Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|           other respiratory diseases; diabetes; obesity and other conditions
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|     cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity).
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|            cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes and smoking are crucial
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|            hypercholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking habit. Differences
  5   II,     5.  1.  1|            radiation in sunlight.~ ~ ~Diabetes~ The major risk factor for
  6   II,     5.  1.  1|          major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is excess body weight, particularly
  7   II,     5.  1.  1|         factors for developing type 2 diabetes:~ ~· obese or with high
  8   II,     5.  1.  1|            high cholesterol;~· type 2 diabetes runs in the family;~· Asian,
  9   II,     5.  1.  1|               experienced gestational diabetes, (diabetes during pregnancy
 10   II,     5.  1.  1|    experienced gestational diabetes, (diabetes during pregnancy only,)
 11   II,     5.  1.  1|                and~· old age.~ Type 1 diabetes genetic susceptibility in
 12   II,     5.  1.  1|             possible for this type of diabetes. A number of other causes
 13   II,     5.  1.  1|             number of other causes of diabetes exist. Maturity onset diabetes
 14   II,     5.  1.  1|        diabetes exist. Maturity onset diabetes of the young, or MODY ‘s
 15   II,     5.  1.  1|              are monogenetic forms of diabetes, with different patterns
 16   II,     5.  1.  1|      increased insulin resistance and diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis can
 17   II,     5.  1.  1|           eventually may also present diabetes. Cystic fibrosis can be
 18   II,     5.  1.  1|        fibrosis can be complicated by diabetes. These forms are not dealt
 19   II,     5.  1.  1|              Disease~Hypertension and diabetes, obesity and perhaps non-traditional
 20   II,     5.  1.  1|              risk for CKD. Currently, diabetes mellitus is the most common
 21   II,     5.  1.  1|              consumption, stress, and diabetes mellitus. The focus of recent
 22   II,     5.  1.  1|     obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. It has been shown a long
 23   II,     5.  1.  1|          these conditions (especially diabetes) worsen periodontal status
 24   II,     5.  2.  2|     cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity). CVD is a multifactorial
 25   II,     5.  2.  2|            cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes and smoking are crucial
 26   II,     5.  2.  2|            hypercholesterol, obesity, diabetes and smoking habit. Due to
 27   II,     5.  2.  4|               obesity, smoking habit, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. These
 28   II,     5.  2.  4|           associated with CVD include diabetes mellitus, excessive alcohol
 29   II,     5.  2.  4|         hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, overweight, alcohol use,
 30   II,     5.  2.  5|             pressure, cholesterol and diabetes considered simultaneously,
 31   II,     5.  2.  5|            Sections 5.1. or 5.2.; for diabetes mellitus see Section 3.1.
 32   II,     5.  2.  6|             Kannel WB (1985). Lipids, diabetes, and coronary heart disease:
 33   II,     5.  4    |                                  5.4. Diabetes~
 34   II,     5.  4.Acr|          Through Regional Outcomes in Diabetes~EUCID~European Core Indicators
 35   II,     5.  4.Acr|          European Core Indicators for Diabetes Mellitus~FEND~Federation
 36   II,     5.  4.Acr|      Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes~HIS~Health Interview Surveys~
 37   II,     5.  4.Acr|             Surveys~IDF~International Diabetes Federation~RS~Reimbursement
 38   II,     5.  4.Acr|      Surveillance Network~T1DM~Type 1 diabetes mellitus~T2DM~Type 2 diabetes
 39   II,     5.  4.Acr|         diabetes mellitus~T2DM~Type 2 diabetes mellitus~ ~ ~
 40   II,     5.  4.  1|                    5.4.1 Introduction~Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease,
 41   II,     5.  4.  1|               mortality.~Diagnosis of diabetes according to the WHO is
 42   II,     5.  4.  1|                Two major subgroups of diabetes mellitus are currently recognised,
 43   II,     5.  4.  1|        diabetic population:~ ~·Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Immune
 44   II,     5.  4.  1|              last 30 years.~ ~·Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or non-insulin
 45   II,     5.  4.  1|             In the past, this form of diabetes was considered to occur
 46   II,     5.  4.  1|           nine out of ten people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes and
 47   II,     5.  4.  1|             with diabetes have type 2 diabetes and over 80% of these people
 48   II,     5.  4.  1|            estimates of prevalence of diabetes are scarce and not accurate.~
 49   II,     5.  4.  1|           some 67 million people have diabetes, followed by Europe with
 50   II,     5.  4.  1|         highest number of people with diabetes with a current figure of
 51   II,     5.  4.  1|           alarming. According to WHO, diabetes prevalence in the European
 52   II,     5.  4.  1|           prevalence rates above 10%. Diabetes mellitus has been recognised
 53   II,     5.  4.  1|             Figure 5.4.1. The Growing Diabetes Epidemic~ ~(WHO Report,
 54   II,     5.  4.  1|        increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes. For low and middle-income
 55   II,     5.  4.  1|               In the developed world, diabetes is most common among the
 56   II,     5.  4.  1|      indicators of the development of diabetes. Among the potential factors,
 57   II,     5.  4.  1|             those affected to develop diabetes in one year. For IGT, the
 58   II,     5.  4.  1|           Another important aspect in diabetes is the one involving costs.
 59   II,     5.  4.  1|           costs of people with type 2 diabetes in 8 EU countries: Belgium,
 60   II,     5.  4.  1|               per patient with type 2 diabetes were estimated at €2,834
 61   II,     5.  4.  1|              The health care costs of diabetes as a percentage of the total
 62   II,     5.  4.  1|         during the natural history of diabetes is 'U' or 'J' shaped with
 63   II,     5.  4.  1|      complications. Indirect costs by diabetes due to loss of productivity
 64   II,     5.  4.  1|       information on overall costs of diabetes is not collected continuously;
 65   II,     5.  4.  1|             observed in both forms of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes tends to
 66   II,     5.  4.  1|             forms of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes tends to be associated with
 67   II,     5.  4.  1|              hyperglycaemia in type 1 diabetes represents also a well known
 68   II,     5.  4.  1|  complications.~Main complications of diabetes are as follows:~Feet: blood
 69   II,     5.  4.  1|               blood flow, people with diabetes may develop foot ulcers.
 70   II,     5.  4.  1|             more than 30% of men with diabetes report erectile dysfunction/
 71   II,     5.  4.  1|          increases substantially with diabetes duration and age;~Pregnancy:
 72   II,     5.  4.  1|               women with uncontrolled diabetes are at an increased risk
 73   II,     5.  4.  1|     myocardial infarction or stroke. ~Diabetes is recognised as a top policy
 74   II,     5.  4.  1|            diagnosis and treatment of diabetes at national and EU level.
 75   II,     5.  4.  2|               common tools to monitor diabetes policy on a large scale,
 76   II,     5.  4.  2|              from EU countries joined diabetes experts under the aegis
 77   II,     5.  4.  2|           Region of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), European
 78   II,     5.  4.  2|               is paramount to prevent diabetes complications, but it is
 79   II,     5.  4.  2|              is so large and diverse. Diabetes itself is a multifactorial
 80   II,     5.  4.  2|              Yet, the organization of diabetes information would represent
 81   II,     5.  4.  2|           available. Some of the best diabetes registers in Europe have
 82   II,     5.  4.  2|            management programs and/or diabetes registers only cover those
 83   II,     5.  4.  2|          sources are not available;~· diabetes status is heterogeneously
 84   II,     5.  4.  2|               increasing awareness of diabetes and to the diffusion of
 85   II,     5.  4.  2|             of cases with less severe diabetes are more likely to be recorded
 86   II,     5.  4.  2|           Vincent Declaration 1989:~ ~Diabetes mellitus is a major and
 87   II,     5.  4.  2|             formal recognition to the diabetes problem and deploy resources
 88   II,     5.  4.  2|       identification and treatment of diabetes and particularly its complications -
 89   II,     5.  4.  2|               Management of their own diabetes and education for it~->
 90   II,     5.  4.  2|      construction of population-based diabetes registers represents an
 91   II,     5.  4.  2|             without the presence of a diabetes diagnosis field validated
 92   II,     5.  4.  2|                          5.4.2.2. IDF Diabetes Atlas~ ~The International
 93   II,     5.  4.  2|             Atlas~ ~The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has published
 94   II,     5.  4.  2|               published regularly the Diabetes Atlas, containing estimates
 95   II,     5.  4.  2|        estimates of the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance.
 96   II,     5.  4.  2|      indicators (of which several for diabetes) takes place on a regular
 97   II,     5.  4.  2|            basis through the National Diabetes Audit and the Quality and
 98   II,     5.  4.  2|           Indicator Name~Processes of diabetes care~Annual HbA1c testing~
 99   II,     5.  4.  2|               disease in persons with diabetes~Cardiovascular mortality
100   II,     5.  4.  2|            mortality in patients with diabetes~ ~ ~ ~
101   II,     5.  4.  2|             items. Among these items, diabetes prevalence and diabetes
102   II,     5.  4.  2|               diabetes prevalence and diabetes management have been included (
103   II,     5.  4.  2|        identified with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.~The establishment
104   II,     5.  4.  2|         territories. An admission for diabetes, unless linked to the occurrence
105   II,     5.  4.  2|       increase information content on diabetes through linkage with other
106   II,     5.  4.  2|              flag that would identify diabetes as a specific condition
107   II,     5.  4.  2|           different pathologies (e.g. diabetes mellitus). National annual
108   II,     5.  4.  2|              different information on diabetes.~Registers may become the
109   II,     5.  4.  2|              harmonised, and complete diabetes sources. The case of Tayside,
110   II,     5.  4.  2|            provides a good example of diabetes information system through
111   II,     5.  4.  2|            well as economic burden of diabetes necessitates the development
112   II,     5.  4.  2|              a surveillance system on diabetes and its complications of
113   II,     5.  4.  2|           sources~ ~I Risk factors of diabetes~ ~ ~% of the general population
114   II,     5.  4.  2|           Registry~II Epidemiology of diabetes~ ~ ~Annual incidence of
115   II,     5.  4.  2|            Annual incidence of Type 1 diabetes by age/100,000 population
116   II,     5.  4.  2|            HIS Registry~Prevalence of diabetes mellitus/1000 population ~
117   II,     5.  4.  2|              therapy in patients with diabetes/1,000,000 general population~
118   II,     5.  4.  2|             therapy) in patients with diabetes /1,000,000 general population~
119   II,     5.  4.  2|         primary or any cause of death diabetes mellitus/100,000 general
120   II,     5.  4.  2|             Registry~Acronyms:~ICD 9: Diabetes mellitus 250; ICD 10: Diabetes
121   II,     5.  4.  2|        Diabetes mellitus 250; ICD 10: Diabetes mellitus E10–14; HES: Health
122   II,     5.  4.  2|       Definitions~Annual incidence of diabetes in children (0-14 year),
123   II,     5.  4.  2|            the number of new cases of diabetes in children in one year
124   II,     5.  4.  2|               children.~Prevalence of diabetes, defined by EUCID as the
125   II,     5.  4.  2|             of the number of cases of diabetes present in the population
126   II,     5.  4.  2|               using the definition of diabetes provided by WHO/ADA criteria (
127   II,     5.  4.  2|         primary or any cause of death diabetes mellitus/100,000 general
128   II,     5.  4.  2|          condition, mortality data in diabetes are not very reliable. This
129   II,     5.  4.  2|        because, with the exception of diabetes coma, most diabetic patients
130   II,     5.  4.  2|   complications, which lead to record diabetes not as a primary cause,
131   II,     5.  4.  2|               data~II Epidemiology of diabetes~ ~Prevalence of subjects
132   II,     5.  4.  2|             m2~13~Age at diagnosis of diabetes mellitus by 10 year age
133   II,     5.  4.  2|             of clinical management in diabetes, parameters include blood
134   II,     5.  4.  2|          international comparisons in diabetes.~Proliferative retinopathy
135   II,     5.  4.  3|          human and economic burden of diabetes and its complications, remain
136   II,     5.  4.  3|               Here we will present EU diabetes data mainly referring to
137   II,     5.  4.  3|         indicatorsAnnual incidence of diabetes in children (0-14 year).
138   II,     5.  4.  3|         population was diagnosed with diabetes (type 1 and type 2).~Annual
139   II,     5.  4.  3|            deaths are attributable to diabetes across Europe.~ ~Secondary
140   II,     5.  4.  3|             of clinical management in diabetes, parameters include blood
141   II,     5.  4.  3|               574 (Spain) per 100,000 diabetes patients, with a median
142   II,     5.  4.  4|              a unique common message: diabetes is an increasingly threatening
143   II,     5.  4.  4|             Regardless of the type of diabetes, the data may become more
144   II,     5.  4.  4|             evidence that the rise of diabetes is increasingly affecting
145   II,     5.  4.  4|         directly link this problem to diabetes (in the absence of validated
146   II,     5.  4.  4|              citizens per year due to diabetes.~As far as secondary indicators
147   II,     5.  4.  4|              least as high as that of diabetes. 10% of these subjects will
148   II,     5.  4.  4|           these subjects will develop diabetes in one year. Clinical management
149   II,     5.  4.  4|             and outcome indicators in diabetes seem to highlight that health
150   II,     5.  4.  4|            towards a tight control of diabetes.~ ~
151   II,     5.  4.  5|          major risk factor for Type 2 diabetes is excess body weight or
152   II,     5.  4.  5|         factors for developing type 2 diabetes are:~- high blood pressure
153   II,     5.  4.  5|            high cholesterol;~- type 2 diabetes familiarity;~- Asian, Afro-Caribbean
154   II,     5.  4.  5|             experience of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy
155   II,     5.  4.  5|              of gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy only) and~-
156   II,     5.  4.  5|              are also other causes of diabetes. Maturity onset diabetes
157   II,     5.  4.  5|              diabetes. Maturity onset diabetes of the young, or MODY ‘s
158   II,     5.  4.  5|              are monogenetic forms of diabetes, with different patterns
159   II,     5.  4.  5|      increased insulin resistance and diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis can
160   II,     5.  4.  5|              may eventually also have diabetes.~
161   II,     5.  4.  6|             for screening undiagnosed diabetes has probably become somewhat
162   II,     5.  4.  6|             of previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose
163   II,     5.  4.  6|          issues,.~Close monitoring of diabetes mellitus and its complications
164   II,     5.  4.  6|    continental level. In the field of diabetes, the “European Diabetes
165   II,     5.  4.  6|               diabetes, the “European Diabetes Indicator Project” (EUDIP)
166   II,     5.  4.  6|             indicators for monitoring diabetes and its morbidity” at national
167   II,     5.  4.  6|           European Core Indicators in Diabetes” (EUCID) project was started
168   II,     5.  4.  6|            make the national facts of Diabetes Mellitus and its risk factors
169   II,     5.  4.  6|         Primary prevention~For Type 1 diabetes, genetic susceptibility
170   II,     5.  4.  6|             possible for this type of diabetes.~The burden of diabetes
171   II,     5.  4.  6|               diabetes.~The burden of diabetes may be effectively reduced
172   II,     5.  4.  6|           dither prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising and has now become
173   II,     5.  4.  6|             issue. We can curtail the diabetes and obesity epidemic only
174   II,     5.  4.  6|               before entering a clear diabetes status.~ ~
175   II,     5.  4.  6|               secondary prevention of diabetes, but this poses the challenge
176   II,     5.  4.  6|             risk state in the case of diabetes obesity should also include
177   II,     5.  4.  6|          should be guaranteed. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease
178   II,     5.  4.  6|       included.~Regular management of diabetes, and in particular integrated
179   II,     5.  4.  6|             tool for the reduction of diabetes complications. A fundamental
180   II,     5.  4.  6|              had established national diabetes plans and/or guidelines.
181   II,     5.  4.  6|       services for people living with diabetes across Europe. Clinical
182   II,     5.  4.  6|          applies particularly well to diabetes is patient empowerment.
183   II,     5.  4.  6|              theoretical knowledge of diabetes with the right attitude
184   II,     5.  4.  6|            advise on:~· how to accept diabetes;~· how to deal with self-control
185   II,     5.  4.  6|              and care for people with diabetes and its goals should be
186   II,     5.  4.  6|             dealt within the National Diabetes Plans, where existing, with
187   II,     5.  4.  6|           standardisation of national diabetes plans would be highly beneficial.~ ~
188   II,     5.  4.  6|                EU initiatives against diabetes~The establishment of a diabetes
189   II,     5.  4.  6|       diabetes~The establishment of a diabetes strategy at EU-level would:~
190   II,     5.  4.  6|     coordinated European strategy for diabetes;~· the Otocec Declaration (
191   II,     5.  4.  6| representatives of 35 EU and national diabetes associations, recommended
192   II,     5.  4.  6|            Council Recommendation for diabetes prevention, diagnosis and
193   II,     5.  4.  6|     Government of Austria made Type 2 diabetes a key health priority during
194   II,     5.  4.  6|           make care and prevention of diabetes a priority and develop a
195   II,     5.  4.  6|               on Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes, organized in Vienna in
196   II,     5.  4.  6|               Council in June 2006 as Diabetes EU policy;~· the International
197   II,     5.  4.  6|           policy;~· the International Diabetes FederationEuropean Region (
198   II,     5.  4.  6|      Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes (FEND) presented the paper “
199   II,     5.  4.  6|            FEND) presented the paperDiabetes: EU Policy Recommendations200   II,     5.  4.  6|   Recommendationsproviding input on diabetes to the future work of the
201   II,     5.  4.  6|              and prevention of type 2 diabetes at the Employment, Social
202   II,     5.  4.  6|       national level of comprehensive diabetes epidemiological and economic
203   II,     5.  4.  6|               appropriate, addressing diabetes and/or its determinants,
204   II,     5.  4.  6|            most at risk of developing diabetes as well as the population
205   II,     5.  4.  6|         preventing the development of diabetes complications;~· Adoption
206   II,     5.  4.  6|               approach to people with diabetes including an emphasis on
207   II,     5.  4.  6|          development of comprehensive diabetes training for healthcare
208   II,     5.  4.  6|           Commission:~ ~· Identifying diabetes as a public health challenge
209   II,     5.  4.  6|               and supporting European diabetes research in basic and clinical
210   II,     5.  4.  6|    strengthening the comparability of diabetes epidemiological evidence
211   II,     5.  4.  6|         surveillance and reporting of diabetes mortality, morbidity and
212   II,     5.  4.  6|          healthy lifestyles, national diabetes plans and prevention measures,
213   II,     5.  4.  6|            implementation of national diabetes prevention programmes and
214   II,     5.  4.  6|      determinants and risk factors of diabetes into account across EU policies.~·
215   II,     5.  4.  6|          United Nations Resolution on Diabetes recognised the disease as
216   II,     5.  4.  6|            diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in line with sustainable
217   II,     5.  4.  6|                 the current IDF World Diabetes Day, has been declared as
218   II,     5.  4.  7|           tangible political actions. Diabetes is a complex health problem,
219   II,     5.  4.  7|        diagnosis, treatment and care. Diabetes, like other chronic diseases,
220   II,     5.  4.  7|               obtaining more reliable diabetes information is not only
221   II,     5.  4.  7|           Commission. In the field of diabetes, two stream of projects
222   II,     5.  4.  7|          collaboration among regional diabetes registers. The goal of the
223   II,     5.  4.  7|               information exchange in diabetes care, for monitoring, updating
224   II,     5.  4.  7|        delivered directly by regional diabetes registers, based upon fully
225   II,     5.  4.  7|          through Regional Outcomes in Diabetes” (EUBIROD), started on 1st
226   II,     5.  4.  7|             clinical characteristics (diabetes status, risk factors e.g.
227   II,     5.  4.  7|                clinical measurements, diabetes complications);~· health
228   II,     5.  4.  7|               complete information on diabetes without a significant investment
229   II,     5.  4.  8|               and follow-up system in diabetes mellitus, Diabet Med. 1995
230   II,     5.  4.  8|         client server application for diabetes management, Diabetes, Nutrition &
231   II,     5.  4.  8|              for diabetes management, Diabetes, Nutrition & Metabolism,
232   II,     5.  4.  8|               of the Tayside Regional Diabetes Network, Technology Integration
233   II,     5.  4.  8|            care: the Tayside Regional Diabetes Network: a brief description,
234   II,     5.  4.  8|         Network: a brief description, Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolism
235   II,     5.  4.  8|             Massi Benedetti M (2005), Diabetes registers and prevention
236   II,     5.  4.  8|            use of health information, Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice,
237   II,     5.  4.  8|        steering group of the National Diabetes Register. The Danish National
238   II,     5.  4.  8|         Register. The Danish National Diabetes Register: trends in incidence,
239   II,     5.  4.  8|              and prevention of type 2 diabetes, 2733rd Employment, Social
240   II,     5.  4.  8|             CE (2003): European Union diabetes indicators. European Journal
241   II,     5.  4.  8|       association between obesity and diabetes? Diabet Med. Eprint Aug
242   II,     5.  4.  8|                 Immigrants and type 2 diabetes. Occurrence, treatment and
243   II,     5.  4.  8|            IDF European Region (2006):Diabetes: the Policy puzzle. Towards
244   II,     5.  4.  8|                 http://www.idf.org/EU_diabetes_report_2005]~(report online,
245   II,     5.  4.  8|             in incidence of childhood diabetes in Europe. Lancet 11;355
246   II,     5.  4.  8|           Establishment of monitoring diabetes mellitus and its morbidity
247   II,     5.  4.  8|               of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (2003), The National
248   II,     5.  4.  8|         Register (2003), The National Diabetes Register in Sweden: an implementation
249   II,     5.  4.  8|            for Quality Improvement in Diabetes Care.Diabetes Care. 2003
250   II,     5.  4.  8|          Improvement in Diabetes Care.Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1270-
251   II,     5.  4.  8|         Indicators for the quality of Diabetes Care at the health systems
252   II,     5.  4.  8|             Papers NO. 15~IDF (2006), Diabetes Atlas Third Edition.~IDF
253   II,     5.  4.  8|               European Region (2008): Diabetes. The Policy puzzle: is Europe
254   II,     5.  4.  8|         Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe. Diabetologia,
255   II,     5.  4.  8|              years after diagnosis of diabetes: estimates from young and
256   II,     5.  4.  8|          incidence cohorts in Sweden. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2000; 50(
257   II,     5.  4.  8|               1998): Global burden of diabetes, 1995-2025: prevalence,
258   II,     5.  4.  8|           estimates, and projections. Diabetes Care, 21(9):1414-31~Massi
259   II,     5.  4.  8|         Federici M (2006), The Umbria Diabetes Register, Diab Res Clin
260   II,     5.  4.  8|             MacDonald TM. (1997), The diabetes audit and research in Tayside
261   II,     5.  4.  8|            record linkage to create a diabetes register. DARTS/MEMO Collaboration.
262   II,     5.  4.  8|              diseases: the example of diabetes. The EURODIAB Subarea C
263   II,     5.  4.  8|             patient record system for diabetes, Stud Health Technol Inform.
264   II,     5.  4.  8|              causes of trends in male diabetes prevalence, undiagnosed
265   II,     5.  4.  8|               prevalence, undiagnosed diabetes, and the socioeconomic status
266   II,     5.  4.  8|              at Risk (TRIGR). Pediatr Diabetes 8(3):117-37~Waug A (2007):
267   II,     5.  4.  8|           2007): Screening for type 2 diabetes: literature review and economic
268   II,     5.  4.  8|             2002), Fact sheet no 236. Diabetes: the cost of diabetes. Revised
269   II,     5.  4.  8|            236. Diabetes: the cost of diabetes. Revised September 2002.~
270   II,     5.  4.  8|           Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate
271   II,     5.  4.  8|             http://www.who.int/entity/diabetes/publications/Definition%
272   II,     5.  4.  8|           2004): Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year
273   II,     5.  4.  8|             and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. ;27(5):1047-53~ ~ ~
274   II,     5.  5.  1|        example, to heart diseases and diabetes.~ ~Figure 5.5.1.1. Relative
275   II,     5.  5.  3|           high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, menstrual dysfunction,
276   II,     5.  5.  3|  cardiovascular diseases, overweight, diabetes, dental problems, and polydipsia
277   II,     5.  5.  3|               of available data is on diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
278   II,     5.  5.  3|               metabolic syndrome. The diabetes prevalence is shown to be
279   II,     5.  5.  3|             an increased frequency of diabetes which may suggest a common
280   II,     5.  5.  3|            Bushe C, Citrome L (2005): Diabetes and schizophrenia 2005:
281   II,     5.  5.  3|             cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and cancer.~In ASD, several
282   II,     5.  7.  1|         Sarnak et al., 2003; American Diabetes Association, 2006), but
283   II,     5.  7.  1|        diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases
284   II,     5.  7.  3|       adjustment for age, gender, and diabetes. Age and GFR at the beginning
285   II,     5.  7.  3|             prevalence of obesity and diabetes.~ ~In 2005 the incidence
286   II,     5.  7.  4|            factors~ ~Hypertension and diabetes (Levin 2001), obesity (Ejerblad
287   II,     5.  7.  4|            Diez Roux et al, 2002) and diabetes (Loucks et al, 2007; Seligman
288   II,     5.  7.  4|               of the UK.~ ~Currently, diabetes mellitus is the most common
289   II,     5.  7.  5|            cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.~· Since April
290   II,     5.  7.  5|             QOF, with a further 9 for diabetes directly related to kidney
291   II,     5.  7.  7|              7.7. References~American Diabetes Association (ADA) (2006):
292   II,     5.  7.  7|        medical care in diabetes-2006. Diabetes Care 2006;29:S1-S85.~Annual
293   II,     5.  7.  7|         Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
294   II,     5.  7.  7|         insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the
295   II,     5.  8.  3|          status (total SGRQ > 60) and diabetes have a negative effect on
296   II,     5.  8.  3|           diseases, depression, up to diabetes, cerebral stroke, malignant
297   II,     5.  8.  3|              et al, 2005). These were diabetes, hypertension, obesity,
298   II,     5. 11.  3|              Metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes, hyperlipidemias, porphyrias,
299   II,     5. 13    |            cardiovascular disease and diabetes, orthopaedic problems and
300   II,     5. 14.  1|         disorder, pre-term birth, and diabetes (Bourgeois and Baehni, 2003).~ ~
301   II,     5. 14.  3|       co-factor in the progression of diabetes, some cardiovascular diseases
302   II,     5. 14.  4|             diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases,
303   II,     5. 14.  4|              consumption, stress, and diabetes mellitus. The focus of recent
304   II,     5. 14.  4|     obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes. It has already been shown
305   II,     5. 14.  4|          these conditions (especially diabetes) worsen the periodontal
306   II,     5. 14.  5|               see Chapter 8 ; and for diabetes mellitus see Chapter 5.4.~
307   II,     6.  3.  4|       conditions of all ages, such as diabetes or heart disease). There
308   II,     8.  1.  3|               problems, 24% indicated diabetes, chest, heart, and stomach
309   II,     8.  1.  3|              30% of those affected by diabetes, chest, heart and stomach
310   II,     8.  2.  1|          reduce the risks of obesity, diabetes and related conditions in
311   II,     8.  2.  3|               such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, and possibly hyperlipidemia,
312   II,     9        |               chronic disease status. Diabetes and epilepsy are both associated
313   II,     9        |              the case of epilepsy and diabetes, appropriate clinical care
314   II,     9        |             prevalence of obesity and diabetes are of concern in relation
315   II,     9        |           dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking,
316   II,     9        |           dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity,
317   II,     9.  1.  1|              such as hypertension and diabetes. This life-course approach
318   II,     9.  1.  2|               chronic disease status. Diabetes and epilepsy are both associated
319   II,     9.  1.  2|              the case of epilepsy and diabetes, appropriate clinical care
320   II,     9.  1.  2|             prevalence of obesity and diabetes are of concern in relation
321   II,     9.  1.  2|           women with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes in England, Wales, and Northern
322   II,     9.  2.  1|             problems such as obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and
323   II,     9.  2.  1|         morbidity such as overweight, diabetes and asthma in children play
324   II,     9.  2.  3|               an increase in type two diabetes(see also Chapter 5).~ ~Excess
325   II,     9.  2.  3|              of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, hypertension and sleep
326   II,     9.  2.  3|             cerebro-vascular disease, diabetes, certain types of cancer,
327   II,     9.  2.  3|        children in the EU have type 2 diabetes, more than 400 000 have
328   II,     9.  2.  5|         tuberculosis,AIDS, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, psychiatry, anaesthetics
329   II,     9.  3.  1|              such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, which contribute
330   II,     9.  3.  1|           over the next five years.~ ~Diabetes~ ~For both men and women,
331   II,     9.  3.  1|             proportion of people with diabetes increases with age, but
332   II,     9.  3.  1|               with abdominal obesity. Diabetes mellitus is a principal
333   II,     9.  3.  1|           estimated to be living with diabetes. The average prevalence
334   II,     9.  3.  1|             prevalence of people with diabetes under medical treatment
335   II,     9.  3.  1|                The number of cases of diabetes is expected to increase
336   II,     9.  3.  1|          growing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes. Obesity-associated adult
337   II,     9.  3.  1|        Obesity-associated adult onset diabetes is seen to be occurring
338   II,     9.  3.  1|            lowest prevalence rates of diabetes (3.7%) and the lowest healthcare
339   II,     9.  3.  1|             and the lowest healthcare diabetes costs (2.5% of total healthcare
340   II,     9.  3.  1|            national plan for improved diabetes care focusing on a multidisciplinary
341   II,     9.  3.  1|             Europe, 2005). Women with diabetes may have a higher coronary
342   II,     9.  3.  1|               mortality than men with diabetes. Of subjects receiving medical
343   II,     9.  3.  1|             reducing the incidence of diabetes. However, for socioeconomic,
344   II,     9.  3.  1|     hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes as a result of the metabolic
345   II,     9.  3.  1|           grounding, with for example diabetes, neurological problems,
346   II,     9.  3.  1|           dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking,
347   II,     9.  3.  1|           dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, obesity,
348   II,     9.  3.  1|               FEND/IDF Europe (2005): Diabetes - The Policy Puzzle: Towards
349   II,     9.  3.  1|               IDF Atlas~International Diabetes Federation Atlas~IDUs~Injecting
350   II,     9.  4.  3|             suffer from osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, incontinence
351   II,     9.  4.  3|                Bhalla et al, 2004).~ ~Diabetes~ ~For both men and women,
352   II,     9.  4.  3|             proportion of people with diabetes increases with age; in the
353   II,     9.  4.  3|              60-69 years of age group diabetes affects between 10-20% of
354   II,     9.  4.  3|         highest number of people with diabetes (International Diabetes
355   II,     9.  4.  3|               diabetes (International Diabetes Federation, 2003). Long-term
356   II,     9.  4.  3|         double and reach 51% by 2050. Diabetes affects less than 10% of
357   II,     9.  4.  3|               olds, the prevalence of diabetes stands at about one quarter
358   II,     9.  4.  3|           wide variation in the total diabetes prevalence in the older
359   II,     9.  4.  7|             on behalf of the European Diabetes Epidemiology Group (2003):
360   II,     9.  4.  7|            the current definition for diabetes relevant to mortality risk
361   II,     9.  4.  7|            non-cardiovascular disease?Diabetes Care 2003;26:688-696.~ ~
362   II,     9.  4.  7|                3137.~ ~International Diabetes Federation (2003): World
363   II,     9.  4.  7|              Federation (2003): World Diabetes Day. United Nations Resolution
364   II,     9.  5.  4|       cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and mental health. Despite
365   II,     9.  5.  6|        Eurostat/European Commission~ ~Diabetes Prevention Program Research
366   II,     9.  5.  6|               the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention
367  III,    10.  1    |               health problems such as diabetes, respiratory disease or
368  III,    10.  1    |             pentachlorophenol~dioxins~Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high
369  III,    10.  2.  1|             healing~- Risk factor for diabetes and aggravation of its symptoms~-
370  III,    10.  2.  1|          pressure, increased risk for diabetes, musculoskeletal injuries,
371  III,    10.  2.  1|             disease, stroke, cancers, diabetes and mental illness (CED,
372  III,    10.  2.  1|             disease, stroke, cancers, diabetes and mental illness (CED,
373  III,    10.  2.  1|        coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer
374  III,    10.  2.  1|             diseases, such as type II diabetes and hypertension in adolescents,
375  III,    10.  2.  1|   cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes) have already been dealt
376  III,    10.  2.  1|            cardiovascular disease and diabetes, orthopaedic problems and
377  III,    10.  2.  1|              if they have gestational diabetes or a pre-pregnancy metabolic
378  III,    10.  2.  1|             30 years) cases of type 2 diabetes are due to excess body weight;
379  III,    10.  2.  1|               cardiovascular disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. There
380  III,    10.  2.  4|      knowledge in certain fields like diabetes type 2 (Hoffmann et al,
381  III,    10.  2.  4|      knowledge in certain fields like diabetes type 2 (Hoffmann et al,
382  III,    10.  2.  4|               linkage scan for type 2 diabetes supports the existence of
383  III,    10.  2.  4|       chromosome 1p36.13 and a type 2 diabetes locus on chromosome 16p12.
384  III,    10.  2.  5|           high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and cardio-vascular death (
385  III,    10.  2.  5|              dysfunction, gestational diabetes or even maternal smoking.
386  III,    10.  2.  5|              who later develop type 2 diabetes or its risk factors. Diabetologia
387  III,    10.  3.  2|             pentachlorophenol~dioxins~Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high
388  III,    10.  3.  4|            endocrine gland disorders, diabetes and malnutrition. In particular,
389  III,    10.  4.  2|  Enteroviruses~GE~Neurologic symptoms~Diabetes~Medium~Hepatitis A virus~
390   IV,    11.  1.  5|              including: cardiac care, diabetes, mental health, patient
391   IV,    11.  2.  1|             categories, most commonly diabetes, cardiovascular disease
392   IV,    11.  4    |            specific diseases, such as Diabetes type-2 or low back pain,
393   IV,    11.  5.  4|           history of hypertension and diabetes.~ ~Public awareness and
394   IV,    11.  6.  2|               specific diseases (e.g. diabetes, epilepsy, transplantation,
395   IV,    11.  6.  4|           relative burden of illness: diabetes, hypertension, TB, AIDS (
396   IV,    11.  6.  5|        guidelines in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in general practice."
397   IV,    12.  2    |               cancer registration. ~ ~Diabetes~ ~Long term complications,
398   IV,    12.  2    |         diagnosis onwards. For type 2 diabetes primary intervention (prevention
399   IV,    12.  2    |             screening for undiagnosed diabetes has probably become somewhat
400   IV,    12.  2    |              obesity and hence type 2 diabetes investigated patients with
401   IV,    12.  2    |           dither prevalence of type 2 diabetes is rising and has become
402   IV,    12.  2    |              curtail the “diabesity” (diabetes & obesity) epidemic only
403   IV,    12.  2    |               the 25 (IDF Europe/FEND Diabetes Policy Puzzle, 2005) EU
404   IV,    12.  2    |              had established national diabetes plans and/or guidelines.
405   IV,    12.  2    |       services for people living with diabetes across Europe. In the process
406   IV,    12.  2    |              of learning to live with diabetes, the person with diabetes
407   IV,    12.  2    |             diabetes, the person with diabetes should be assisted to learn
408   IV,    12.  2    |        assisted to learn to live with diabetes. Behaviour is based upon
409   IV,    12.  2    |        establishment of a strategy on diabetes at EU-level would:~- Create
410   IV,    12.  2    |     coordinated European strategy for diabetes;~- the Otocec Declaration (
411   IV,    12.  2    |           Declaration (2004) European Diabetes week, Nov 2004 was signed
412   IV,    12.  2    | representatives of 35 EU and national diabetes associations;~- Austria
413   IV,    12.  2    |   associations;~- Austria made Type 2 diabetes a key healt h priority during
414   IV,    12.  2    |           make care and prevention of diabetes a priority and to develop
415   IV,    12.  2    |               on Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes, organized in Vienna in
416   IV,    12.  2    |              June 2006 in the form of Diabetes EU policy;~- the International
417   IV,    12.  2    |           policy;~- the International Diabetes FederationEuropean Region (
418   IV,    12.  2    |      Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes (FEND) presented the paper “
419   IV,    12.  2    |            FEND) presented the paperDiabetes: EU Policy Recommendations420   IV,    12.  2    |        critical public health issues, diabetes. ~- the United Nations signed
421   IV,    12.  2    |              signed the Resolution on Diabetes, recognised its global threat
422   IV,    12.  2    |                 the current IDF World Diabetes Day, was declared a United
423   IV,    12. 10    |              National action platform Diabetes mellitus (Nationales Aktionsforum
424   IV,    12. 10    |               Nationales Aktionsforum Diabetes Mellitus, NAFDM, www e,
425   IV,    12. 10    |           targets e. g. prevention of diabetes onset by healthy life style
426   IV,    12. 10    |              prevention of obesity or diabetes mellitus (see above).~National
427   IV,    12. 10    |            chronic diseases including diabetes, htt l~ obesity http l~
428   IV,    12. 10    |            Cholesterol, Cancer, AIDS, Diabetes mellitus, Sun radiation.~ ~
429   IV,    12. 10    |      cardiovascular diseases, asthma, diabetes, health of youth, aidssee: htt ~ ~
430   IV,    13.  2.  3|               health problems such as diabetes, respiratory disease, or
431   IV,    13.  2.  3|              Depression, lung cancer, diabetes, alcohol-dependency~ ~ ~ ~ ~
432   IV,    13.  2.  3|              cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and the relevant
433   IV,    13.  5    |           rapid spread of obesity and diabetes may also potentially reduce
434  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|             development~developmental~diabetes~diabetics~diagnoses~diagnosis~