Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |          developments had fundamental effects on society, on population
  2    I,     2.  1        |               overall economy via its effects on labour costs, labour
  3    I,     2.  3        |          partially compensate for the effects of low fertility and extended
  4    I,     2.  5        |            known for their biological effects, such as nano particles,
  5    I,     2.  7        |               have direct or indirect effects on health, it is up to the
  6    I,     2.  8        |            increase the public health effects. Various forms of electric
  7    I,     2.  8        |         Mainly from acute and chronic effects of outdoor air pollution,
  8    I,     2.  8        |              fossil fuels, but health effects primarily from air pollution~ ~
  9    I,     2.  8        |               Debate about long terni effects from exposure during mining.~ ~
 10    I,     2.  8        |         Mainly from acute and chronic effects of outdoor air pollution,
 11    I,     2.  8        |       influence the associated health effects. We have to make sure that
 12    I,     2.  8        |          associated with fewer health effects in general. There has been
 13    I,     2.  9        |               circulation and gravity effects, sea-level rise is not uniform
 14    I,     2.  9        |        surface water can have several effects on water quality and hence
 15    I,     2.  9        |            economic and environmental effects.~ ~Since the beginning of
 16    I,     2.  9        |         temperatures can have various effects on human health. Heat waves
 17    I,     2. 10.  1    |             occurrence of pleiotropic effects demonstrates that it may
 18    I,     2. 10.  1    |            purely based on phenotypic effects.~The future use of indicators
 19    I,     2. 10.  2    |           physics give way to quantum effects, causing optical, electrical
 20    I,     2. 10.  2    |              at a larger scale. These effects can give materials very
 21    I,     2. 10.  3    |                 The direct employment effects of ICTs are, on the one
 22    I,     2. 10.  3    |               of innovation. Indirect effects include the impact of technological
 23    I,     2. 10.  3(7) |          Diffusion and the employment effects of information and communication
 24    I,     2. 11        |                 Perin, J. (2005): The effects of geography and spatial
 25    I,     2. 11        |          Diffusion and the employment effects of information and communication
 26    I,     3.  2        |          partially compensate for the effects of low fertility and extended
 27    I,     3.  3        |             of births and deaths have effects on the shape of the population
 28   II,     5.  1.  1    |             suspected to have similar effects in humans.~Developmental
 29   II,     5.  1.  1    |       Developmental disorders~Various effects on development can be caused
 30   II,     5.  1.  3    |              learning process and its effects. Health care providers tend
 31   II,     5.  2.  5    |               of fats with favourable effects on the lipid profile (mono-and
 32   II,     5.  2.  6    |         Schrott H (2005). Pleiotropic effects of statins: benefit beyond
 33   II,     5.  2.  6    |      Trialists' Collaboration (2003). Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering
 34   II,     5.  2.  7    |       Organization 76:419-425.~Sac p. Effects on blood pressure of reduced
 35   II,     5.  3.  1    |          patients, after removing the effects of non cancer-related cause
 36   II,     5.  3.  7    |           favourable and unfavourable effects anticipated from screening,
 37   II,     5.  3.  7    |       informed one. The public health effects of a screening programme,
 38   II,     5.  5.  3    |            D.B, Klibanski, A. (2004): Effects of Anorexia Nervosa on Clinical,
 39   II,     5.  5.  3    |              that may have favourable effects on suicidality.~Hospital-Morbidity~
 40   II,     5.  5.  3    |        associated with metabolic side effects (Engl et al, 2006) the increased
 41   II,     5.  5.  3    |               demonstrated beneficial effects for psycho-education, family
 42   II,     5.  5.  3    |         conclusions on the preventive effects of such interventions. More
 43   II,     5.  5.  3    |            care. An evaluation of the effects of the interventions according
 44   II,     5.  5.  3    |             needed to separate direct effects from more general influences
 45   II,     5.  5.  3    |              are scarce and long-term effects of specific employment programs
 46   II,     5.  5.  3    |           that more than one of these effects implies there are strong
 47   II,     5.  5.  3    |        interferon beta has beneficial effects on the central nervous system (
 48   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and up to every day), side effects can interfere as well interferons
 49   II,     5.  5.  3    |   understanding of the potential side effects of these drugs is critical
 50   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Parliament Resolution on the effects of discriminatory treatment
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |               report26 concerning the effects of discriminatory treatment
 52   II,     5.  5.  3(26)|               842/2001 concerning the effects of discriminatory treatment
 53   II,     5.  6.  3    |           adverse physical and mental effects of the working place.~ ~
 54   II,     5.  7.  4    |             of many factors that have effects in different directions.
 55   II,     5.  7.  5    |          factors which exacerbate the effects of their diseases. Early
 56   II,     5.  8.  1    |           significant extra-pulmonary effects that may contribute to the
 57   II,     5.  8.  3    |               some important negative effects on the health related quality
 58   II,     5.  9. FB    | gastro-oesophageal reflux, mechanical effects of obesity, atopy and hormonal
 59   II,     5.  9.  1    |       physical, emotional, and social effects, leading to a reduced quality
 60   II,     5.  9.  4    |              awareness of the harmful effects of smoking in the EU. Tobacco
 61   II,     5.  9.  4    |              al, 2001).~ ~Some health effects of air pollution have been
 62   II,     5.  9.  4    |               Another project (Health effects of particles from motor
 63   II,     5. 10.  6    |             makers to prevent adverse effects for consumers, and at the
 64   II,     5. 10.  7    |                 Analysis and clinical effects of gluten in coeliac disease.
 65   II,     5. 11.  1    |               view. The psychological effects of relatively minor skin
 66   II,     5. 11.  1    |           reaction) has many systemic effects ranging from dehydration
 67   II,     5. 11.  3    |              several types of adverse effects in the human body, including
 68   II,     5. 11.  3    |              known about other health effects of piercing, in particularly
 69   II,     5. 11.  3    |          particularly about long-term effects. Consequently, the importance
 70   II,     5. 11.  4    |                Profound psychological effects~In addition to physical
 71   II,     5. 11.  4    |       Indirect costs e.g. the adverse effects on the quality of life and
 72   II,     5. 14.  4    |     associated with oral disease. The effects of nutritional changes demonstrate
 73   II,     5. 14.  4    |           understanding of the health effects of these complex developments
 74   II,     6.  3.  3    |          although intolerance to side effects and emergence of resistant
 75   II,     6.  3.  4    |        vaccine is not without adverse effects, there is a break point
 76   II,     6.  3.  5    |              their impact and adverse effects.~ ~Although Europe has maintained
 77   II,     6.  4.  5    |               agents and evaluate the effects of interventions. The following
 78   II,     8.  2.  1    |             of the seriously damaging effects of drinking alcohol during
 79   II,     8.  2.  2    |              compliance.~The economic effects of visual impairment can
 80   II,     9            |         during pregnancy. The harmful effects of smoking on perinatal
 81   II,     9            |             Cnattingius, 2004). These effects concern not only the perinatal
 82   II,     9            |             are of great concern. The effects of binge drinking on the
 83   II,     9            |            expectancies regarding its effects, and social norms regarding
 84   II,     9            |         prevention as well. Treatment effects appear to be similar in
 85   II,     9.  1.  1    |          Kelsch C, Boulton ML (1999): Effects of smoking during pregnancy.
 86   II,     9.  1.  1    |       Cnattingius S, Kiely JL (1994): Effects of maternal age, parity,
 87   II,     9.  1.  2    |         during pregnancy. The harmful effects of smoking on perinatal
 88   II,     9.  1.  2    |             Cnattingius, 2004). These effects concern not only the perinatal
 89   II,     9.  1.  2    |             are of great concern. The effects of binge drinking on the
 90   II,     9.  2.  2    |          include consideration of the effects of issues on children’s
 91   II,     9.  2.  3    |             prevalence, aetiology and effects of such a comparatively
 92   II,     9.  2.  3    |        childhood with likely enduring effects.~ ~Disabilities: We cannot
 93   II,     9.  2.  4    |            expectancies regarding its effects, and social norms regarding
 94   II,     9.  3.  1    |           have potentially beneficial effects on other organ systems.
 95   II,     9.  3.  1    |              yield positive oral bone effects.~ ~Uterine bleeding. Different
 96   II,     9.  3.  1    |         prostate problems or the side effects of surgery for prostate
 97   II,     9.  3.  1    |              sufferers can be severe. Effects include depressive symptoms
 98   II,     9.  3.  1    |            but also may have negative effects on a man’s interaction with
 99   II,     9.  3.  1    |             elderly. These peripheral effects are accompanied by “central100   II,     9.  3.  1    |         prevention as well. Treatment effects appear to be similar in
101   II,     9.  3.  1    |               in the understanding of effects, much work remains to be
102   II,     9.  3.  1    |          Bruzzone S Caselli G (2005): Effects of war losses on mortality
103   II,     9.  3.  2    |          Kelsch C, Boulton ML (1999): Effects of smoking during pregnancy.
104   II,     9.  3.  2    |       Cnattingius S, Kiely JL (1994): Effects of maternal age, parity,
105   II,     9.  4.  5    |      widowhood or divorce has adverse effects on health. Playing a part
106   II,     9.  4.  5    |          organisation have beneficial effects on health, improve a person’
107   II,     9.  4.  5    |       restrictions that have negative effects on the widow’s well-being.
108   II,     9.  4.  5    |           next step is to examine the effects of integration projects
109   II,     9.  5.  3    |            expectancies regarding the effects of alcohol and social norms
110   II,     9.  5.  4    |              are taken to counter the effects of inequity. The life quality
111  III,    10.  1.  1    |           knowledge of adverse health effects of tobacco use, attitudes
112  III,    10.  1.  1    |            studies have addressed the effects of energy expended in exercise
113  III,    10.  1.  1    |                expectations about the effects of alcohol consumption,
114  III,    10.  1.  3    |          Blundell JE, King NA (1998): Effects of exercise on appetite
115  III,    10.  1.  3    |            1347-60.~Fagard RH (2005): Effects of exercise, diet and their
116  III,    10.  1.  3    |       Tremblay A, Blundell JE (1997): Effects of exercise on appetite
117  III,    10.  1.  3    |            interactions and moderator effects. Psychol Bull 114(2):376-
118  III,    10.  1.  3    |          Saris WHM, Pichard C (2005): Effects of physical activity on
119  III,    10.  1.  3    |             1992a): Intergenerational effects – a review of environmentally
120  III,    10.  1.  3    |              I: The intergenerational effects of alcohol problems. Int
121  III,    10.  1.  3    |             1992b): Intergenerational effects – a review of environmentally
122  III,    10.  1.  3    |             II: The intergenerational effects of family disharmony. Int
123  III,    10.  1.  3    |           independent and interactive effects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 26(
124  III,    10.  2.  1    |              awareness on the adverse effects of smoking, induce individual
125  III,    10.  2.  1    |          asthma and other respiratory effects~Lower respiratory illness~
126  III,    10.  2.  1    |              fractures~ ~Reproductive effects in women: low birth weight~
127  III,    10.  2.  1    |      birth weight~Cervix~Reproductive effects in women (including reduced
128  III,    10.  2.  1    |             fertility)~ ~Reproductive effects in women: pre-term delivery*~
129  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Diseases and adverse health effects caused by active cigarette
130  III,    10.  2.  1    |           diseases and adverse health effects~Cardiovascular diseases
131  III,    10.  2.  1    |           diseases and adverse health effects~Effects on Maternal and
132  III,    10.  2.  1    |            and adverse health effects~Effects on Maternal and Child Health~
133  III,    10.  2.  1    |           diseases and adverse health effects~- Lung~- Mouth and throat:
134  III,    10.  2.  1    |              awareness of the harmful effects of tobacco smoking was low
135  III,    10.  2.  1    |            ETS) causes adverse health effects, including lung cancer,
136  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Nicotine has several effects on the brain. The activation
137  III,    10.  2.  1    |             decline in the withdrawal effects in addicted individuals,
138  III,    10.  2.  1    |                rather than the direct effects of nicotine (NID ).~Nicotine
139  III,    10.  2.  1    |     concentration, size of particles, effects of temperature and a host
140  III,    10.  2.  1    |        product, known as snus.~Health effects of oral tobacco use include
141  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2007). Other known health effects of snuff use include increase
142  III,    10.  2.  1    |           raising awareness about its effects on health and supporting
143  III,    10.  2.  1    |              men are at least in part effects of the established and widespread
144  III,    10.  2.  1    |      preliminary report on the Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products
145  III,    10.  2.  1    |           final opinion on the health effects of smokeless tobacco products
146  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Consequently, the harmful effects of smoking add to their
147  III,    10.  2.  1    |               2007): SCENHIRHealth Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products,
148  III,    10.  2.  1    |               2008): SCENHIRHealth Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products,
149  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       SCENHIR. Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products,
150  III,    10.  2.  1    |           than it is in its immediate effects. From a public policy perspective,
151  III,    10.  2.  1    |      perspective, it is the long term effects - taking into account alcohol’
152  III,    10.  2.  1    |               is evidence of positive effects on the increased knowledge
153  III,    10.  2.  1    |      information about a product, its effects and the industry that promotes
154  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and use) has inconclusive effects. Whilst drinking guidelines
155  III,    10.  2.  1    |          studies have also shown some effects on serving practices, but
156  III,    10.  2.  1    |             consumed. In terms of the effects on customer intoxication,
157  III,    10.  2.  1    |   intoxication have also found modest effects in reducing heavy consumption
158  III,    10.  2.  1    |             the right conditions, the effects can be dramatic (Kristenson
159  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Valkonen T, (2004): "The Effects of Regional Characteristics
160  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Olsson O, Wikström PH (1982): Effects of the experimental Saturday
161  III,    10.  2.  1    |           health, economic and social effects on all communities worldwide.
162  III,    10.  2.  1    |             are shown to have similar effects when used in community preventive
163  III,    10.  2.  1    |           higher dose toothpaste. The effects are dose-related, i.e.,
164  III,    10.  2.  1    |               evaluate the preventive effects of fluoride toothpaste in
165  III,    10.  2.  1    |               suggest that preventive effects would not be found in these
166  III,    10.  2.  1    |               of the health-enhancing effects of physical activity: first
167  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Maxwell K, Tucker L (1992): Effects of weight training on the
168  III,    10.  2.  1    |   environments or to the psychosocial effects perceived inequalities have
169  III,    10.  2.  1    |             obesity have considerable effects on morbidity and mortality.
170  III,    10.  2.  1    |               of the numerous adverse effects of folate deficiency and
171  III,    10.  2.  1    |       deficiency and the low toxicity effects, a higher intake might however
172  III,    10.  2.  1    |             they can have significant effects on wellbeing, health and
173  III,    10.  2.  1    |              are likely to have small effects unless supported by interventions
174  III,    10.  2.  1    |             for evaluating the health effects of all policies at national
175  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Ebbeling et al, 2002). The effects of a project or policy at
176  III,    10.  2.  4    |             occurrence of pleiotropic effects demonstrates already that
177  III,    10.  2.  4    |            purely based on phenotypic effects. Furthermore, by considering
178  III,    10.  2.  4    |            epigenomic and pleiotropic effects, the significance of environmental
179  III,    10.  2.  4    |             al., 2005);~· pleiotropic effects of susceptibility genes
180  III,    10.  2.  4    |              factor (e.g., epigenomic effects or the triggering role of
181  III,    10.  2.  4    |        clustersbased on pleiotropic effects and to develop such new
182  III,    10.  2.  5    |  environmental events have persisting effects on tissue structure and
183  III,    10.  2.  5    |       influence health, the long-term effects of foetal nutrition and
184  III,    10.  2.  5    |             cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence
185  III,    10.  2.  5    |          laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the
186  III,    10.  2.  5    |               intervention group, but effects on child development were
187  III,    10.  3.  1    |       exposure is causing any adverse effects on health still remains
188  III,    10.  3.  1    |              or may have, significant effects on human health. The clearest
189  III,    10.  3.  1    |         clearest connection to health effects is for the radioactive gas
190  III,    10.  3.  1    |         prevent or reduce the harmful effects of noise exposure. Not only
191  III,    10.  3.  1    |           opinion on “Possible Health effects of electromagnetic fields”,
192  III,    10.  3.  1    |          about noise exposure and its effects, and to draw up action plans
193  III,    10.  3.  1    |          positive and negative health effects. The positive effect is
194  III,    10.  3.  1    |              decreasing slowly as the effects of the international ban
195  III,    10.  3.  1    |             regarding possible health effects of exposure to low intensity
196  III,    10.  3.  1    |         assessment of possible health effects from long-term exposure
197  III,    10.  3.  1    |               Studies on neurological effects and reproductive effects
198  III,    10.  3.  1    |              effects and reproductive effects have not indicated any health
199  III,    10.  3.  1    |            induce cancer, enhance the effects of known carcinogens or
200  III,    10.  3.  1    |          consequences, cardiovascular effects, hormonal responses, including
201  III,    10.  3.  1    |              is associated to adverse effects on the cardiovascular system
202  III,    10.  3.  1    |         susceptible to the ill health effects of UVR than adults. In a
203  III,    10.  3.  1    |            concerning negative health effects of EMF, it is premature
204  III,    10.  3.  1    |             about noise exposure, its effects, and the measures considered
205  III,    10.  3.  1    |             SCENIHR) (2007): Possible effects of Electromagnetic Fields (
206  III,    10.  3.  2    |              environmental and health effects of diffused chemical releases
207  III,    10.  3.  2    |            and correlate with adverse effects on the environment and human
208  III,    10.  3.  2    |             toxicity and human health effects such as asthma, allergies,
209  III,    10.  3.  2    |          Ravindra et al, 2004). These effects are mainly attributed to
210  III,    10.  3.  2    |          including neurodevelopmental effects).~For others such as endocrine
211  III,    10.  3.  2    |              be drawn regarding their effects on humans.~ ~However, many
212  III,    10.  3.  2    |        indicators of potential health effects of chemicals in human. Indeed,
213  III,    10.  3.  2    |               number of physiological effects have been observed in these
214  III,    10.  3.  2    |           tissue malformations. These effects have also been reported
215  III,    10.  3.  2    |             cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence
216  III,    10.  3.  2    |          laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the
217  III,    10.  3.  2    |          snails) do also have adverse effects on mammalians at low concentrations.
218  III,    10.  3.  2    |               have neurodevelopmental effects, for example attention problems,
219  III,    10.  3.  2    |         humans. Recent studies on the effects of lead in humans suggest
220  III,    10.  3.  2    |        long-life articles, or delayed effects will stay with us for a
221  III,    10.  3.  4    |              migration-related health effects~Source: adapted from Climate
222  III,    10.  3.  4    |            data on the occurrence and effects of over 12.800 mass disasters
223  III,    10.  3.  4    |           last 50 years. However, the effects of measures that countries
224  III,    10.  3.  4    |               Northern Europe. Health effects include increased summer
225  III,    10.  3.  4    |             to prevent similar health effects in the future and mitigate
226  III,    10.  3.  4    |               future and mitigate the effects of high-temperature. Risk
227  III,    10.  3.  4    |             is different; heat island effects in all large urban environments
228  III,    10.  3.  4    |             countries, with important effects on human health (Figure
229  III,    10.  3.  4    |         aspects of floods into direct effects caused by the floodwaters (
230  III,    10.  3.  4    |             or injuries) and indirect effects caused by other flood effects (
231  III,    10.  3.  4    |         effects caused by other flood effects (such as waterborne, vector-borne
232  III,    10.  3.  4    |           diseases), acute or chronic effects of exposure to chemical
233  III,    10.  3.  4    |              deduce that major health effects of floods include traumatic
234  III,    10.  3.  4    |              toxic substances. Health effects are further aggravated by
235  III,    10.  3.  4    |               of flood-related health effects is directly related to flood
236  III,    10.  3.  4    |              aspects of flood-related effects have been inadequately investigated .
237  III,    10.  3.  4    |         Although the immediate health effects of the floods in Bulgaria
238  III,    10.  3.  4    |              the more enduring health effects in terms of mental health
239  III,    10.  3.  4    |           than 11 billion euro.~ ~The effects of droughts on human health
240  III,    10.  4.  1    |             both the risks of chronic effects of pollution on children’
241  III,    10.  4.  1    |            and the frequency of acute effects, such as the aggravation
242  III,    10.  4.  1    |             of a wide range of health effects, including increased mortality,
243  III,    10.  4.  1    |               as PM2.5 ) have serious effects on health, such as an increase
244  III,    10.  4.  1    | strongly-indicated respiratory health effects are particulate matter (
245  III,    10.  4.  1    |         toxicity and potential health effects.~ ~The WHO earlier estimated
246  III,    10.  4.  1    |       reduction in respiratory health effects associated to reduced air
247  III,    10.  4.  1    |            importance of the combined effects on children with allergic
248  III,    10.  4.  1    |          against significant negative effects of air pollution on human
249  III,    10.  4.  1    |            ozoneDirect SO2 and NO2 effects omitted, less evidence and
250  III,    10.  4.  1    |           available at:~htt ~ ~Health effects quantified in CAFE CBA included:~ ~·
251  III,    10.  4.  1    |             population~ ~Evidence for effects was achieved through:~ ~·
252  III,    10.  4.  1    |           time-series studies~- Acute effects on mortality~- Acute effects
253  III,    10.  4.  1    |          effects on mortality~- Acute effects on respiratory hospital
254  III,    10.  4.  1    |               the most serious health effects.~ ~Small particles and nano-particles
255  III,    10.  4.  2    |               production systems, the effects of increasing trade globalisation
256  III,    10.  4.  2    |            needed, the socio-economic effects and the environmental impact.
257  III,    10.  4.  2    |        substance~Food~Possible health effects~(in humans, or in experimental
258  III,    10.  4.  2    |               is anticipated; Various~effects in experimental~animals~
259  III,    10.  4.  2    |               disorders, neurological~effects; hormonal effects.~ ~Prohibited
260  III,    10.  4.  2    |        neurological~effects; hormonal effects.~ ~Prohibited in Europe
261  III,    10.  4.  2    |               None~Exposure or actual effects~unknown~Avoid overcooking
262  III,    10.  4.  2    |           Population such that~health effects could appear~in the long
263  III,    10.  4.  2    |               all~kinds of products~ ~Effects on the liver,~thyroid, immune system~
264  III,    10.  4.  2    |               PCB have had beneficial effects (EFSA, 2007b).~ ~Acrylamide~ ~
265  III,    10.  4.  2    |            cumulative and synergistic effects of pesticides. Particularly,
266  III,    10.  4.  2    |                They also have adverse effects on mammalians at low concentrations.
267  III,    10.  4.  2    |             the potential detrimental effects on health. Thus, in order
268  III,    10.  4.  2    |        substance~Food~Possible health effects~(in humans, or in experimental
269  III,    10.  4.  2    |             cereals~Gastro-intestinal effects,~headache, dizziness;~growth
270  III,    10.  4.  2    |               Acute gastro-intestinal~effects~ ~EU regulations~ ~DSP episodes
271  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Neurotoxic effect, various~effects~ ~None~ ~Monitoring~Van
272  III,    10.  4.  2    |               Acute gastro-intestinal~Effects~ ~EU regulations~ ~Episode
273  III,    10.  4.  2    |        thornapple~ ~Gastro-intestinal effects,~respiratory disorder,~coma,
274  III,    10.  4.  2    |         alkaloids~Various herbal teas~Effects in the liver,~carcinogenic~ ~
275  III,    10.  4.  2    |    assessments and extrapolation from effects in the observable high dose
276  III,    10.  4.  2    |  identification describes the adverse effects of the substance;~· the
277  III,    10.  4.  2    |              sensitive adverse health effects reported in the available
278  III,    10.  4.  2    |          proven validity intermediate effects when ideal endpoints are
279  III,    10.  4.  2    |               production systems, the effects of increasing trade globalisation
280  III,    10.  4.  3    |          diseases are the main health effects of poor water quality. There
281  III,    10.  4.  3    |              also neuro-developmental effects in children. The WHO Drinking
282  III,    10.  4.  3    |          documented eco-toxicological effects on water living species.
283  III,    10.  4.  3    |          environment from the adverse effects of discharges of urban waste
284  III,    10.  4.  3    |          environment from the adverse effects of wastewater discharges.
285  III,    10.  4.  4    |            result in different health effects such as allergies, which
286  III,    10.  4.  4    |              environmental and health effects of diffused chemical releases
287  III,    10.  4.  5    |           substances can have serious effects on human health through
288  III,    10.  4.  5    |           insights on possible health effects are likely to be gained
289  III,    10.  4.  5    |          landfills and adverse health effects, the current evidence is
290  III,    10.  4.  5    |            evidence of adverse health effects possibly associated to well
291  III,    10.  4.  5    |     epidemiological studies on health effects of land-filling lack direct
292  III,    10.  4.  5    |       scientific literature on health effects of waste landfills provides
293  III,    10.  4.  5    |               site and adverse health effects. The evidence, somewhat
294  III,    10.  4.  5    |            indicating possible health effects (i.e. an increase of soft
295  III,    10.  4.  5    |               to reduce their harmful effects. Alternatively, waste materials
296  III,    10.  4.  5    |              far as possible negative effects on the environment from
297  III,    10.  4.  5    |            important that the adverse effects on health due to nuisance (
298  III,    10.  4.  5    |              help judge the potential effects of a proposal as well as
299  III,    10.  4.  5    |             the distribution of those effects. Understanding and managing
300  III,    10.  4.  5    |            Further insights on health effects of landfills and incinerators
301  III,    10.  4.  5    |            evidence of adverse health effects related to landfills and
302  III,    10.  4.  5    |               Vrijheid (2000): Health effects of residence near hazardous
303  III,    10.  5.  1    |            result in potential health effects (Federal Environment Agency,
304  III,    10.  5.  1    |         asbestos and lead, the health effects have been identified many
305  III,    10.  5.  1    |              dimensions: the physical effects of high population density (
306  III,    10.  5.  1    |       diseases) and the psychological effects of crowding. Multi-occupation
307  III,    10.  5.  1    |              2005). The environmental effects include asthma and allergic
308  III,    10.  5.  1    |              to having cardiovascular effects, excessive noise is known
309  III,    10.  5.  1    |            one of the most recognized effects of human settlements in
310  III,    10.  5.  1    |       predominant while direct health effects are rare. On the other side,
311  III,    10.  5.  1    |        against housing-related health effects and injuries, and mitigate
312  III,    10.  5.  1    |              environmental and health effects of waste management: municipal
313  III,    10.  5.  1    |             Fedoruk MJ (2007): Health effects of mold in children. Pediatric
314  III,    10.  5.  1    |       Wargocki P, Wyon DP (2007): The effects of outdoor air supply rate
315  III,    10.  5.  1    |       Copenhagen~ ~WHO (2005): Health effects of transport-related air
316  III,    10.  5.  2    |              quite a number of health effects, rural citizens may have
317  III,    10.  5.  3    |             potential negative health effects from such kind of exposure
318  III,    10.  5.  3    |          level.~The direct employment effects of ICTs are, on the one
319  III,    10.  5.  3    |               of innovation. Indirect effects include the impact of technological
320  III,    10.  5.  3    |              understood. The damaging effects as well as the consequences
321  III,    10.  5.  3    |            been shown to have pointed effects on the improvement of the
322  III,    10.  5.  3    |               respect to the economic effects, a summary evaluation of
323  III,    10.  5.  3    |          health expenditure. Observed effects are, among other things,
324  III,    10.  5.  3    |               the observed short-term effects even more remarkable. Summed
325  III,    10.  6.  1    |     improvements show crime reduction effects and increase the confidence
326  III,    10.  6.  1    |          Austin DM, et al (2002): The effects of neighborhood conditions
327  III,    10.  6.  2    |              reduction in the harmful effects of excessive gambling.~ ~ ~
328  III,    10.  6.  3    |     improvements show crime reduction effects and increase the confidence
329   IV,    11.  1.  5    |     improvement activities; has clear effects on priority setting; yet
330   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               assessing the spillover effects of interventions onto behaviours
331   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         challenges with assessing the effects of financial incentives
332   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            physical and psychological effects of prolonged hospital stays
333   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               evidence for the actual effects of the payment method on
334   IV,    11.  3.  2    |           similar pharmacotherapeutic effects (as in Germany and the Netherlands)
335   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              charges have undesirable effects on equity in two ways: by
336   IV,    11.  6.  3    |       insurance and negative economic effects of linking insurance contributions
337   IV,    11.  6.  4    |             of HTA is to evaluate the effects of technology on health,
338   IV,    11.  6.  4    |           requires distinguishing the effects of care from the effects
339   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              effects of care from the effects of many other factors that
340   IV,    11.  6.  5    |           Improving health: measuring effects of medical care." Milbank
341   IV,    11.  6.  5    |      Durand-Zaleski I et al. (2000): "Effects of financial incentives
342   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              mixed system of payment: effects on behaviour of primary
343   IV,    11.  6.  5    |        Changing remuneration systems: effects on activity in general practice."
344   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Shi L et al. (2005): "The Effects Of Specialist Supply On
345   IV,    12.  2        |               of fats with favourable effects on the lipid profile (mono-and
346   IV,    12.  2        |               will also have positive effects on the efficient use of
347   IV,    12.  2        |           than it is in its immediate effects. From a public policy perspective,
348   IV,    12.  2        |      perspective, it is the long term effects, taking into account alcohol’
349   IV,    12.  2        |               is evidence of positive effects on increased knowledge about
350   IV,    12.  2        |      information about a product, its effects and the industry that promotes
351   IV,    12.  2        |             and use) has inconclusive effects. Whilst drinking guidelines
352   IV,    12.  2        |          studies have also shown some effects on serving practices, but
353   IV,    12.  2        |             consumed. In terms of the effects on customer intoxication,
354   IV,    12.  2        |   intoxication have also found modest effects in reducing heavy consumption
355   IV,    12.  2        |             the right conditions, the effects can be dramatic. An intervention
356   IV,    12.  4        |           understand and mitigate the effects of climate change, and ensure
357   IV,    12. 10        |             preventing harmful health effects of environmental tobacco smoke
358   IV,    12. 10        |         ultraviolet radiation and the effects of mobile communication.~
359   IV,    12. 10        |      Intermediate priority~The health effects of extreme weather events (
360   IV,    12. 10        |               and control of the side effects of tobacco consumption;~ ~
361   IV,    12. 10        |            and a reduction in harmful effects of excessive gambling.~ ~
362   IV,    12. 10        |               obliged to consider the effects and to monitor their own
363   IV,    13.  2.  1    |               various types of health effects and both diseases and mortality
364   IV,    13.  2.  3    |              elicit greatly differing effects in different people.~ ~ ~
365   IV,    13.  2.  3    |               relates to the combined effects of smoking, lack of physical activity
366   IV,    13.  6.  1    |             Measurement of burden and effects of ill-health in children~ ~
367   IV,    13.  6.  1    |                2003), in children the effects of illness are very different.
368   IV,    13.  6.  1    |             disability or handicap;~· Effects on the child of loss of
369   IV,    13.  7.  3    |             activities include health effects of the exposure to environmental