Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4    |  health-conducive behaviours (e.g. less smoking, modest improvements in
  2   II,     4.  2    |                life expectancy as well. Smoking related neoplasms had a
  3   II,     4.  2    |                  The negative impact of smoking related cancers for women
  4   II,     4.  2    |                life expectancy. Whereas smoking related cancer had a negative
  5   II,     4.  2    |                in the percentage of men smoking since the 1970s, mortality
  6   II,     4.  2    |           cancer. However, mortality by smoking related cancer continued
  7   II,     4.  2    |        mortality by cancer is caused by smoking. Mortality by gynaecological
  8   II,     4.  2    |              related to the decrease in smoking prevalence. Mortality by
  9   II,     4.  2    |                of circulatory diseases. Smoking has had a negative impact
 10   II,     4.  2    |                 Note that the effect of smoking on mortality is larger than
 11   II,     4.  2    |                by lung cancer and other smoking related cancers, as smoking
 12   II,     4.  2    |             smoking related cancers, as smoking also affects mortality by
 13   II,     4.  2    |            shows that cancers caused by smoking had a negative impact on
 14   II,     4.  2    |                  the negative impact of smoking related cancers reduced
 15   II,     4.  2    |                  the negative effect of smoking related cancers for women
 16   II,     4.  2    |                 For women in the 1990s, smoking related cancers had a negative
 17   II,     4.  2    |              Table 4.2.5. The effect of smoking related cancers on life
 18   II,     5.  1.  1|       behavioural risk factors, such as smoking, alcohol use, obesity, excessive
 19   II,     5.  1.  1|                 to unhealthy lifestyle (smoking habit, unhealthy diet, physical
 20   II,     5.  1.  1|               an example, hypertension, smoking habit and excessive alcohol
 21   II,     5.  1.  1|              hypertension, diabetes and smoking are crucial to explain differences
 22   II,     5.  1.  1| hypercholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking habit. Differences exist
 23   II,     5.  1.  1|       physical activity.~ ~Lung cancer: smoking is a primary cause of lung
 24   II,     5.  1.  1|                past exposure to tobacco smoking, and the geographic pattern
 25   II,     5.  1.  1|        different historical patterns of smoking as compare to men (Parkin
 26   II,     5.  1.  1|            alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been found to both
 27   II,     5.  1.  1|                sensitization; cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental
 28   II,     5.  1.  1|            Active and passive cigarette smoking, occupational factors and
 29   II,     5.  1.  1|                 risk factors. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for
 30   II,     5.  1.  1|               2003) showed that age and smoking were the two major risk
 31   II,     5.  1.  1|         analysis including age, gender, smoking habits, family history of
 32   II,     5.  1.  1|              odds ratio associated with smoking more than 5 cigarettes per
 33   II,     5.  1.  1|                 lead, cadmium, mercury, smoking and environmental tobacco smoke,
 34   II,     5.  2.  2|                 to unhealthy lifestyle (smoking habit, unhealthy diet, physical
 35   II,     5.  2.  2|               an example, hypertension, smoking habit and excessive alcohol
 36   II,     5.  2.  2|              hypertension, diabetes and smoking are crucial to explain differences
 37   II,     5.  2.  2| hypercholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking habit. Due to differences
 38   II,     5.  2.  3|                 salt and saturated fat, smoking habit) has contributed to
 39   II,     5.  2.  3|              and vegetables, along with smoking habit and excessive alcohol
 40   II,     5.  2.  4|               by hypertension, obesity, smoking habit, diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
 41   II,     5.  2.  4|                 physical inactivity and smoking habit.~Some of these risk
 42   II,     5.  2.  4|              women.~Table 5.2.9 reports smoking habit collected through
 43   II,     5.  2.  4|        interview surveys. Prevalence of smoking in women is lower except
 44   II,     5.  2.  4|              trend is changing. In men, smoking is generally higher in Southern,
 45   II,     5.  2.  4|                 Estimated prevalence of smoking habit in 27 EU countries
 46   II,     5.  2.  4|         classical risk factors’ such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia,
 47   II,     5.  2.  4|             Table 5.2.11. Prevalence of smoking (%), mean values of systolic
 48   II,     5.  2.  4|               lipids, and around 30% to smoking and that smokers and former
 49   II,     5.  2.  4|            regards to the prevalence of smoking and obesity.~ ~
 50   II,     5.  2.  5|               of decisions such as stop smoking, adopting healthy diet and
 51   II,     5.  2.  5|              major risk factors, mainly smoking, whereas treatment of individuals
 52   II,     5.  2.  5|          assessment, based on age, sex, smoking habit, systolic blood pressure,
 53   II,     5.  2.  5|         improvements were documented in smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure.
 54   II,     5.  2.  6|               that risk factors such as smoking habit, cholesterol, blood
 55   II,     5.  2.  6|                first steps is to reduce smoking among men and prevent increase
 56   II,     5.  2.  6|             women as health benefits of smoking cessation occur faster for
 57   II,     5.  2.  6|                 that prevent and reduce smoking may bring immediate and
 58   II,     5.  3.  4|       physical activity.~ ~Lung cancer: smoking is a primary cause of lung
 59   II,     5.  3.  4|                past exposure to tobacco smoking, and the geographic pattern
 60   II,     5.  3.  4|        different historical patterns of smoking compared to men (Parkin
 61   II,     5.  3.  7|                health. The cessation of smoking, avoidance of harmful alcohol
 62   II,     5.  4.  2|             topics e.g. heavy drinking, smoking etc. The usual recommendation
 63   II,     5.  4.  2|               diabetic subjects who are smoking~14~Percent of diabetic subjects
 64   II,     5.  4.  2|               pressure above 140 mm Hg.~Smoking is defined as any type of
 65   II,     5.  4.  2|               is defined as any type of smoking and relates to the percentage
 66   II,     5.  4.  3|              the higher the percentage.~Smoking. Crude percentages from
 67   II,     5.  4.  6|                 how much;~· how to quit smoking; and~· how to deal with
 68   II,     5.  5.  2|            alcohol intake and cigarette smoking, have been found to both
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|    physical activity, increased rate of smoking, etc. –, the high rate of
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|           acting early in life, such as smoking.~ ~
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|          British doctors in relation to smoking: observation on coronary
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|                a general agreement that smoking and exposure to pesticide
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|               Lifestyle factors such as smoking cigarettes have been consistently
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|               truly caused by cigarette smoking, or may reflect confounding
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|               behaviour associated with smoking is not known. In an American
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|                the history of cigarette smoking and alcohol use in 144 PD
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|                 CC, Peterson EL (1999): Smoking and Parkinson’s disease:
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|               at: htt f.~Quik M (2004): Smoking, nicotine and Parkinson’
 79   II,     5.  6.  3|              between osteoarthritis and smoking (Felson et al, 1996).~ ~
 80   II,     5.  6.  3|                 the epidemiology of RA. Smoking and obesity are also risk
 81   II,     5.  6.  3|            family history of fractures, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption,
 82   II,     5.  6.  3|             with age, physical fitness, smoking, excess body weight and
 83   II,     5.  6.  5|              alcohol excess, of tobacco smoking, etc.~ ~ ~
 84   II,     5.  8.  1|              active and passive tobacco smoking, occupational factors and
 85   II,     5.  8.  3|                the larger spread of the smoking habit and the fact that,
 86   II,     5.  8.  3|            track several decades behind smoking trends. Trends in age-standardized
 87   II,     5.  8.  3|           authors stated that, although smoking is a well-known risk factor
 88   II,     5.  8.  3|            other factors in addition to smoking.~ ~In another study, Gudmundsson
 89   II,     5.  8.  4|              Active and passive tobacco smoking are major risk factors for
 90   II,     5.  8.  4|              the decreasing duration of smoking.~ ~A comparison of results
 91   II,     5.  8.  4|            correlation of COPD with the smoking habit is presented in Figure
 92   II,     5.  8.  4|             Incidence rates of COPD and smoking habit in Nordic European
 93   II,     5.  8.  4|               2003) showed that age and smoking were the two major determinants,
 94   II,     5.  8.  4|         analysis including age, gender, smoking habits, family history of
 95   II,     5.  8.  4|              odds ratio associated with smoking more than 5 cigarettes per
 96   II,     5.  8.  4|                 chronic bronchitis from smoking by 160%. Neither a steeper
 97   II,     5.  8.  5|              focus on the prevention of smoking uptake, and on improved
 98   II,     5.  8.  5|     strengthening interventions to stop smoking. Cessation of smoking is
 99   II,     5.  8.  5|              stop smoking. Cessation of smoking is associated with a return
100   II,     5.  8.  5|             During the first year after smoking cessation, patients showed
101   II,     5.  8.  5|                 year old smokers with a smoking history of 10+ pack-years (
102   II,     5.  8.  5|             intervention, the validated smoking cessation rate in patients
103   II,     5.  8.  7|                limitation combined with smoking cessation advice increases
104   II,     5.  8.  7|                attributable fraction of smoking Report from the Obstructive
105   II,     5.  8.  7|               and the relationship with smoking cigarettes. Eur J Epidemiol
106   II,     5.  9. FB|               infancy, because maternal smoking during pregnancy is significantly
107   II,     5.  9.  4|             sensitization;~2. cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental
108   II,     5.  9.  4|               of the harmful effects of smoking in the EU. Tobacco exposure,
109   II,     5.  9.  5|              sensitization;~· cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental
110   II,     5. 14.  5|         prevention~ ~For the control of smoking see Chapter 8; for the control
111   II,     8.  2.  1|        conditions of the mothers and to smoking during pregnancy. Other
112   II,     9        |             variation in both groups.~ ~Smoking during pregnancy. The harmful
113   II,     9        |                  The harmful effects of smoking on perinatal outcomes, in
114   II,     9        |                s long-term development. Smoking cessation may be the most
115   II,     9        |         deprivation scores. The rate of smoking among women of childbearing
116   II,     9        |                monitoring the impact of smoking on perinatal outcomes, however,
117   II,     9        |                 because many women stop smoking during pregnancy, as shown
118   II,     9        |                 EUROPERISTAT project on smoking during pregnancy. In the
119   II,     9        |                 the proportion of women smoking during pregnancy varies
120   II,     9        |                 Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among all Women 25-34 vs
121   II,     9        |         coexisting risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, poor nutrition
122   II,     9        |                  Ozanne et al, 2004).~ ~Smoking. Smoking is argued to be
123   II,     9        |                et al, 2004).~ ~Smoking. Smoking is argued to be driven predominantly
124   II,     9        |            diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, inadequate physical activity,
125   II,     9        |        hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and sedentary
126   II,     9        |         antihypertensive medications.~ ~Smoking is a primary cause of lung
127   II,     9        |              life style. Inactivity and smoking, and to a lesser extent
128   II,     9        |                 lifestyle behaviours of smoking, having a low-quality diet,
129   II,     9        |              programmes which encourage smoking cessation and the reduction
130   II,     9        |                Healthy Ageing, 2007).~ ~Smoking. The acceleration in decline
131   II,     9        |               be reversible at any age. Smoking cessation and small increases
132   II,     9.  1.  1|           Boulton ML (1999): Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses.
133   II,     9.  1.  1|              2004): The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking
134   II,     9.  1.  1|               smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics,
135   II,     9.  1.  1|              Effect of age, parity, and smoking on pregnancy outcome: a
136   II,     9.  1.  1|               maternal age, parity, and smoking on the risk of stillbirth.
137   II,     9.  1.  1|          Rosenberg MJ, Sachs BP (1986): Smoking and reproduction. Fertil
138   II,     9.  1.  2|             variation in both groups.~ ~Smoking during pregnancy. The harmful
139   II,     9.  1.  2|                  The harmful effects of smoking on perinatal outcomes, in
140   II,     9.  1.  2|                s long-term development. Smoking cessation may be the most
141   II,     9.  1.  2|         deprivation scores. The rate of smoking among women of childbearing
142   II,     9.  1.  2|                monitoring the impact of smoking on perinatal outcomes, however,
143   II,     9.  1.  2|                 because many women stop smoking during pregnancy, as shown
144   II,     9.  1.  2|                 EUROPERISTAT project on smoking during pregnancy. In the
145   II,     9.  1.  2|                 the proportion of women smoking during pregnancy varies
146   II,     9.  1.  2|                 Figure 9.T1.3. Rates of Smoking Among all Women 25-34 vs
147   II,     9.  1.  2|         coexisting risk factors such as smoking, alcohol, poor nutrition
148   II,     9.  1.  2|            alcohol, recreational drugs, smoking and obesity, are also risk
149   II,     9.  2.  4|                  Ozanne et al, 2004).~ ~Smoking. Smoking is argued to be
150   II,     9.  2.  4|                et al, 2004).~ ~Smoking. Smoking is argued to be driven predominantly
151   II,     9.  3.  1|           cancer, suicide, addiction to smoking and alcohol, and overweight
152   II,     9.  3.  1|               relation is for cigarette smoking, which advances menopause
153   II,     9.  3.  1|           largely associated to tobacco smoking, causes 35% of all deaths
154   II,     9.  3.  1|            increases with age in women. Smoking is the most prevalent risk
155   II,     9.  3.  1|               health than that posed by smoking (WHO, 2003).~ ~The Obesity
156   II,     9.  3.  1|            preserving oral bone include smoking cessation and oral hygiene
157   II,     9.  3.  1|                or abuse habits, such as smoking or alcohol, greatly affect
158   II,     9.  3.  1|            diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, inadequate physical activity,
159   II,     9.  3.  1|        hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity, and sedentary
160   II,     9.  3.  1|         antihypertensive medications.~ ~Smoking is a primary cause of lung
161   II,     9.  3.  2|             rate, maternal age, parity, smoking and maternal education.
162   II,     9.  3.  2|                 We also present data on smoking among women of reproductive
163   II,     9.  3.  2|                  with data from 2000 on smoking among pregnant women collected
164   II,     9.  3.  2|           Boulton ML (1999): Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses.
165   II,     9.  3.  2|              Effect of age, parity, and smoking on pregnancy outcome: a
166   II,     9.  3.  2|              2004): The epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy: smoking
167   II,     9.  3.  2|               smoking during pregnancy: smoking prevalence, maternal characteristics,
168   II,     9.  3.  2|               maternal age, parity, and smoking on the risk of stillbirth.
169   II,     9.  3.  2|          Rosenberg MJ, Sachs BP (1986): Smoking and reproduction. Fertil
170   II,     9.  4.  2|           issues and older people (e.g. smoking, sexual health etc.) The
171   II,     9.  4.  4|              life style. Inactivity and smoking, and to a lesser extent
172   II,     9.  4.  4|                 lifestyle behaviours of smoking, having a low-quality diet,
173   II,     9.  4.  4|              programmes which encourage smoking cessation and the reduction
174   II,     9.  4.  4|                Healthy Ageing, 2007).~ ~Smoking. The acceleration in decline
175   II,     9.  4.  4|               be reversible at any age. Smoking cessation and small increases
176   II,     9.  5.  1|                 heavily by a decline in smoking in the last quarter of the
177   II,     9.  5.  1|               of the twentieth century. Smoking has been identified as a
178   II,     9.  5.  1|              men and are slower to quit smoking, women’s smoking rates continue
179   II,     9.  5.  1|                to quit smoking, women’s smoking rates continue to rise in
180   II,     9.  5.  3|       behaviours: the more advanced the smoking epidemic curve in a country,
181   II,     9.  5.  3|            curve in a country, the more smoking is concentrated among the
182   II,     9.  5.  3|              drink weekly (%)~ ~Tobacco smoking~ ~Women are more likely
183   II,     9.  5.  3|              likely than men to take up smoking as a means of weight control,
184   II,     9.  5.  3|                control, and to continue smoking, rather than risk putting
185   II,     9.  5.  3|                are more likely to begin smoking again while feeling sad
186   II,     9.  5.  3|        correspondingly higher levels of smoking related health problems.~ ~
187   II,     9.  5.  3|             Percentage of Female Adults Smoking in 1985 and 2002-2003~ ~
188   II,     9.  5.  3|              The issues around quitting smoking are complex. Evaluations
189   II,     9.  5.  3|         important gender differences in smoking behaviour. About nine out
190   II,     9.  5.  3|           before they are 18 years old. Smoking is driven predominantly
191   II,     9.  5.  3|                are more likely to start smoking earlier than girls, smoking
192   II,     9.  5.  3|             smoking earlier than girls, smoking rates for girls are overtaking
193   II,     9.  5.  3|                fail at attempts to stop smoking, tend to have lower education
194   II,     9.  5.  3|              levels than women who quit smoking. They smoke a higher number
195   II,     9.  5.  3|             less social support to stop smoking, are less confident in resisting
196   II,     9.  5.  3|          cognitively less ready to stop smoking (CDC, 2001). There is some
197   II,     9.  5.  3|        programmes to control adolescent smoking, in particular for adolescent
198   II,     9.  5.  3|              adolescent girls, as their smoking behaviour may influence
199   II,     9.  5.  3|                 The interaction between smoking and oral contraceptives
200   II,     9.  5.  3|             affect reproductive health. Smoking in young women may therefore
201   II,     9.  5.  4|           health determinants (alcohol, smoking, obesity) and major disease
202   II,     9.  5.  6|             relapse in attempts to quit smoking. Addictive Behaviours; 15:
203   II,     9.  5.  6|                  CDC) (2001): Women and Smoking – A Report of the Surgeon
204  III,    10.  1    |               PM), mainly PM2.5 or less~smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (
205  III,    10.  1    |              carbon monoxide, ozon, PM)~smoking and ETS~carbon monoxide~
206  III,    10.  1    |              diseases, including asthma~smoking and ETS~sulphur dioxide~
207  III,    10.  1    |                  disorders~lead~mercury~smoking and ETS~cadmium~some pesticides~
208  III,    10.  1.  1|             factors such as policies on smoking (e.g. age limits, public
209  III,    10.  1.  1|                 e.g. age limits, public smoking, advertising), peer and
210  III,    10.  1.  1|                  public opinion towards smoking, and social norms (e.g.
211  III,    10.  1.  1|                  and social norms (e.g. smoking during pregnancy, smoking
212  III,    10.  1.  1|               smoking during pregnancy, smoking after delivery, social disapproval).
213  III,    10.  1.  1|            second hand smoke and active smoking are closely linked. Parents’
214  III,    10.  1.  1|                closely linked. Parentssmoking is a powerful influence
215  III,    10.  1.  1|               powerful influence on the smoking behaviour of their children:
216  III,    10.  2.  1|                Acronyms~ ~ASH~Action on Smoking and Health: ASH UK~COPD~
217  III,    10.  2.  1|               ENSP~European Network for Smoking Prevention~EU-27~The 27
218  III,    10.  2.  1|         epidemic in the 20th century.~ ~Smoking is the largest single cause
219  III,    10.  2.  1|               disease in Europe. Active smoking kills over 650,000 people
220  III,    10.  2.  1|                 most European countries smoking is prevalent among lower
221  III,    10.  2.  1|          European youth has the highest smoking prevalence rates in the
222  III,    10.  2.  1|                world.~ ~The patterns of smoking attributable mortality are
223  III,    10.  2.  1|             mortality are indicative of smoking trends two to three decades
224  III,    10.  2.  1|               to three decades ago. The smoking attributable mortality in
225  III,    10.  2.  1|              among females.~ ~Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ
226  III,    10.  2.  1|                 of deaths attributed to smoking. Moreover, smoking harms
227  III,    10.  2.  1|        attributed to smoking. Moreover, smoking harms the society. In the
228  III,    10.  2.  1|                 the society. In the EU, smoking is one of the preventable
229  III,    10.  2.  1|              put the costs for only two smoking related diseases (COPD and
230  III,    10.  2.  1|                 interventions geared at smoking behaviour will determine
231  III,    10.  2.  1|               on the adverse effects of smoking, induce individual cessation
232  III,    10.  2.  1|                the youth from taking up smoking. Individual interventions,
233  III,    10.  2.  1|                probability of long term smoking cessation.~ ~As shown in
234  III,    10.  2.  1|                 1.1. Diseases caused by smoking and by second-hand smoke~
235  III,    10.  2.  1|              2006)~ ~Diseases caused by smoking~Diseases caused by second-hand
236  III,    10.  2.  1|              caused by active cigarette smoking.~ ~ ~Cancers~Respiratory
237  III,    10.  2.  1|           Peripheral arterial disease~ ~Smoking in pregnancy~- Pregnancy
238  III,    10.  2.  1|                childhood asthma~Passive smoking and children:~- Sudden infant
239  III,    10.  2.  1|                indicators pertaining to smoking are the prevalence of smoking
240  III,    10.  2.  1|           smoking are the prevalence of smoking and the smoking-attributable
241  III,    10.  2.  1|                 data sources concerning smoking prevalence and mortality
242  III,    10.  2.  1|             WHO-HFA database, the adult smoking prevalence is assessed from
243  III,    10.  2.  1|            survey instrument to measure smoking habits in a population,
244  III,    10.  2.  1|   standardization in the measurement of smoking habits in health interview
245  III,    10.  2.  1|                methods.”~Mortality from smoking in developed countries is
246  III,    10.  2.  1|              Prevalence and mortality~ ~Smoking prevalence varies widely
247  III,    10.  2.  1|              Despite wide variations in smoking prevalence among member
248  III,    10.  2.  1|                 and lower prevalence of smoking in Southern and Northern,
249  III,    10.  2.  1|                 that the differences in smoking prevalence for men and women
250  III,    10.  2.  1|                illustrate the trends in smoking prevalence among European
251  III,    10.  2.  1|               than women are dying from smoking attributable diseases in
252  III,    10.  2.  1|              all deaths attributable to smoking in 2000~ ~The proportion
253  III,    10.  2.  1|                 of deaths attributed to smoking is presented in Table 10.
254  III,    10.  2.  1|             causes (%), attributable to smoking, all ages, year 2000~ ~Smoking,
255  III,    10.  2.  1|          smoking, all ages, year 2000~ ~Smoking, along with other behavioural
256  III,    10.  2.  1|              Overall, the proportion of smoking attributable deaths among
257  III,    10.  2.  1|        mortality data today reflect the smoking prevalence of two to three
258  III,    10.  2.  1|                 more men are dying from smoking attributable diseases in
259  III,    10.  2.  1|            Figure 10.2.1.1.5. Trends in smoking attributable mortality 1965-
260  III,    10.  2.  1|         followed by similar patterns in smoking attributable mortality two
261  III,    10.  2.  1|              harmful effects of tobacco smoking was low until the late 1980s.
262  III,    10.  2.  1|             three of the epidemic, with smoking prevalence among males peaking
263  III,    10.  2.  1|               beginning to decline, and smoking prevalence among women still
264  III,    10.  2.  1|                and female prevalence of smoking between 2000 and 2003, while
265  III,    10.  2.  1|           mainly due to the decrease of smoking in the male population between
266  III,    10.  2.  1|                socio-economic status as smoking determinants~ ~Men generally
267  III,    10.  2.  1|                more women are taking up smoking, this trend is not likely
268  III,    10.  2.  1|           likely to reverse. The female smoking rates in some countries
269  III,    10.  2.  1|                trend: the difference in smoking rates between boys and girls
270  III,    10.  2.  1|              highest incidence of youth smoking in the world. Nearly 18%
271  III,    10.  2.  1|                 al, 2006).~ ~During the smoking epidemic there is a reversal
272  III,    10.  2.  1|               socio-economic status and smoking. For what concern the socio-economic
273  III,    10.  2.  1|                al, 2000):~· In stage 1, smoking is an exceptional behavior
274  III,    10.  2.  1|    socio-economic groups;~· In stage 2, smoking becomes increasingly common.
275  III,    10.  2.  1|              years behind those of men. Smoking is first adopted by women
276  III,    10.  2.  1|                 40% since many men stop smoking, especially those with a
277  III,    10.  2.  1|                 both men and women, and smoking becomes progressively more
278  III,    10.  2.  1|             groups.~ ~In most countries smoking is more prevalent among
279  III,    10.  2.  1|             stages.~Social gradients in smoking prevalence are steeper for
280  III,    10.  2.  1|              These steeper gradients of smoking prevalence are likely to
281  III,    10.  2.  1|               into steeper gradients in smoking attributable morbidity and
282  III,    10.  2.  1|                2000).~ ~Consequences of smoking for the individual and the
283  III,    10.  2.  1|            individual and the society~ ~Smoking harms virtually every organ
284  III,    10.  2.  1|               sexes (see Chapter 5.2.). Smoking contributes significantly
285  III,    10.  2.  1|               cancers are mainly due to smoking (European Communities, 2002).~
286  III,    10.  2.  1|            country and is influenced by smoking, as well as by other factors.
287  III,    10.  2.  1|               well as by other factors. Smoking is, according to the estimates
288  III,    10.  2.  1|                         Not only active smoking, but also passive inhalation
289  III,    10.  2.  1|               EU as a result of passive smoking (ERS 6; European Commission,
290  III,    10.  2.  1|           European Community of passive smoking in nonsmokers was 17.9%
291  III,    10.  2.  1|               the prevalence of passive smoking at home had declined by
292  III,    10.  2.  1|               the prevalence of passive smoking at work decreased by 10.
293  III,    10.  2.  1|                 such as restrictions of smoking in the workplace and other
294  III,    10.  2.  1|                  The economic burden of smoking probably exceeds 1% of GDP
295  III,    10.  2.  1|              nursing home services) for smoking related diseases among smokers
296  III,    10.  2.  1|                 of human capital due to smoking attributable premature deaths,
297  III,    10.  2.  1|               two leading categories of smoking related diseases: COPD and
298  III,    10.  2.  1|              GDP. The indirect costs of smoking account for two thirds of
299  III,    10.  2.  1|           underlying the regular, daily smoking is nicotine addiction. Cigarette
300  III,    10.  2.  1|              burned incompletely during smoking, almost 4000 chemicals can
301  III,    10.  2.  1|             much longer time than after smoking. The average snuff dipper
302  III,    10.  2.  1|                 to be less harmful than smoking tobacco. An incomplete tobacco
303  III,    10.  2.  1|           combustion that occurs during smoking releases 4000 chemical substances.
304  III,    10.  2.  1|               An individual approach to smoking cessation includes pharmacotherapy
305  III,    10.  2.  1|               of smokers manage to quit smoking using will power alone (ASH,
306  III,    10.  2.  1|         countries to help patients stop smoking. Bupropion is an antidepressant
307  III,    10.  2.  1|              eliminates the reward from smoking.~ ~Certain moods, times
308  III,    10.  2.  1|                 is not a cure for these smoking triggers. Furthermore, the
309  III,    10.  2.  1|                  the motivation to quit smoking determines the success rate
310  III,    10.  2.  1|          determines the success rate of smoking cessation to a large extent.
311  III,    10.  2.  1|            environmental tobacco smoke (smoking bans in public places);~·
312  III,    10.  2.  1|          Europe-wide and cross-national smoking prevention and cessation
313  III,    10.  2.  1|              Plan through which passive smoking is now more actively tackled.~
314  III,    10.  2.  1|            action, including a range of smoking prevention and cessation
315  III,    10.  2.  1|     Recommendation on the prevention of smoking and on initiatives to improve
316  III,    10.  2.  1|                 a Resolution on banning smoking in public places. Since
317  III,    10.  2.  1|            greatest impact, followed by smoking bans in workplaces and public
318  III,    10.  2.  1|               for those wanting to quit smoking complete the six effective
319  III,    10.  2.  1|                key measures that reduce smoking rates. The report also reveals
320  III,    10.  2.  1|                of countries still allow smoking in hospitals and schools;~·
321  III,    10.  2.  1|                 undisputed that the low smoking prevalence, and consequently,
322  III,    10.  2.  1|                used as a substitute for smoking and for smoking cessation.
323  III,    10.  2.  1|          substitute for smoking and for smoking cessation. Smokers who will
324  III,    10.  2.  1|                 will not or cannot quit smoking should not be withheld a
325  III,    10.  2.  1|             role as an aid for quitting smoking. Results from different
326  III,    10.  2.  1|          between snuff use and quitting smoking. Other factors, such as
327  III,    10.  2.  1|                male populationfemale smoking rates are still relatively
328  III,    10.  2.  1|          extrapolate future patterns of smoking or oral tobacco prevalence
329  III,    10.  2.  1|             support the use of STP as a smoking cessation aid. Furthermore,
330  III,    10.  2.  1|      progression from STP into and from smoking differ between countries;
331  III,    10.  2.  1|                three TCS subscales: the smoking bans in public places, the
332  III,    10.  2.  1|           should include a total ban on smoking in work and public places,
333  III,    10.  2.  1|                made in tobacco control, smoking continues to be the largest
334  III,    10.  2.  1|             tobacco advertising and its smoking rates exceed those of their
335  III,    10.  2.  1|                 tobacco-related harm.~ ~Smoking is almost invariably more
336  III,    10.  2.  1|                  the harmful effects of smoking add to their existing disproportionate
337  III,    10.  2.  1|              Mackenbach et al, 2004).~ ~Smoking epidemic is man-made and
338  III,    10.  2.  1|                most impact, followed by smoking bans in workplaces and public
339  III,    10.  2.  1|               for those wanting to quit smoking (6) complete the six effective
340  III,    10.  2.  1|               ASPECT, 2005). The ban on smoking in public places that include
341  III,    10.  2.  1|                  References~ ~Action on smoking and health (ASH) (2007):
342  III,    10.  2.  1|           health (ASH) (2007): Stopping smoking: the benefits and aids to
343  III,    10.  2.  1|              Educational differences in smoking: international comparison.
344  III,    10.  2.  1|              The Health Consequences of Smoking [on-line publication available
345  III,    10.  2.  1|         European Opinion Research Group Smoking and the Environment (EEIG,
346  III,    10.  2.  1|              pdf~ ~European Network for Smoking Prevention (ENSP) (2003):
347  III,    10.  2.  1|           Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community
348  III,    10.  2.  1|           Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in the European Union: applying
349  III,    10.  2.  1|                 M (2005) Mortality From Smoking In Developed Countries 1950-
350  III,    10.  2.  1|                impact of advertising on smoking and eating behaviour. It
351  III,    10.  2.  1|           properties of the substances, smoking, snorting, swallowing and/
352  III,    10.  2.  1|        common-risk factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol, stress improvements –
353  III,    10.  2.  1|        common-risk factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol, stress improvements –
354  III,    10.  2.  1|              physical activity, stress, smoking and alcohol consumption
355  III,    10.  2.  1| health promotion (e.g. those concerning smoking, physical activity and alcohol
356  III,    10.  2.  4|                 APOE polymorphisms with smoking and alcohol on the risk
357  III,    10.  2.  4|               especially in women) with smoking on the risk of multiple
358  III,    10.  2.  4|                 such as food labelling, smoking, advertisement, toxic products (“
359  III,    10.  2.  5|               indicatorPregnant women smoking”, but data collection has
360  III,    10.  2.  5|               diabetes or even maternal smoking. Longitudinal data from
361  III,    10.  2.  5|           Europe indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy is also
362  III,    10.  2.  5|             foetal nutrition and reduce smoking, and interventions to support
363  III,    10.  2.  5|          antenatal exposure to maternal smoking on behaviournal problems
364  III,    10.  2.  5|                  Vik T (2007): Prenatal smoking exposure and psychiatric
365  III,    10.  3.  1|             radon daughter exposure and smoking is multiplicative (for the
366  III,    10.  3.  1|            exposed workers). This makes smoking of utmost importance in
367  III,    10.  3.  1|                to exposure to radon and smoking in a case-control study
368  III,    10.  3.  2|               PM), mainly PM2.5 or less~smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (
369  III,    10.  3.  2|              carbon monoxide, ozon, PM)~smoking and ETS~carbon monoxide~
370  III,    10.  3.  2|              diseases, including asthma~smoking and ETS~sulphur dioxide~
371  III,    10.  3.  2|                  disorders~lead~mercury~smoking and ETS~cadmium~some pesticides~
372  III,    10.  4.  1|          activities and habits, such as smoking, cooking and the use of
373  III,    10.  5.  1|            volatile again. In addition, smoking or keeping pets in the home
374  III,    10.  5.  1|                 indoor sources (such as smoking, open fire etc.), around
375  III,    10.  5.  2|              2004).~ ~For what concerns smoking, as one of the most important
376  III,    10.  5.  2|              from Germany suggests that smoking is more spread within urbanized
377  III,    10.  5.  2|              Urban-rural disparities in smoking behaviour in Germany. BMC
378  III,    10.  6.  2|             being breast fed. Later on, smoking, physical inactivity, unfavourable
379  III,    10.  6.  2|  health-conducive behaviours (e.g. less smoking, modest improvements in
380   IV,    11.  2.  2|          campaigns on alcohol abuse and smoking. It is important to exercise
381   IV,    12.  2    |         improvements were documented in smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure.
382   IV,    12.  2    |           related to lifestyles (mainly smoking, diet and physical activity
383   IV,    12.  2    |               An individual approach to smoking cessation includes pharmacotherapy
384   IV,    12.  2    |               of smokers manage to quit smoking using will power alone.
385   IV,    12.  2    |         countries to help patients stop smoking. Bupropion is an antidepressant
386   IV,    12.  2    |              eliminates the reward from smoking.~ ~Certain moods, times
387   IV,    12.  2    |                 is not a cure for these smoking triggers. Furthermore, the
388   IV,    12.  2    |                  the motivation to quit smoking determines the success rate
389   IV,    12.  2    |          determines the success rate of smoking cessation to a large extent.
390   IV,    12.  2    |            environmental tobacco smoke (smoking bans in public places);~·
391   IV,    12.  2    |          Europe-wide and cross-national smoking prevention and cessation
392   IV,    12.  2    |             Plan, through which passive smoking is now more actively tackled.~
393   IV,    12.  2    |            action, including a range of smoking prevention and cessation
394   IV,    12.  2    |     Recommendation on the prevention of smoking and on initiatives to improve
395   IV,    12.  2    |                 a Resolution on banning smoking in public places. Since
396   IV,    12.  2    |                key measures that reduce smoking rates. The report also reveals
397   IV,    12.  2    |                of countries still allow smoking in hospitals and schools;~
398   IV,    12.  2    |                impact of advertising on smoking and eating behaviour. It
399   IV,    12.  4    |                information campaigns on smoking (funded up to 2008)~AIDCO~
400   IV,    12. 10    |       programmes on citizen empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High ~
401   IV,    12. 10    |            demand, activity and effect.~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~
402   IV,    12. 10    |                Environments Act permits smoking indoor at small hospitality
403   IV,    12. 10    |              Environments Act permits a smoking booth or alike. ~ ~Act No
404   IV,    12. 10    |                 A N D A D V I C E~about smoking and stopping~http df~Alcohol
405   IV,    12. 10    |              Health-related behaviours ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High
406   IV,    12. 10    |             federal) laws e. g. against smoking at public places and work
407   IV,    12. 10    |               focus of activities is on smoking, other forms of tobacco
408   IV,    12. 10    |              non-smoker protection act (smoking ban at public institutions,
409   IV,    12. 10    |              states passed laws banning smoking at schools, bars and restaurants (
410   IV,    12. 10    |                 population attributable smoking rates by several national
411   IV,    12. 10    |       concerning health consequences of smoking on cigarette packages, signs
412   IV,    12. 10    |       Health-related behaviours~ ~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High~
413   IV,    12. 10    |          Children examined the issue of smoking and health (1999 & 2001).~
414   IV,    12. 10    |         Health-related behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~·
415   IV,    12. 10    |             2002) and 82942 (12-9-2003) smoking is forbidden in all public
416   IV,    12. 10    |        framework of law allows specific smoking areas.~· The Common Ministerial
417   IV,    12. 10    |       programmes on citizen empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~
418   IV,    12. 10    |                Decree 15/1/2006 banning smoking in public place~Increasing
419   IV,    12. 10    |         Health-related behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~
420   IV,    12. 10    |           implemented in January 2005): smoking ban in all public places.~
421   IV,    12. 10    |          behaviours~ ~ www.sva.gov.lv~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~
422   IV,    12. 10    |        conditions favourable to health.~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~
423   IV,    12. 10    |                 protection from passive smoking, reinforces measures against
424   IV,    12. 10    |               creates consultations for smoking cessation in the National
425   IV,    12. 10    |                on prevention of passive smoking;~Training courses for health
426   IV,    12. 10    |                 health professionals on smoking cessation (last 3 years);~
427   IV,    12. 10    |         Health-related behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~
428   IV,    12. 10    |        reduction of tobacco use and for smoking cease;~ ~Law 433/11/2006,
429   IV,    12. 10    |               Act on Measures to Reduce Smoking~In 2005 the government issued
430   IV,    12. 10    |              the employees from passive smoking. As of June 1, smoking in
431   IV,    12. 10    |          passive smoking. As of June 1, smoking in restaurants, cafeterias,
432   IV,    12. 10    |                especially dedicated for smoking only and only if smoke does
433   IV,    12. 10    |                 other activities beyond smoking are allowed in those special
434   IV,    12. 10    |              the employers from passive smoking during their working hours,
435   IV,    12. 10    |            customers too and may reduce smoking also more generally due
436   IV,    12. 10    |              alcohol, illicit drugs and smoking. As part of healthy environment
437   IV,    12. 10    |       programmes on citizen empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~
438   IV,    13.  2.  2|              European Region.~· Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable
439   IV,    13.  2.  3|               similar to that caused by smoking. The theoretical health
440   IV,    13.  2.  3|       life-style factors combined (2) ,~Smoking~ ~Cardiovascular diseases,
441   IV,    13.  2.  3|     micro-organisms in food~ ~ ~Passive Smoking~Upper respiratory tract
442   IV,    13.  2.  3|                 the combined effects of smoking, lack of physical activity
443   IV,    13.  2.  4|         European Union (Table 13.6) are smoking, having a high blood pressure,
444  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|               Slovenia~smallpox~smokers~smoking~socio-cultural~socio-economic~