          countries are using tracking systems that probably lead to incomplete
 44   II,     5.  4.  4    |              to highlight that health systems in Europe are not optimally
 45   II,     5.  4.  6    |            results through monitoring systems among clinicians and patients
 46   II,     5.  4.  6    |       development of their healthcare systemsNovember 14th , the current
 47   II,     5.  4.  7    |           increasing barrier for data systems, has been thoroughly explored
 48   II,     5.  4.  8    |           Diabetes Care at the health systems level in OECD countries,
 49   II,     5.  5.Int    |             burden on social security systems and brings a loss of quality
 50   II,     5.  5.  1    |           national health information systems. Also statistics on mortality
 51   II,     5.  5.  1    |            national routine reporting systems of mental health establishments,
 52   II,     5.  5.  1    |     determinants of health and health systems.~o The European Review of
 53   II,     5.  5.  2    |     healthcare, it is likely that new systems need to be introduced to
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for individuals, health systems and society. For example,
 55   II,     5.  5.  3    |       international health monitoring systems and health promotion systems
 56   II,     5.  5.  3    |          systems and health promotion systems are of utmost importance.~ ~
 57   II,     5.  5.  3    |          international classification systems – the divergent criteria
 58   II,     5.  5.  3    |               the national healthcare systems. Hence, the broad range
 59   II,     5.  5.  3    |           European mental health care systems.~ ~Statistics based only
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |             in the mental health care systems, the extent of variation
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |           national health information systems and deficiencies in international
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |      international health information systems.~Not even accurate hospital
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |        psychosis. As different health systems provide different structures
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for the use of registry systems and repeated assessments
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |      nation-wide surveys and registry systems. However, the tendency for
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |               functional neurological systems (pyramidal, cerebellar,
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |            scores over the functional systems combined with their degree
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |             economies and health care systems.~NGOs, which are present
 69   II,     5.  7.  5    |               based clinical renal IT systems. The NHS Healthcare Commission
 70   II,     5.  8.  3    |       patients related to major organ systems was higher, and a frequency >
 71   II,     5.  8.  6    |       technologies including telecare systems and stand-alone electronic
 72   II,     5.  9. FB    |          effectiveness of health care systems and professional training
 73   II,     5.  9. FB    |           expenditure for health care systems for then reducing the cost
 74   II,     5.  9.  3    |           expenditure for health care systems but then reducing the cost
 75   II,     5.  9.  4    |       bioactivity in various in vitro systems and on selected target cells.
 76   II,     5.  9.  5    |          expenditures for health care systems, but also reducing the costs
 77   II,     5.  9.  5    |          effectiveness of health care systems and professional training
 78   II,     5.  9.  5    |     intervention onto the health care systems.~ ~
 79   II,     5. 11.  3    |              many current health care systems to cope with such surgical
 80   II,     5. 11.  6    |               the various health care systems that currently operate within
 81   II,     5. 11.  6    |              collected within current systems and could, then, progress
 82   II,     5. 14.  1    |               of reframing regulatory systems to ensure that the health
 83   II,     5. 14.  2    |         including sample registration systems, surveillance systems, national
 84   II,     5. 14.  2    |    registration systems, surveillance systems, national survey data, and
 85   II,     5. 14.  2    |         linked with new information’s systems for surveillance of chronic
 86   II,     5. 14.  2    |             oral health information’s systems are an integral part of
 87   II,     5. 14.  2    |        outcome-oriented information’s systems, but neglected the processes.
 88   II,     5. 14.  2    |               more comprehensive data systems for improving the quality
 89   II,     5. 14.  2    |               of oral health care and systems is encouraged.~Comparisons
 90   II,     5. 14.  3    |           Eastern Europe, oral health systems are now in transition. Prior
 91   II,     5. 14.  3    |              halt. This change in the systems has had a negative impact
 92   II,     5. 14.  5    |     international health surveillance systems has resulted in a deluge
 93   II,     5. 14.  5    |           European health information systems is an added challenge, considering
 94   II,     5. 14.  5    |      integration into national health systems. The indicators will focus
 95   II,     5. 14.  5    |        quality of life.~ ~Oral health systems play an important role in
 96   II,     5. 14.  8    |               Oral health information systems - toward measuring progress
 97   II,     5. 14.  8    |                2004): Oral healthcare systems in the extended European
 98   II,     5. 15.  1    |          International classification systems, and, as a consequence,
 99   II,     5. 15.  2    |         retrieved in most information systems. No survey has ever been
100   II,     5. 15.  3    |       establish area-based monitoring systems that would include all rare diseases.
101   II,     5. 15.  4    |               adapt their health care systems to the needs of the RD patients’
102   II,     5. 15.  5    |         national/regional health care systems.~ ~The scope of European
103   II,     6.  3.  1    |               and in the surveillance systems (with a consequential effect
104   II,     6.  3.  1    |              of national surveillance systems was the detection of outbreaks
105   II,     6.  3.  1    |             most routine surveillance systems are built on the paradigm
106   II,     6.  3.  2    |             on effective surveillance systems are immense. The current
107   II,     6.  3.  3    |                different surveillance systems operate in these countries
108   II,     6.  3.  4    |            the reservoirs are aquatic systems such as cooling towers,
109   II,     6.  3.  4    |      maintenance of the various water systems. Guidelines for water plants
110   II,     6.  3.  6    |               variations in reporting systems and different degrees of
111   II,     6.  3.  6    |            best national surveillance systems miss the majority of cases,
112   II,     6.  3.  6    |              to improved surveillance systems (particularly in the new
113   II,     6.  3.  6    |      differences between surveillance systems make comparisons between
114   II,     6.  3.  6    |       differences in the surveillance systems.~ ~Echinococcosis~ ~Echinococcosis
115   II,     6.  3.  7    |       implication for European health systems is to counsel international
116   II,     6.  4.  1    |         well-functioning surveillance systems. Surveillance systems provide
117   II,     6.  4.  1    |    surveillance systems. Surveillance systems provide information for
118   II,     6.  4.  3    |              it will result in health systems being stretched, hospitals
119   II,     6.  4.  4    |        surveillance and early warning systems. By working with experts
120   II,     6.  4.  5    |           sectors. These surveillance systems must co-operate closely
121   II,     6.  4.  5    |               sanctions and reporting systems; f) phase out and replace
122   II,     7.  1        |              of prevention for health systems often exceed the costs of
123   II,     7.  2        |             private agencies maintain systems that continually or periodically
124   II,     7.  2        |            called injury surveillance systems. Several data sources need
125   II,     7.  2.  1    |              family of classification systems The ICECI was the basis
126   II,     7.  3.  3    |               policies and healthcare systems. The average hospital stay
127   II,     7.  3.  4    |            complex and most dangerous systems people have to deal with
128   II,     7.  3.  4    |          designed injury surveillance systems is widely advocated as a
129   II,     7.  3.  5    |               injuriessurveillance systems for reporting and compiling
130   II,     7.  4        |          burden on health and welfare systems, injuries often affect the
131   II,     7.  4        |                   Injury surveillance systems in the different countries
132   II,     7.  4.  1    |             the usage of car restrain systems and bicycle helmets amongst
133   II,     7.  4.  3    |             of road safety elaborated systems for the improvement of safety
134   II,     7.  4.  5    |              monitoring and reporting systems which identify the nature
135   II,     7.  5        |   cost-effective; benefits for health systems often exceed the costs of
136   II,     7.  5        |            surveillance and reporting systems as a pre-requisite for targeted
137   II,     7.  5        |              within the national data systems on products and services,
138   II,     7.  5        |             link existing statistical systems relevant to injury for providing
139   II,     8.  2.  1    |               known to formal service systems (www ). It may be inferred
140   II,     8.  2.  1    |         disabilities, current service systems and sources of information.
141   II,     8.  2.  1    |        Efforts at the level of health systems are also recommended to
142   II,     8.  2.  1    |              yet to date there are no systems in place to gather population-based
143   II,     8.  2.  1    |            outcomes, determinants and systems related to persons with
144   II,     8.  2.  1    |              impact on health service systems in their countries. For
145   II,     8.  2.  2    |     strengthened national health-care systems. In May 2006, the World
146   II,     8.  2.  2    |        well-monitored national health systems.~ ~To accelerate implementation
147   II,     9            |                Additional information systems are needed to capture all
148   II,     9.  1.  1    |               international reporting systems on rates of death in the
149   II,     9.  1.  1    |               international reporting systems.~ ~Foetal and neonatal mortality
150   II,     9.  1.  1    |             for other data collection systems. For example, in Spain and
151   II,     9.  1.  1    |           deaths. Some data recording systems impose a lower limit of
152   II,     9.  1.  1    |             EURO-PERISTAT. These data systems include EUROSTAT, WHO and
153   II,     9.  1.  1    |              1.1.1. In addition, data systems are undoubtedly better at
154   II,     9.  1.  1    |           European health information systems in order to monitor health
155   II,     9.  1.  2    |                Additional information systems are needed to capture all
156   II,     9.  1.  2    |           organization, resources and systems in place to put changes
157   II,     9.  1.  2    |         underlying health information systems across Europe would improve
158   II,     9.  1.  2    |          different health information systems using unique patient identifiers.
159   II,     9.  2.  2    |              not to overload national systems. It has a specific health
160   II,     9.  2.  2    |         voluntary basis from national systems, hence consensus of topics
161   II,     9.  2.  3    |          there are no the statistical systems available to provide comparable
162   II,     9.  2.  3    |             available data. Recording systems have been developed for
163   II,     9.  2.  6    |       establish statistical reporting systems in hospitals and primary
164   II,     9.  3.  1    |         across national and Community systems needs to become a priority
165   II,     9.  3.  1    |             burden on social security systems and brings a loss of quality
166   II,     9.  3.  1    |     beneficial effects on other organ systems. The same goes for calcitonin
167   II,     9.  3.  1    |              as in other target organ systems, oestrogen interacts with
168   II,     9.  3.  1    |           that affects all organs and systems. The symptoms related to
169   II,     9.  3.  1    |           co-operation between health systems. The implementation of this
170   II,     9.  3.  1    |             lack of will, but because systems are often not compatible,
171   II,     9.  3.  1    |               which need to occur: in systems of research and data collection,
172   II,     9.  3.  2    |           across different healthcare systems. Many indicators useful
173   II,     9.  4.  1    |             will challenge healthcare systems and the society itself.~ ~
174   II,     9.  4.  3    |        European Healthy Aging, 2007). Systems of cooperative care - which
175   II,     9.  4.  5    |            elderly. Social protection systems not only provide cash benefits
176   II,     9.  4.  5    |       stressed that social protection systems need to be reformed, inter
177   II,     9.  4.  5    |         healthcare and long-term care systems in the European Union face
178   II,     9.  4.  5    |      financial sustainability of care systems.~ ~These three broad goals
179   II,     9.  4.  5    |              stressed that all health systems in the EU are based on the
180   II,     9.  4.  5    |             the overall management of systems. Thus, many national replies
181   II,     9.  4.  5    |             as a cornerstone of their systems, even in the face of increasing
182   II,     9.  4.  5    |      ICT-based products, services and systems for Europe's ageing population.
183   II,     9.  4.  6    |              etc..)~· Plan integrated systems across all sectors (health,
184   II,     9.  5.  1    |         within the various healthcare systems in Europe stem from both
185   II,     9.  5.  3    |             include those to judicial systems, refuge provision, lost
186   II,     9.  5.  3    |           implications for healthcare systems, as it is currently estimated
187   II,     9.  5.  4    |              discrimination in health systems.~ Reference A6-0250/2005 :
188  III,    10.  2.  1    |             BAL particularly in legal systems in which a criminal drinking-driver
189  III,    10.  2.  1    |         widely adopted in health care systems,.~ ~For people with more
190  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|         consists of two complementary systems, HIV case reporting and
191  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|       seroprevalence monitoring. Both systems are likely to be imperfect
192  III,    10.  2.  1    |          accessibility of oral health systems but a reduced risk of the
193  III,    10.  2.  1    |         including sample registration systems, surveillance systems, national
194  III,    10.  2.  1    |    registration systems, surveillance systems, national survey data, and
195  III,    10.  2.  1    |             health public and private systems has also be used.~ ~The
196  III,    10.  2.  1    |            international surveillance systems on nutritional status, food
197  III,    10.  2.  4    |           statistics and surveillance systems do not cover underlying
198  III,    10.  2.  4    |      individualisation in health care systems. Indicators and statistics
199  III,    10.  2.  4    |               the healthcare delivery systems. Medicine and Public Health
200  III,    10.  2.  4    |          field of cancer. Health care systems, policy makers and industries
201  III,    10.  2.  4    |              markers of all types and systems biology. These advances
202  III,    10.  2.  4    |               and other biomarkers in systems biology and complex diseases
203  III,    10.  2.  4    |           monitoring and surveillance systems at present which are designed
204  III,    10.  2.  4    |              and to better understand systems biology, epigenomic and
205  III,    10.  2.  4    |             of individual pathways in systems biology with onset, severity
206  III,    10.  2.  4    |       challenges that our health care systems will face (Collins et al,
207  III,    10.  2.  4    |        approaches, the application of systems biology approaches to integrated
208  III,    10.  2.  4    |        challenges for all health care systems. Clarifying the general
209  III,    10.  2.  4    |               as social epidemiology, systems biology, genetic epidemiology,
210  III,    10.  3.  1    |         includes national information systems, guidance documents for
211  III,    10.  3.  1    |      respiratory and musculo-skeletal systems and to depression. Many
212  III,    10.  3.  2    |              System~RASFF~Rapid Alert Systems for Food and Feed products~
213  III,    10.  3.  2    |            through the EU rapid alert systems. These include the Rapid
214  III,    10.  3.  2    |               include the Rapid Alert Systems for Food and Feed products (
215  III,    10.  3.  2    |    requirements for safety management systems, emergency and land-use
216  III,    10.  3.  4    |        providing advice on how health systems could be prepared to deal
217  III,    10.  3.  4    |             if electricity or heating systems fail.~ ~Floods and storms~ ~
218  III,    10.  3.  4    |            the contamination of water systems with dangerous chemicals
219  III,    10.  3.  4    |          included heat health-warning systems, health and environmental
220  III,    10.  3.  4    |          river banks and canalization systems and the institutional response
221  III,    10.  4.  1    |          domestic heating and cooking systems, including wood or coal
222  III,    10.  4.  1    |            Maintenance of ventilation systems is clearly important, particularly
223  III,    10.  4.  2    |           reforms to their regulatory systems on food safety, often characterised
224  III,    10.  4.  2    | sustainability of our food production systems, the effects of increasing
225  III,    10.  4.  2    |             European food legislation systems, including the:~ ~· crisis
226  III,    10.  4.  2    |            collection and information systems and gaps in some crucial
227  III,    10.  4.  2    |         standards and reinforcing the systems of checks throughout the
228  III,    10.  4.  2    |       integration of national control systems; and~· transparent dialogue
229  III,    10.  4.  2    |              and Global Early Warning Systems for major animal diseases.~ ~ ~
230  III,    10.  4.  2    | Chromatographic columns and detection systems have been improved; now
231  III,    10.  4.  2    |             existing food legislation systems within the EU. This led
232  III,    10.  4.  2    |              and reinforcing checking systems throughout the food chain,
233  III,    10.  4.  2    |         inventory of~- protected crop systems~- emissions from these systems
234  III,    10.  4.  2    |        systems~- emissions from these systems to relevant environmental
235  III,    10.  4.  2    |     effectiveness of national control systems for enforcing Community
236  III,    10.  4.  2    |        Community and national control systems.~ ~Member States should
237  III,    10.  4.  2    | sustainability of our food production systems, the effects of increasing
238  III,    10.  4.  3    |            disasters and distribution systems have to be designed to meet
239  III,    10.  4.  3    |         drinking water and sanitation systems, in association with breakdowns
240  III,    10.  4.  3    |          failures in the water supply systems due to missing or faulty
241  III,    10.  4.  3    |   micro-organisms in the distribution systems as well as to leaks of untreated
242  III,    10.  4.  3    |       connected to municipal delivery systems including water treatment
243  III,    10.  4.  3    |            surveillance and reporting systems rather then differences
244  III,    10.  4.  3    |       connected to municipal delivery systems including water treatment
245  III,    10.  4.  3    |         drinking water and sanitation systems (see Figure 10.4.3.2).~ ~
246  III,    10.  4.  3    |             Legionella from all water systems is impossible, public health
247  III,    10.  4.  3    |          Legionella to colonise water systems. Moreover, the presence
248  III,    10.  4.  3    |              have national monitoring systems in place.~ ~Waste water
249  III,    10.  4.  3    |         maintenance of water delivery systems, both on the supply and
250  III,    10.  4.  4    |            through the EU rapid alert systems. These include the Rapid
251  III,    10.  4.  4    |               include the Rapid Alert Systems for Food and Feed products (
252  III,    10.  4.  5    |             adequate waste management systems in most countries of this
253  III,    10.  5.  1    |           water supply and sanitation systems; public transport networks;
254  III,    10.  5.  1    |               with inadequate heating systems and poor insulation. Moreover,
255  III,    10.  5.  1    |              to sewage and sanitation systems is less common than access
256  III,    10.  5.  1    |            more efficient ventilation systems (Smedje and Norbäck, 2000).
257  III,    10.  5.  1    |               the limitation of these systems in extreme climate situations,
258  III,    10.  5.  1    |         dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm
259  III,    10.  5.  1    |              using modern ventilation systems in buildings In: Indoor
260  III,    10.  5.  1    |             246-256~Hulsmann A. Small systems large problems, a European
261  III,    10.  5.  1    |           European inventory of small systems and associated problems.
262  III,    10.  5.  1    |               booklets/05_small_water_systems_ver_june2005.pdf, accessed18
263  III,    10.  5.  2    |            problem of national health systems in rural and less populated
264  III,    10.  5.  2    |        rural settings as urban health systems do not translate well into
265  III,    10.  5.  3    |            according to the different systems in the Member States. Mainly
266  III,    10.  5.  3    |               States: Insurance based systems where care benefits and
267  III,    10.  5.  3    |            private) insurer. In these systems the level of accident reporting
268  III,    10.  5.  3    |               the accident. For these systems, the reporting levels are
269  III,    10.  5.  3    |           more complex and productive systems for organising productive
270  III,    10.  5.  3    |      equipment, the workplace and its systems~- noise reduction through
271  III,    10.  6.  2    |          services~ ~While health care systems have contributed to significant
272  III,    10.  6.  2    |              lack of access to health systems (htt ~ ~European level~The
273  III,    10.  6.  3    |               injuriessurveillance systems for reporting and compiling
274   IV                   |             TREATING DISEASES: HEALTH SYSTEMS, SERVICES AND POLICIES~ ~
275   IV,    11.  1.  1    |              1. Introduction~ ~Health systems contribute to the health
276   IV,    11.  1.  1    |               s health system. Health systems are composed of all actors,
277   IV,    11.  1.  1    |       financial burden to operate the systems.~ ~Although all actions
278   IV,    11.  1.  1    |            the contribution of health systems to the health status of
279   IV,    11.  1.  1    |              The objectives of health systems can be further delineated
280   IV,    11.  1.  1    |          ranking of countrieshealth systems has drawn criticism, mainly
281   IV,    11.  1.  1    |               and functions of health systems (in Europe). Given the variance
282   IV,    11.  1.  1    |               characterize the health systems is therefore important.
283   IV,    11.  1.  1    |               overview of health care systems in Europe, with a focus
284   IV,    11.  1.  1    |               and financing of health systems in the European Union.~ ~
285   IV,    11.  1.  1    |              with a section on health systems performance with emphasis
286   IV,    11.  1.  1    |       European health and social care systems, these fall outside the
287   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                As all European health systems face their own challenges
288   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             The Performance of Health Systems~ ~The impact of health care (
289   IV,    11.  1.  3    |           that high-performing health systems can help in achieving better
290   IV,    11.  1.  3    |            driven by the WHO’s health systems framework.~ ~In view of
291   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             the performance of health systems as a basis for a continuous
292   IV,    11.  1.  3    |               the functions of health systems so as to understand how
293   IV,    11.  1.  3    |              bear in mind that health systems can be grouped in many ways:
294   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             used to categorize health systems across countries is through
295   IV,    11.  1.  3    |            four broad types of health systems can be identified in Europe,
296   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                3) devolved tax funded systems e.g. Sweden and Spain;~4)
297   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                centralized tax funded systems e.g. UK and Italy.~This
298   IV,    11.  1.  3    |         continuous pressure on health systems worldwide stem from the
299   IV,    11.  1.  3    |           pressure on European health systems, the role of the individual
300   IV,    11.  1.  3    |              responsiveness of health systems.~ ~
301   IV,    11.  1.  3(2) |               used to classify health systems (Semashko, Beveridge and
302   IV,    11.  1.  3(2) |              to highlight that health systems are much more complex structures
303   IV,    11.  1.  3(2) |              insurance (‘Bismarkian’) systems take require more detailed
304   IV,    11.  1.  3    |            between insurance funds in systems with social insurance; c)
305   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             the performance of health systems. The concern with measuring
306   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             the performance of health systems dates back to the 1800s
307   IV,    11.  1.  3    |           yielded a ranking of health systems in 191 countries, most governments
308   IV,    11.  1.  3    |               elements of health care systems are conducted in order to
309   IV,    11.  1.  3    |              responsiveness of health systems to the population’s needs
310   IV,    11.  1.  3    |    measurement tools in modern health systems, and the large number of
311   IV,    11.  1.  3    |          possible way. Moreover, many systems of performance assessment,
312   IV,    11.  1.  4    |             of publicly-funded health systems. It is, therefore, important
313   IV,    11.  1.  4    |              appear limited to health systems funded mainly by social
314   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          states with public reporting systems have experienced a faster
315   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              without public reporting systems. The evaluation of the Danish
316   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            indicators and information systems, patient surveys, clinical
317   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           some countries already have systems in place - e.g. the Czech Republic,
318   IV,    11.  1.  5    |       guidelines, lack of information systems and limited capacity for
319   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               such as data collection systems or internal quality management
320   IV,    11.  1.  5    |           best practices, information systems and access to appropriate
321   IV,    11.  1.  5    |             few countries have formal systems in place. In the UK, the
322   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              complications in payment systems, etc. (Dovey et al, 2002).
323   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            Without robust information systems to track medical error occurrences
324   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            diminished trust in health systems, medical professionals and
325   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          satisfaction with the health systems ranked from 0 (least satisfied)
326   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           variations of these payment systems, but the basic principles
327   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           incentives. Fee-for-service systems have an incentive to increase
328   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               by salary in tax-funded systems, while in social insurance
329   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             while in social insurance systems fee-for-service is the most
330   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                  Most European health systems have in place a hospital
331   IV,    11.  1.  6    |       countries having introduced DRG systems, and with different systems
332   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           systems, and with different systems of patient classification,
333   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               modification of the DRG systems vary across Europe. A review
334   IV,    11.  1.  6    |       methodology used to develop DRG systems in 9 European countries (
335   IV,    11.  1.  6    |            the DRG hospital financing systems introduced in Europe have
336   IV,    11.  1.  6    |         closer to those of tax-funded systems. The lower level of administrative
337   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               public health insurance systems. This results from the extensive
338   IV,    11.  1.  6    |            statutory health insurance systems, around 3-5% in most countries.
339   IV,    11.  2.  1    |             data, strong primary care systems are negatively associated
340   IV,    11.  2.  1    |        European countries, those with systems of social health insurance
341   IV,    11.  2.  1    |            than those with tax-funded systems. Similar patterns can be
342   IV,    11.  2.  1    |               social health insurance systems in Western Europe compared
343   IV,    11.  3.  2    |               through reference price systems have been shown, these were
344   IV,    11.  3.  2    |            Furthermore, price control systems currently do not provide
345   IV,    11.  3.  2    |             both adequate information systems to track the guidelines,
346   IV,    11.  4        |              rehabilitation. Even the systems within which health is protected
347   IV,    11.  4        |            find their way into health systems through some kind of passive
348   IV,    11.  4        |            new technologies in health systems: the Health Technology Assessment.~ ~
349   IV,    11.  4        |              policies of given health systems. Technology assessment in
350   IV,    11.  4        |             Organisational researchSystems scienceOccupational and
351   IV,    11.  5.  3    |           with the organ, the quality systems and the audit of accidents
352   IV,    11.  5.  4    |              organisation of donation systems and current practices that
353   IV,    11.  5.  4    |             functioning of transplant systems.~In order to expand the
354   IV,    11.  5.  4    |  establishment of adequate transplant systems at national level. This
355   IV,    11.  5.  4    |            The different organisation systems in Europe are the result
356   IV,    11.  5.  4    |              donation/transplantation systems.~As part of this organisation,
357   IV,    11.  5.  4    |            address them. Their health systems are therefore under particular
358   IV,    11.  5.  4    |          particular benefits to those systems. It has been accepted that
359   IV,    11.  5.  4    |             donor records and quality systems have been identified as
360   IV,    11.  5.  4    |            importance of establishing systems for the authorisation of
361   IV,    11.  6.  2    |        assessment of health financing systems~ ~Health financing consists
362   IV,    11.  6.  2    |            market is unlikely to help systems achieve the goals of health
363   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               role in European health systems), cost sharing for services
364   IV,    11.  6.  2    |             below).~ ~European health systems are characterized by a high
365   IV,    11.  6.  2    |            2005~ ~European healthcare systems rely on a mix of contribution
366   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              predominantly tax-funded systems include Sweden, Finland,
367   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              to the overall financing systems in Europe have been seen
368   IV,    11.  6.  2    |         taxation among countries with systems predominantly financed through
369   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              predominantly tax-funded systems (e.g. Sweden, Finland, Italy
370   IV,    11.  6.  2    |         taxation to fund their health systems vary significantly, depending
371   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               social health insurance systems, the trend towards greater
372   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               across social insurance systems. Contributions can either
373   IV,    11.  6.  2    |         extent in all European health systems. The three forms of direct
374   IV,    11.  6.  3    |           1998). Moreover, tax-funded systems are more progressive than
375   IV,    11.  6.  3    |               social health insurance systems, the degree of fairness
376   IV,    11.  6.  3    |               social health insurance systems in Germany and the Netherlands
377   IV,    11.  6.  3    |             effect of tax and benefit systems, there is considerable variation
378   IV,    11.  6.  3    |        funding reveal that healthcare systems that are largely privately
379   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               social health insurance systems) and may break historical
380   IV,    11.  6.  4    |             sustainability) in health systems. Thus, the role of purchasing
381   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              with tax-financed health systems (except Cyprus, Ireland
382   IV,    11.  6.  4    |        weakest element in most health systems. Recent years have seen
383   IV,    11.  6.  4    |      adjustment. However, many health systems continue to allocate resources
384   IV,    11.  6.  4    |           more with tax-funded health systems to minimize regional inequity,
385   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               social health insurance systems, in particular where there
386   IV,    11.  6.  4    |             funds in social insurance systems, such as Germany and the
387   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               the Netherlands, and in systems with regional health plans
388   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               as the social insurance systems listed above and England (
389   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                In some countries with systems funded by social health
390   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               social health insurance systems. Not only they clarify the
391   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              the tax-funded NHS-style systems. The vaguest definition
392   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               social health insurance systems (Gibis et al, 2004). While
393   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              private health insurance systems, coverage through many national
394   IV,    11.  6.  4    |          national health service-type systems is not based on a defined
395   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              healthcare and political systems, with variations in mandates,
396   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               In recent years, health systems have moved towards changing
397   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               collected on healthcare systems and sources of health data
398   IV,    11.  6.  5    |      Editorial: Hospital case payment systems in Europe." Health Care
399   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Chaix-Couturier
400   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Copenhagen,
401   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               social health insurance systems. Social health insurance
402   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Social health insurance systems in Western Europe. R. B.
403   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies: 81-140.~ ~
404   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               social health insurance systems. Social health insurance
405   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Social health insurance systems in Western Europe. R. B.
406   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies: 189-206.~ ~
407   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Holland
408   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~HOPE - European
409   IV,    11.  6.  5    |           classifying decision-making systems using technology assessment
410   IV,    11.  6.  5    |           technologies (fourth hurdle systems)." International Journal
411   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 Changing remuneration systems: effects on activity in
412   IV,    11.  6.  5    |          contribution of primary care systems to health outcomes within
413   IV,    11.  6.  5    |         countries, 1970-1998." Health Systems Research 38(3): 831-865.~ ~
414   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~McDaid D,
415   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Copenhagen,
416   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                Incentives and Payment Systems in Austria. Report prepared
417   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Mossialos
418   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Mossialos
419   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Mossialos
420   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Musgrove
421   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                2003): "Judging health systems: reflections on WHO's methods."
422   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              the European health care systems." Health Policy 56(3): 235-
423   IV,    11.  6.  5    |          Purchasing to improve health systems performance. J. Figueras,
424   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Rosenthal
425   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Social health insurance systems in Western Europe. R. B.
426   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.~ ~Sappington
427   IV,    11.  6.  5    |            quality policies in health systems. Copenhagen World Health
428   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              2004): Health and health systems in the new member states
429   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              on the Social Protection Systems in the 13 Applicant Countries:
430   IV,    12.  1        |                on diseases and health systems based on European-wide common
431   IV,    12.  1        |             health service and health systems.~ ~Directorate~General~ ~
432   IV,    12.  2        |           Threats, and Dynamic Health Systems and New Technologies.~ ~
433   IV,    12.  2        |             BAL particularly in legal systems in which a criminal drinking-driver
434   IV,    12.  2        |         widely adopted in health care systems, the population impact on
435   IV,    12.  3        |        European cooperation of health systems and patient rights in cross-border
436   IV,    12.  3        |           cooperation and educational systems and a green paper on immigration
437   IV,    12.  3        |     sustainable and equitable welfare systems. Over time, they should
438   IV,    12.  3        |            adequate social protection systems.~ ~ ~
439   IV,    12.  4        |              public health and health systems, food safety, eHealth, Innovative
440   IV,    12.  5        |         networks, tools and reporting systems for immunisation status
441   IV,    12.  5        |               between national health systems by supporting cooperation
442   IV,    12.  5        |               determinants and health systems. Several working parties
443   IV,    12.  5        |            and on diseases and health systems, based on European-wide
444   IV,    12.  5        |             working conditions~Health systems~Prevention, health protection
445   IV,    12.  5        |           situation, that information systems for specific sectors were
446   IV,    12.  5        |         comprehensive and integrative systems have been developed.~Important
447   IV,    12.  5        |           national Health Information Systems are provided with data from
448   IV,    12.  7        |              in all Policies~ ~Health systems impact assessment~An ad
449   IV,    12.  7        |             of new policies on health systems, as opposed to the impact
450   IV,    12. 10        |             implemented early warning systems (e. g. on heat waves) that
451   IV,    12. 10        |           children and social warning systems (Frühe Hilfen für Eltern
452   IV,    12. 10        |     integrated in European healthcare systems and civil protection authorities.
453   IV,    12. 10        |          colour jobs and 7) improving systems for monitoring~National
454   IV,    13.  2.  4    |             burden for the healthcare systems and in an even higher benefit
455   IV,    13.  3        |              complexity of the health systems and the many involved variables
456   IV,    13.  5        |               to national health care systems much more sensitive to their
457   IV,    13.  5        |             of well-performing health systems in a context of demographic
458   IV,    13.  5        |      Ministerial Conference on Health SystemsHealth Systems. Health
459   IV,    13.  5        |             on Health Systems “Health Systems. Health and Wealthheld
460   IV,    13.  5        |       participation; invest in health systems and foster investment across
461   IV,    13.  5        |              accountable; make health systems more responsive; engage
462   IV,    13.  5        |       cooperation; ensure that health systems are prepared and able to
463   IV,    13.  6.  2    |            Other countries have other systems. This variation cannot easily
464   IV,    13.  6.  3    |                         13.6.3 Health Systems and Access for Children~ ~
465   IV,    13.  7.  5    |       population, diseases and health systems at European level, in order
466   IV,    13.  7.  5    |           feasible health information systems based on individual level
467   IV,    13.  7.  5    |              national data protection systems with regard to processing
468   IV,    13.  7.  5    |              concerns data protection systems, most Member States have
469   IV,    13.  7.  5    |         indeed been shown that opt-in systems seriously complicate the
470   IV,    13.  7.  5    |              public health monitoring systems at national, and subsequently