Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  3    |            among the most vulnerable groups. The fight against discrimination
  2    I,     2.  3    |           background these immigrant groups have lived with in the past.
  3    I,     2.  3    |           rather rare among minority groups, although a bit rising.
  4    I,     2.  4    |      neighbourhoods), between social groups and also between Europe
  5    I,     2.  4    |            particularly, between the groups of the 15 countries already
  6    I,     2.  4    |      neighbourhoods), between social groups and also between Europe
  7    I,     2.  4    |               income level, or other groups such as migrants, differ
  8    I,     2.  4    |   differences between socio-economic groups widened during the last
  9    I,     2.  4    |            the lowest socio-economic groups.~ ~The explanation of this
 10    I,     2.  4    |    difference between socio-economic groups in the speed of mortality
 11    I,     2.  4    |       declined in all socio-economic groups, the decline has been proportionally
 12    I,     2.  4    |            the higher socio-economic groups than in the lower. The faster
 13    I,     2.  4    |             in higher socio-economic groups were in their turn mostly
 14    I,     2.  4    |             up by all socio-economic groups, the higher socio-economic
 15    I,     2.  4    |            the higher socio-economic groups tended to benefit more from
 16    I,     2.  4    |        shared between socio-economic groups: in the countries with available
 17    I,     2.  4    |             the lower socio-economic groups. Apparently, people with
 18    I,     2.  4    |             in the lower educational groups.~ ~Moreover, the European
 19    I,     2.  4    |         remains uneven across social groups. A major challenge is allowing
 20    I,     2.  4    |              to lower socio-economic groups is needed. Virtually, all
 21    I,     2.  5    |          trend is immigration of new groups into European Member States.~
 22    I,     2.  5    |            among the most vulnerable groups. The fight against discrimination
 23    I,     2.  6    |        millions in 2050. For all age groups, the main explanation for
 24    I,     2.  9    |             mammals and other animal groups. Climate change has caused
 25    I,     2.  9    |           life cycles of many animal groups (phenology), including frog
 26    I,     2. 10.  1|           lead to the description of groups individual prevention programmes
 27    I,     3.  3    |              relation to various age groups in 1975, 2005, 2010 and
 28   II,     4.  2    |           same for young and old age groups; there have been differences
 29   II,     4.  2    |            expectancy changes by age groups. Based on the (unweighted)
 30   II,     4.  2    |              the contribution of age groups to the increase in life
 31   II,     4.  2    |             expectancy. For men, age groups 65-74 contributed almost
 32   II,     4.  2    |         birth, and for women the age groups 70-84 even contributed one
 33   II,     4.  2    |       contribution of the oldest age groups to the increase in life
 34   II,     4.  2    |         decline in mortality for age groups 80 and over, reaching even
 35   II,     4.  2    |              in mortality across age groups, even though in most countries
 36   II,     5.  2.  2|       mortality in the different age groups for circulatory system (
 37   II,     5.  2.  2|            OCSE) data for aggregated groups of causes of deaths and
 38   II,     5.  2.  2|          mortality rates for the age groups 35-74 and 35-84 years separately
 39   II,     5.  2.  3|       procedures cover different age groups, while the degree of validation
 40   II,     5.  3.  2|             treatment between social groups. To perform these studies
 41   II,     5.  3.  6|              stomach cancer survival groups both for men and women:
 42   II,     5.  3.  7|      especially lower socio-economic groups), to a more successful treatment
 43   II,     5.  3.  7|            young medical oncological groups are present in the national
 44   II,     5.  4.Acr|           Dose~DRG~Diagnosis Related Groups~ECHI~European Community
 45   II,     5.  4.  1|        increase of people of all age groups suffering from overweight
 46   II,     5.  4.  2|           based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), has favoured consistent
 47   II,     5.  4.  3|      percentage increases in the age groups above 65.~Blood pressure
 48   II,     5.  4.  6|             population and high-risk groups and to reducing inequalities
 49   II,     5.  5.Int|   susceptible as men8. Disadvantaged groups face a greater risk of mental
 50   II,     5.  5.Int|              and women from minority groups are at a higher risk for
 51   II,     5.  5.  1|           more frequent in young age groups (Alonso et al, 2004a). Major
 52   II,     5.  5.  1|            65 than for the other age groups (Eurostat statistics, available
 53   II,     5.  5.  1|               It is available in age groups 0-64 years and all ages.
 54   II,     5.  5.  1|              as the reference. Three groups of countries could thus
 55   II,     5.  5.  1|            in both 15-64 and 65+ age groups, females in all countries
 56   II,     5.  5.  1|           belonging to different age groups, children and adolescence,
 57   II,     5.  5.  2|             women in 9 different age groups (30-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-
 58   II,     5.  5.  2|           combined, in five year age groups from 60 to 84 years and
 59   II,     5.  5.  2|      prevalence rates per 5 year age groups up to the age of 99, whereas
 60   II,     5.  5.  2|            30 to 99 in five year age groups. Once extracted, those for
 61   II,     5.  5.  2|         extracted, those for the age groups between 30 and 59 were added
 62   II,     5.  5.  2|         available for the higher age groups. This was the case for Austria,
 63   II,     5.  5.  2|      reliable statistics for all age groups and the under-diagnosis
 64   II,     5.  5.  2|     reduction and one of the working groups of the afore-mentioned EuroCoDe
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|            level. Several population groups can be used as sample group (
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|            and vulnerable population groups~ ~Eating disorders are rare
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|              even broader diagnostic groups of psychiatric disorders.
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|          efficacy in certain patient groups but give little to no information
 69   II,     5.  5.  3| stigmatization reported by six focus groups (three with people with
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|           Options” (2005) mentions 7 groups of disorders for which effective
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|          sector and through ParentsGroups. This situation is profoundly
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|            patients in different age groups (children, adults, elderly).~
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|          decrease in the younger age groups and increase in the elderly.
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|           found to shift between age groups. The percentage of cases
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|            the younger and older age groups are based on small samples
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|         distribution of MS in ethnic groups with different susceptibility.~
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|              prevalence in older age groups (>85y; 2205/100.000), however,
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|    respectively. When only older age groups (>60 years) were included,
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|              to the HY scale in five groups (Figure 5.5.3.6.3). In the
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|            and international PD user groups have been established.~A
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|            disease: the role of food groups and specific foods. Mov
 82   II,     5.  6.  4|            importance of these three groups varies, but in several countries,
 83   II,     5.  9. FB|          differences between the two groups were found regarding the
 84   II,     5.  9.  2|             to asthma (J45-J46 ICD9)~Groups of diseases which are dealt
 85   II,     5.  9.  2|      including patients from all age groups with current asthma. A total
 86   II,     5.  9.  3|            or =20-years age-at-onset groups, respectively). Further
 87   II,     5.  9.  4|          more frequent in particular groups of workers: over 300 substances
 88   II,     5.  9.  4|              differences between age groups. Farm children living in
 89   II,     5.  9.  4|             bioassays, five distinct groups could be identified. The
 90   II,     5. 10.  4|    particular concern in certain age groups such as children and pregnant
 91   II,     5. 10.  6|           true prevalence across age groups, taking into account gender
 92   II,     5. 11.  1|            less than 10 skin disease groups probably account for 70%
 93   II,     5. 11.  3|        socio-economically advantaged groups and smaller families. Ethnic
 94   II,     5. 11.  3|       studies have looked at special groups such as occupations at high
 95   II,     5. 11.  3|              8% in the following age groups:1524, 2534, 3554 and
 96   II,     5. 11.  3|             pemphigus and pemphigoid groups).~Therefore, it is quite
 97   II,     5. 13    |             in very large population groups throughout Europe, some
 98   II,     5. 13    |    quantities by specific population groups; this originates diseases
 99   II,     5. 13    |          significant in certain risk groups among elderly, children,
100   II,     5. 14.  1|          makers is that some special groups are disadvantaged in terms
101   II,     5. 14.  1|            identifying disadvantaged groups and will contribute to oral
102   II,     5. 14.  3|              Minorities and deprived groups in many European countries
103   II,     5. 14.  3|              homes. Other population groups at high risk for dental
104   II,     5. 14.  3|              status; ethnic minority groups; individuals with developmental
105   II,     5. 14.  3|            with the older population groups. It can also profoundly
106   II,     5. 14.  3|         limitations among population groups with a high risk of tooth
107   II,     5. 14.  5|         focus on specific population groups according to specific life-styles –
108   II,     5. 14.  5|           life involvement of entire groups of population such as the
109   II,     5. 14.  5|          makers is that some special groups are disadvantaged in terms
110   II,     5. 14.  5|            identifying disadvantaged groups, and will contribute to
111   II,     5. 14.  6|          part of the most vulnerable groups affected and within this
112   II,     5. 14.  6|             efforts on these special groups of populations. This will
113   II,     5. 14.  6|              identification of these groups and the decision making
114   II,     5. 15.  3|             habits. In some cultural groups, up to 25% of couples are
115   II,     5. 15.  3|      population in terms of cultural groups and may vary in time.~ ~
116   II,     5. 15.  5|             among the most empowered groups of the health sector, mainly
117   II,     5. 15.  5|          other deprived and excluded groups.~ ~The rise of attention
118   II,     6.  3.  1|         population segments and risk groups). For some of these diseases
119   II,     6.  3.  1|               In 22 diseases the age groups most affected were those
120   II,     6.  3.  1|      population. Of the main disease groups, the ‘Zoonoses’ and ‘Serious
121   II,     6.  3.  1|            Serious imported diseasegroups had the lowest incidence
122   II,     6.  3.  1|           incidence (2005), main age groups affected (2005), and major
123   II,     6.  3.  3|          successfully approach these groups in society.~Immediately
124   II,     6.  3.  4|          autumn for three major risk groups (the elderly, healthcare
125   II,     6.  3.  4|           coverage in these selected groups, but also by adopting other
126   II,     6.  3.  4|              A1.3 Cases of TB by age groups~ ~ ~ ~ ~The EU countries
127   II,     6.  3.  4|         improve surveillance on risk groups and drug resistance and
128   II,     6.  3.  4|             vaccination of high-risk groups. Since the vaccine is not
129   II,     6.  3.  4|      interventions for specific risk groups, including guidelines for
130   II,     6.  3.  5|          tract infections in all age groups, but is also common as asymptomatic
131   II,     6.  3.  5|      reported among the youngest age groups (014 years).~ ~In 2005,
132   II,     6.  3.  6|            steadily in the older age groups. Some countries, notably
133   II,     6.  3.  6|            cases occurred in the age groups under 15 years. Comparisons
134   II,     6.  3.  6|            The two most affected age groups are children 514 years
135   II,     6.  4.  4|             to cover work on several groups of diseases.~ ~The ECDC
136   II,     7.  1    |         attention also to vulnerable groups, provide information for
137   II,     7.  1    |    addressing risk settings and risk groups that have until now received
138   II,     7.  3.  2|             When you combine all age groups, i.e. young through to old
139   II,     7.  3.  5|            WHO, 2002).~ ~For all age groups taken together, interpersonal
140   II,     7.  3.  5|              evenly among sex or age groups. More men than women are
141   II,     7.  4    |               On average, in all age groups, injuries account for about
142   II,     7.  4    |              in its impact on social groups: The risk of dying from
143   II,     7.  4.  1|        Special focus is on high risk groups prone to taking excessive
144   II,     7.  4.  2|      relation to the respective risk groups should be disseminated among
145   II,     7.  4.  2|           among related professional groups, management of care facilities
146   II,     7.  4.  3|           roads. Among the different groups participating in road traffic,
147   II,     7.  4.  6|           ethnic group. Marginalized groups such as minorities, refugees,
148   II,     7.  5    |         professionals, so that these groups can serve as competent actors
149   II,     7.  6    |      politically less well organised groups such as the aged, depressed,
150   II,     7.  6    |      strongly organized professional groups involved. The challenge
151   II,     8.  1.  1|     particular vulnerable population groups, which require special health
152   II,     8.  1.  2|             in various socioeconomic groups as well as the percentage
153   II,     8.  1.  3|              compared with older age groups. Among people with considerable
154   II,     8.  2.  1|            and across socio-economic groups. Mild to moderate learning
155   II,     8.  2.  1|         moderate cases.~ ~Vulnerable groups~ ~Overall, it is important
156   II,     8.  2.  1|          disabilities, however, some groups are particularly vulnerable
157   II,     8.  2.  2|       assumptions applied to Country groups characterized mainly by
158   II,     8.  2.  2|       assumptions applied to Country groups characterized mainly by
159   II,     8.  2.  2|              collected in population groups characterised by different
160   II,     9        |            AGE AND GENDER~POPULATION GROUPS~This chapter deals with
161   II,     9        |             different age population groups (i.e. mothers at delivery,
162   II,     9        |           these different population groups differ largely from each
163   II,     9        |              for the five population groups which are involved in these
164   II,     9        |              large variation in both groups.~ ~Smoking during pregnancy.
165   II,     9        |             disadvantaged population groups, defined by educational
166   II,     9        |            sensitive for younger age groups. The ranges of reported
167   II,     9        |              and regions and all age groups, girls are less active than
168   II,     9.  1.  1|      gestational age and birthweight groups.~Countries differ in their
169   II,     9.  1.  1|        growth restriction; all these groups are at a higher risk of
170   II,     9.  1.  2|              large variation in both groups.~ ~Smoking during pregnancy.
171   II,     9.  1.  2|             disadvantaged population groups, defined by educational
172   II,     9.  1.  2|           pollution. Minority ethnic groups may experience higher risks
173   II,     9.  2.  2|    employment (WHO/HSBC 2004). These groups may be living in extreme
174   II,     9.  2.  3|        occurs frequently in specific groups of frequently socially marginalised
175   II,     9.  2.  4|            sensitive for younger age groups. The ranges of reported
176   II,     9.  2.  4|              and regions and all age groups, girls are less active than
177   II,     9.  2.  5|           among different population groups. It calls for action: ‘the
178   II,     9.  2.  5|            gap between socioeconomic groups within countries should
179   II,     9.  2.  5|              health of disadvantaged groups’ (WHO, 1999).~ ~WHO/Europe180   II,     9.  3.  1|        incidence rate than other age groups, but older workers (55-64
181   II,     9.  3.  1|              and women from minority groups are at heightened risk for
182   II,     9.  3.  1|             sexes are low in all age groups (EUROSTAT). Suicide rates
183   II,     9.  3.  1|         women of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-cultural comparisons
184   II,     9.  3.  1|           countries and among ethnic groups within countries in type (
185   II,     9.  3.  3|            are one of the vulnerable groups for what concerns sexual
186   II,     9.  3.  3|           are done by many different groups.~· Comparative data on health
187   II,     9.  3.  3|         societies, and to particular groups and individuals within them.~ ~
188   II,     9.  3.  3|            results from online focus groups.J Adolesc 28:535-40.~Currie
189   II,     9.  4.  1|  health promotion policies to target groups.~ ~Diversity in relation
190   II,     9.  4.  2|          increasing in the older age groups, it is difficult to access
191   II,     9.  4.  3|           than amongst the 25-64 age groups (exceptions include men
192   II,     9.  4.  5|       countries. Certainforgottengroups of older people are at a
193   II,     9.  4.  5|              people. As in other age groups, poverty and lower socio-economic
194   II,     9.  4.  5|            in more privileged social groups. Further research is needed
195   II,     9.  4.  5|            that different vulnerable groups may face as they age across
196   II,     9.  4.  5|              needed to empower these groups and engage them in their
197   II,     9.  5.  1|           most vulnerable population groups.~ ~Economic inequalities
198   II,     9.  5.  3|              and regions and all age groups and the gender gap increases
199   II,     9.  5.  4|          vulnerable and marginalised groups of women to ensure that
200   II,     9.  5.  5|             and risks of all diverse groups are recognized. It is adamant
201  III,    10.  1    |        single determinants or single groups of determinants alone is
202  III,    10.  1    |         determinants. Basically five groups of determinants can be distinguished,
203  III,    10.  1    |                Potentially sensitive groups at higher risk for damage
204  III,    10.  1.  1|        Association between different groups of determinants (lifestyle
205  III,    10.  2.  1|           among lower socio-economic groups. European youth has the
206  III,    10.  2.  1|             of higher socio-economic groups;~· In stage 2, smoking becomes
207  III,    10.  2.  1|            equal among socioeconomic groups or higher among higher socioeconomic
208  III,    10.  2.  1|           among higher socioeconomic groups. Among women, these patterns
209  III,    10.  2.  1|            from higher socioeconomic groups;~· In stage 3, prevalence
210  III,    10.  2.  1|             the lower socio-economic groups.~ ~In most countries smoking
211  III,    10.  2.  1|          gives governments and other groups a baseline for monitoring
212  III,    10.  2.  1|         industry or related advocacy groups (Babor et al, 2003). In
213  III,    10.  2.  1|             widespread among certain groups of recreational nightlife
214  III,    10.  2.  1|       started to grow among multiple groups, including problem opioid
215  III,    10.  2.  1|             etc. Almost all of these groups are characterized by poly-drug
216  III,    10.  2.  1|    interventions targeting different groups at-risk (school drop-outs,
217  III,    10.  2.  1|            with hard to reach target groups.~ ~
218  III,    10.  2.  1|          dominant pattern among many groups of drug users and problem
219  III,    10.  2.  1|              considerable in all age groups. In particular, children
220  III,    10.  2.  1|            underprivileged high risk groups targeted through integrated
221  III,    10.  2.  1|          consists of various product groups such as dental floss, dental
222  III,    10.  2.  1|            not be found in these age groups as well. (Marinho et al.,
223  III,    10.  2.  1|      catering for different consumer groups and needs, continues to
224  III,    10.  2.  1|              of different population groups according to their lifestyles,
225  III,    10.  2.  1|          country using the high risk groups approach. It is an educational
226  III,    10.  2.  1|             among parents of all age groups of children. This very positive
227  III,    10.  2.  1|              Under-served population groups are found in both developed
228  III,    10.  2.  1|   definitions; a standard set of age groups for reporting; a standard
229  III,    10.  2.  1|     variations existed among all age groups; for example, the proportion
230  III,    10.  2.  1|       affects socially disadvantaged groups, who have less free time
231  III,    10.  2.  1|    requirements of the different age groups from birth to old age and
232  III,    10.  2.  1|             in very large population groups throughout Europe, some
233  III,    10.  2.  1|    quantities by specific population groups, thus originating disease
234  III,    10.  2.  1|          significant in certain risk groups among elderly, children,
235  III,    10.  2.  1|               into the following age groups; children aged 0-9 years;
236  III,    10.  2.  1|     nutritional status of particular groups of the adult population~ ~
237  III,    10.  2.  1|             comparable food items or groups among DAFNE countries, as
238  III,    10.  2.  1|            among specific population groups categorized per income level,
239  III,    10.  2.  1|             of obesity shifting from groups with higher socioeconomic
240  III,    10.  2.  1|             status in almost all age groups regardless of the country
241  III,    10.  2.  1|       nutrient in certain population groups as premenopausal women for
242  III,    10.  2.  1|          least in certain population groups. Thus, the 2nd Viennese
243  III,    10.  2.  1|          affect different population groups. However, there are some
244  III,    10.  2.  1|            over various well-defined groups of individuals. These data
245  III,    10.  2.  1|            intake goals~ ~Population groups having a less than adequate
246  III,    10.  2.  1|              and even there specific groups may have to be taken into
247  III,    10.  2.  1|           will vary among population groups.~· More than one dietary
248  III,    10.  2.  1|             for different population groups~ ~ ~ ~Source: Adapted from
249  III,    10.  2.  1|              workable for the target groups. FBDG should principally
250  III,    10.  2.  1|             for different population groups. In step 2 and 3, important
251  III,    10.  2.  4|           lead to the description of groups with a significant size.~ ~
252  III,    10.  2.  4|          high, moderate and low risk groups; the stratification by “
253  III,    10.  2.  4|               Amongst them there are groups working specifically on
254  III,    10.  2.  4|          first, identified high risk groups and implemented interventions
255  III,    10.  2.  5|           prevalent in different age groups see Chapter 9.~ ~
256  III,    10.  3.  1|             for different vulnerable groups, such as children and workers.
257  III,    10.  3.  1|           for the various population groups. Only very few countries
258  III,    10.  3.  1|                UVR is divided into 3 groups depending on the wave length;
259  III,    10.  3.  2|     distinguishing between different groups of chemicals; industrial
260  III,    10.  3.  2|            is also made to the other groups. In general, the production
261  III,    10.  3.  2|             identified four priority groups of diseases: childhood cancer,
262  III,    10.  3.  2|             identifies four priority groups of diseases or physiological
263  III,    10.  3.  2|             shown that certain human groups can be at increased risk
264  III,    10.  3.  3|              In 22 diseases, the age groups most affected were under
265  III,    10.  3.  3|     generations. Of the main disease groups, the ‘Zoonoses’ and ‘Serious
266  III,    10.  3.  3|            Serious imported diseasegroups had the lowest incidence
267  III,    10.  3.  3|          tract infections in all age groups. Invasive meningococcal
268  III,    10.  3.  3|         population segments and risk groups) (table 10.3.3.1).~ ~Table
269  III,    10.  3.  3|         trends (19952005), main age groups affected (2005), and major
270  III,    10.  3.  4|        annual mortality in older age groups in Europe , although large
271  III,    10.  3.  4|             1520% higher in all age groups, in Italy 3233% and in
272  III,    10.  3.  4|         people (+18% in Rome) and in groups with lower educational levels (+
273  III,    10.  3.  4|              patients and vulnerable groups representing a further risk.~ ~
274  III,    10.  3.  4|     situation, especially vulnerable groups. Although water supply was
275  III,    10.  3.  4|            health care by vulnerable groups may not have been sufficiently
276  III,    10.  4.  1|        ExternE Project, other expert groups,~ ~· Main assumptions~ ~-
277  III,    10.  4.  1|          awareness amongst sensitive groups; second, it increases the
278  III,    10.  4.  1|            need to be taken by other groups, it is after all the health
279  III,    10.  4.  2|              additional 17 substance groups that may degrade to PFCA (
280  III,    10.  4.  2|            of criteria for selecting groups of compounds to be studied
281  III,    10.  4.  2|              diet sets for different groups of population and short
282  III,    10.  4.  2|             different countries, age groups and pesticides, the PPR
283  III,    10.  4.  2|              different FOCUS Working Groups. These cover the comparability
284  III,    10.  4.  2|         products. Six expert working groups of the PPR Panel considered
285  III,    10.  4.  2|              only certain population groups, e.g. vulnerable groups,
286  III,    10.  4.  2|              groups, e.g. vulnerable groups, should be considered. For
287  III,    10.  4.  3|             are higher in low income groups or countries with medium
288  III,    10.  4.  3|             than in other population groups (WHO 2006). From 1993 to
289  III,    10.  4.  5|     population (including vulnerable groups) and appreciation of inequity
290  III,    10.  5.  1|        health of specific population groups. For example, large air
291  III,    10.  5.  1|      sensitive / allergic population groups (Seltzer / Fedoruk 2007).
292  III,    10.  5.  1|             different socio-economic groups.~ ~Figure 10.5.1.3. Housing
293  III,    10.  5.  2|         specific diseases or disease groups, such as sexually transmitted
294  III,    10.  5.  3|            was due to only 5 disease groups. Among these, the distribution
295  III,    10.  5.  3|          trend is immigration of new groups into European Member States.
296  III,    10.  5.  3|     different sectors, companies and groups of employees.~The evaluation
297  III,    10.  6.  1|    participation in organisations or groups.~ ~The 3-item Oslo social
298  III,    10.  6.  1|          network (size of friendship groups, frequency of contacts with
299  III,    10.  6.  1|             When considering all age groups, daily contact took place
300  III,    10.  6.  1|              young people of all age groups and both sexes regard communication
301  III,    10.  6.  1|           area of Belgium in all age groups between 11 and 15 years
302  III,    10.  6.  1|           and more common in all age groups among girls than among boys.
303  III,    10.  6.  1|            such as conspicuous youth groups or people with a strange
304  III,    10.  6.  2|              in lower socio-economic groups. Last but not least, the
305  III,    10.  6.  2|              factors in lower status groups across one’s life course
306  III,    10.  6.  2|   differences between socio-economic groups widened during the last
307  III,    10.  6.  2|            the lowest socio-economic groups. One important aspect is
308  III,    10.  6.  2|    difference between socio-economic groups in the speed of mortality
309  III,    10.  6.  2|    difference between socio-economic groups in the speed of mortality
310  III,    10.  6.  2|       declined in all socio-economic groups, the decline has been proportionally
311  III,    10.  6.  2|            the higher socio-economic groups than in the lower. The faster
312  III,    10.  6.  2|             in higher socio-economic groups were in their turn mostly
313  III,    10.  6.  2|             up by all socio-economic groups, the higher socio-economic
314  III,    10.  6.  2|            the higher socio-economic groups were the ones who experienced
315  III,    10.  6.  2|        shared between socio-economic groups: in the countries with available
316  III,    10.  6.  2|             the lower socio-economic groups. Apparently, people with
317  III,    10.  6.  2|             in the lower educational groups (Table 10.6.2.1).~ ~Table
318  III,    10.  6.  2|         remains uneven across social groups. High risk populations in
319  III,    10.  6.  2|               income level, or other groups such as migrants, differ
320  III,    10.  6.  2|              to lower socio-economic groups is needed. Virtually, all
321  III,    10.  6.  2|             the health of vulnerable groups within their societies.
322  III,    10.  6.  2|            employment for vulnerable groups. All participants are people
323  III,    10.  6.  3|            fatal injuries of all age groups in the EU27 and in particular
324  III,    10.  6.  3|              evenly among sex or age groups. More men than women are
325  III,    10.  6.  3|            such as conspicuous youth groups or people with a strange
326   IV,    11.Acr    | Contributions~DRGs~Diagnosis Related Groups~ECHP~European Community
327   IV,    11.  1.  4|       financial burden across income groups and the distribution of
328   IV,    11.  1.  4|              times across population groups, e.g. socio-economic groups.
329   IV,    11.  1.  4|          groups, e.g. socio-economic groups. However, there is evidence
330   IV,    11.  1.  4|              may allow higher income groups with private insurance to
331   IV,    11.  1.  4|           can affect some population groups where eligibility to receive
332   IV,    11.  1.  4|         favouring certain population groups, such as higher income earners,
333   IV,    11.  1.  4|           access for some vulnerable groups. More specifically, the
334   IV,    11.  1.  4|     favouring the wealthy population groups again in Portugal and Finland,
335   IV,    11.  1.  5|              individual professional groups, most Europeans have confidence
336   IV,    11.  1.  6|       between employer and personnel groups.~Croatia~Capitation (with
337   IV,    11.  1.  6|              to as diagnosis related groups (DRGs)) – a fixed fee for
338   IV,    11.  1.  6|             defined: broad diagnosis groups may increase efficiency
339   IV,    11.  1.  6|              whereas tightly defined groups may lead to over-treatment
340   IV,    11.  1.  6|              via medical procedures, groups of medical procedures, or
341   IV,    11.  2.  2|               pressure from interest groups and informal processes (
342   IV,    11.  5.  4|         organs by organized criminal groups.~ ~The disparity between
343   IV,    11.  5.  4|         organs by organized criminal groups.~ ~Organ trafficking is
344   IV,    11.  6.  2|         needed to protect vulnerable groups. This can be done using
345   IV,    11.  6.  2|           richer and better educated groups and is associated with higher
346   IV,    11.  6.  2|     financial burden on lower income groups (Hills, 2000). The relative
347   IV,    11.  6.  2|          finance care for population groups who cannot contribute such
348   IV,    11.  6.  2|            above, certain population groupse.g. those considered
349   IV,    11.  6.  3|         progressive if higher income groups pay disproportionately more
350   IV,    11.  6.  3|           higher to the lower income groups depends on both the progressiveness
351   IV,    11.  6.  3|            benefits the lower income groups disproportionately may create
352   IV,    11.  6.  3|             favour the higher income groups.~ ~While studies to date
353   IV,    11.  6.  4|             to the exclusion of some groups. Moreover, evidence suggests
354   IV,    11.  6.  4|       resource use. For example, the groups involved in reimbursement
355   IV,    11.  6.  5|          rates for diagnosis related groups (DRGs): A comparison of
356   IV,    12.  2    |             closely with stakeholder groups, and with regional and local
357   IV,    12.  2    |          gives governments and other groups a baseline from which to
358   IV,    12.  2    |         industry or related advocacy groups. In the context of public
359   IV,    12.  5    |             a system of consultative groups, set-up under the Community
360   IV,    12.  5    |     performed in a number of working groups established under the Public
361   IV,    12.  6    |           involves the following key groups of organizations in the
362   IV,    12.  6    |       Representation between the key groups of stakeholders is properly
363   IV,    12. 10    |          helping lower socioeconomic groups, are distributed through
364   IV,    12. 10    |            diseases: prophylaxis for groups in nursery school and primary
365   IV,    12. 10    |            for vulnerable population groups.~ ~ ~ ~Socio-economic determinants ~ ~
366   IV,    12. 10    |             for specific populations groups such as children and adolescent.
367   IV,    12. 10    |            and protecting vulnerable groups~ in society.~Gender issues~
368   IV,    12. 10    |              to the labor market for groups suffering discrimination~
369   IV,    12. 10    |              treat members of social groups vulnerable to psychoemotional
370   IV,    12. 10    |         cancer screening for the age groups of 60 to 69, in addition
371   IV,    12. 10    |              the lower socioeconomic groups, such measures related to
372   IV,    12. 10    |         society. Regional management groups are an important part of
373   IV,    12. 10    |           different products/product groups~ ~Domain of objective 5~ ~
374   IV,    13.Acr    |               pressure from interest groups and informal processes.~ ~
375   IV,    13.  1    |         differences among population groups with different socio-economic
376   IV,    13.  2.  3|       factors. Potentially sensitive groups at higher risk for damage
377   IV,    13.  2.  4|         impact within the population groups with specific lifestyles
378   IV,    13.  2.  4|           benefit for the population groups with unhealthy habits.~ ~
379   IV,    13.  3    |             disadvantaged population groups. Having a job represents
380   IV,    13.  3    |             are among the vulnerable groups facing an even higher risk.~ ~
381   IV,    13.  3    |             are among the vulnerable groups facing an even higher risk.~ ~ ~
382   IV,    13.  5    |            expectancy observed among groups with different socio-economic
383   IV,    13.  5    |              to lower socio-economic groups is needed. Virtually, all
384   IV,    13.  7.  5|              health among population groups such as children, elderly
385   IV,    13.  7.  5|        better identification of risk groups. Recent technical developments,
386   IV,    13.  8    |          from small, local community groups to transnational organisations.
387   IV,    13.  8    |     presenting the views of specific groups of European citizens to
388   IV,    13.  8    |          fora, platforms and working groups initiated by the European