Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1            |            most relevant diseases and disorders as well as health determinants
  2    I,     2.  5        |          because of muscular-skeletal disorders. Higher skilled workers
  3   II,     5.  1.  1    |          diseases; mental disease and disorders; neurodegenerative and non
  4   II,     5.  1.  1    |            Non-communicable diseases, disorders and disabilities represent
  5   II,     5.  1.  1    |         Neuropsychiatric diseases and disorders~ ~· Mood/anxiety disorders
  6   II,     5.  1.  1    |            disorders~ ~· Mood/anxiety disorders and suicide~The following
  7   II,     5.  1.  1    |            and other diagnosed mental disorders); social isolation; physical
  8   II,     5.  1.  1    |          means of suicide.~ ~· Eating disorders~Social pressure to be thin,
  9   II,     5.  1.  1    |        contribute to fall ill. Eating disorders are not only influenced
 10   II,     5.  1.  1    |                In other words, eating disorders are caused by an environment
 11   II,     5.  1.  1    |                  Other nervous system disorders~Exposure in utero or during
 12   II,     5.  1.  1    |              in humans.~Developmental disorders~Various effects on development
 13   II,     5.  5        |         Mental and brain diseases and disorders~ ~
 14   II,     5.  5.Acr    |            the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders~GP~General Practitioners~
 15   II,     5.  5.Int    |        through to complex psychiatric disorders. Depression and depression-related
 16   II,     5.  5.Int    |           illness. People with mental disorders may face stigma, discrimination
 17   II,     5.  5.Int    |        factors for some common mental disorders. Women are at much greater
 18   II,     5.  5.Int    |               due to neuropsychiatric disorders. The most common forms of
 19   II,     5.  5.Int    |          health in the EU are anxiety disorders and depression. Projections
 20   II,     5.  5.Int    |      attributable to mental and brain disorders will rise to 15%13. By 2020,
 21   II,     5.  5.Int    |           bipolar and other psychotic disorders is over 1%, corresponding
 22   II,     5.  5.Int    |            burden worldwide.~ ~Eating disorders: It is likely that eating
 23   II,     5.  5.Int    |              It is likely that eating disorders are caused by a combination
 24   II,     5.  5.Int    |              a family history of mood disorders such as depression may be
 25   II,     5.  5.Int    |           especially affected. Eating disorders are often associated with
 26   II,     5.  5.Int    |         reliability of data on eating disorders, particularly as research
 27   II,     5.  5.Int(18)|           2004): Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison of Western
 28   II,     5.  5.Int    |              treatment of psychiatric disorders and earlier detection and
 29   II,     5.  5.Int    |               for depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia and other
 30   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Depression, mood/anxiety disorders and suicides~ ~
 31   II,     5.  5.  1    |              1.1. Introduction~ ~Mood disorders. Mood disorders, especially
 32   II,     5.  5.  1    |   Introduction~ ~Mood disorders. Mood disorders, especially unipolar depression
 33   II,     5.  5.  1    |           co-morbid with other mental disorders such as anxiety disorders (
 34   II,     5.  5.  1    |             disorders such as anxiety disorders (Kessler et al 1996) and
 35   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Most the costs for mood disorders are indirect and include
 36   II,     5.  5.  1    |              third of those with mood disorders have had a contact with
 37   II,     5.  5.  1    |         stigma associated with mental disorders (Thornicroft 2008), health
 38   II,     5.  5.  1    |           Lecrubier, 2008).~ ~Anxiety disorders. There are four types of
 39   II,     5.  5.  1    |             are four types of anxiety disorders: Obsessive-compulsive disorders,
 40   II,     5.  5.  1    |       disorders: Obsessive-compulsive disorders, phobic anxiety disorders,
 41   II,     5.  5.  1    |             disorders, phobic anxiety disorders, other anxiety disorders (
 42   II,     5.  5.  1    |              disorders, other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder and
 43   II,     5.  5.  1    |           stress including adjustment disorders. Anxiety disorders are often
 44   II,     5.  5.  1    |         adjustment disorders. Anxiety disorders are often co-morbid with
 45   II,     5.  5.  1    |          co-morbid with other anxiety disorders or mood disorders (Kessler,
 46   II,     5.  5.  1    |             anxiety disorders or mood disorders (Kessler, 2007). Anxiety
 47   II,     5.  5.  1    |               Kessler, 2007). Anxiety disorders are common; a WHO survey
 48   II,     5.  5.  1    |         adolescence, but some anxiety disorders have a later onset in adulthood (
 49   II,     5.  5.  1    |        Kessler et al., 2007). Anxiety disorders are often chronic, even
 50   II,     5.  5.  1    |          increase the risk of anxiety disorders (Fryers, 2007).~ ~Anxiety
 51   II,     5.  5.  1    |              Fryers, 2007).~ ~Anxiety disorders cause substantial impairment
 52   II,     5.  5.  1    |     association with mood and anxiety disorders is robust. Psychological
 53   II,     5.  5.  1    |            are associated with mental disorders, especially with mood disorders
 54   II,     5.  5.  1    |       disorders, especially with mood disorders but also with substance
 55   II,     5.  5.  1    |               et al., 2008).~ ~Mental disorders are estimated to be undertreated
 56   II,     5.  5.  1    |         relevant for mood and anxiety disorders and suicides are presented
 57   II,     5.  5.  1    |               5.1.~ ~Mood and anxiety disorders. There are no specific data
 58   II,     5.  5.  1    |            addressing mood or anxiety disorders only. HfA includes incidence
 59   II,     5.  5.  1    |          includes incidence of mental disorders as total per 100 000 population
 60   II,     5.  5.  1    |            for newly diagnosed mental disorders. These data have been obtained
 61   II,     5.  5.  1    |           from mental and behavioural disorders, number of psychiatric care
 62   II,     5.  5.  1    |           concerning mood and anxiety disorders cannot be derived from this
 63   II,     5.  5.  1    |              in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. The ESEMeD output include
 64   II,     5.  5.  1    |              data on mood and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders
 65   II,     5.  5.  1    |              disorders, substance use disorders and suicidal ideations and
 66   II,     5.  5.  1    |              in Chapter 5.5.1. Mental Disorders. Two Eurobarometer surveys
 67   II,     5.  5.  1    |             stigma attached to mental disorders. The Eurobarometer data
 68   II,     5.  5.  1    |             most severe mental health disorders such as psychotic disorders.~ ~·
 69   II,     5.  5.  1    |           disorders such as psychotic disorders.~ ~· Other population surveys~ ~
 70   II,     5.  5.  1    |            surveys~ ~Mood and anxiety disorders.~ESEMeD and the Eurobarometers
 71   II,     5.  5.  1    |         detail in Chapter 5.5.1. Mood Disorders.~ ~ ~
 72   II,     5.  5.  1    |              lost in mood and anxiety disorders~ ~The ESEMeD study is based
 73   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  for mood and anxiety disorders as the total in the six
 74   II,     5.  5.  1    |        prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the six ESEMeD countries~ ~
 75   II,     5.  5.  1    |             Study.~ ~Anxiety and mood disorders were associated to considerable
 76   II,     5.  5.  1    |          burden of some mental health disorders and no disorder and some
 77   II,     5.  5.  1    |              from mood and/or anxiety disorders had had suicidal thoughts.
 78   II,     5.  5.  1    |              in some mood and anxiety disorders in the six ESEMeD countries~ ~
 79   II,     5.  5.  1    |         relevant for mood and anxiety disorders and suicides. These themes
 80   II,     5.  5.  1    |     Programmes concerning mental/mood disorders and suicide~ ~The first
 81   II,     5.  5.  1    |           action for mood and anxiety disorders and suicides. Thus, several
 82   II,     5.  5.  1    |        prevention of mood and anxiety disorders and suicides (European Commission,
 83   II,     5.  5.  1    |         Depression and Stress Related Disorders in Europe (2001-3) targeted
 84   II,     5.  5.  1    |               and suicide and related disorders.~· Ensuring relevant information
 85   II,     5.  5.  1    |              relevance to mental/mood disorders and suicide~ ~Several initiatives
 86   II,     5.  5.  1    |  discrimination of people with mental disorders, the social inclusion of
 87   II,     5.  5.  1    |              and prevention of mental disorders.~ ~It is evident that better
 88   II,     5.  5.  1    |            collected on mental health disorders through the use of surveys
 89   II,     5.  5.  1    |          2004a). Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from
 90   II,     5.  5.  1    |            the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr
 91   II,     5.  5.  1    |            the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr
 92   II,     5.  5.  1    |             the Epidemiology of Mentl Disorders (ESEMeD). J Clin Psychiatry
 93   II,     5.  5.  1    |           study. Journal of Affective Disorders, epub online.~ ~International
 94   II,     5.  5.  1    |               distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization'
 95   II,     5.  5.  1    |    undertreatment of anxiety and mood disorders: results from 3 European
 96   II,     5.  5.  1    |          specific mental and physical disorders across the world: Result
 97   II,     5.  5.  2    |       describe various kinds of brain disorders which all involve the progressive
 98   II,     5.  5.  2    |   difficulties in swallowing.~ ~These disorders affect the people’s ability
 99   II,     5.  5.  2(25)|         disease and the prevention of disorders of the cognitive functions
100   II,     5.  5.  2    |         disease and the prevention of disorders of the cognitive functions
101   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       5.5.3.1. Eating Disorders~ ~
102   II,     5.  5.  3    |              1. Introduction~ ~Eating disorders are a serious and complex
103   II,     5.  5.  3    |             that stated : “[…] eating disorders are now seen in developing
104   II,     5.  5.  3    |    contribution in the rise of eating disorders is the exposure to Western
105   II,     5.  5.  3    |  characteristics” (WHO, 2003).~Eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia
106   II,     5.  5.  3    |            National Centre for Eating Disorders, 2008). Eating disorders
107   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Disorders, 2008). Eating disorders are more common in adolescents
108   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSMR-IV)
109   II,     5.  5.  3    |          methods for measuring eating disorders~ ~Qualitative studies with
110   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and incidence of eating disorders. Some national data are
111   II,     5.  5.  3    |              press) deals with eating disorders and therefore collected
112   II,     5.  5.  3    |             which inform about eating disorders are limited to the rate
113   II,     5.  5.  3    |            about prevalence of eating disorders. However, some data are
114   II,     5.  5.  3    |         specialized Center for Eating Disorders in Vilnius (www.valgymosutrikimai.
115   II,     5.  5.  3    |       research in the field of eating disorders. For example, the NIVEL
116   II,     5.  5.  3    |              and prevalence of eating disorders in the practice of general
117   II,     5.  5.  3    |               in patients with eating disorders, territorial diversity and
118   II,     5.  5.  3    |         metabolic diseases and mental disorders are collected. The data
119   II,     5.  5.  3    |         adolescents at risk of eating disorders (Austrian Council Presidency,
120   II,     5.  5.  3    |               diagnostic, personality disorders, biomarkers, substance abuse
121   II,     5.  5.  3    |            population groups~ ~Eating disorders are rare in population and
122   II,     5.  5.  3    |        contribute to fall ill. Eating disorders are not only influenced
123   II,     5.  5.  3    |                In other words, eating disorders are caused by an environment
124   II,     5.  5.  3    |             websites promoting eating disorders. Generally, pro-eating disorder
125   II,     5.  5.  3    |               to the fact that eating disorders are an increasing problem
126   II,     5.  5.  3    |            and do not focus on eating disorders. National and international
127   II,     5.  5.  3    |          update data regarding eating disorders. Routinely analysed data
128   II,     5.  5.  3    |         reducing the number of eating disorders and therefore needs to be
129   II,     5.  5.  3    |    adolescents about: what are eating disorders, how to prevent and medicate
130   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders Inc, 2005).~In the future,
131   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders Inc. (2005): Eating disorders
132   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Disorders Inc. (2005): Eating disorders prevention: parents are
133   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2007): Outcomes of Eating Disorders: A Systematic review of
134   II,     5.  5.  3    |       International Journal of Eating Disorders 40:4 293-309.~De Henauw
135   II,     5.  5.  3    |       biospychosocial Model of Eating Disorders?. International Journal
136   II,     5.  5.  3    |       International Journal of Eating Disorders, Vol. 18, No. 4, 351-357.~
137   II,     5.  5.  3    |               and Incidence of Eating Disorders. Published online in Wiley
138   II,     5.  5.  3    |           1583.~NEDA (National Eating Disorders Association) (2004): What
139   II,     5.  5.  3    |             2004): What Causes Eating Disorders? Available at: htt f (article
140   II,     5.  5.  3    |            National Centre for Eating Disorders (2008). Available at: htt / (
141   II,     5.  5.  3    |     Organization (WHO) (2003): Eating disorders. National Library for Health
142   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition~ECED~European
143   II,     5.  5.  3    |            European Council on Eating Disorders~EDE-Q~Eating Disorder Examination
144   II,     5.  5.  3    |              5.3.2. Schizophrenia and disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum~ ~
145   II,     5.  5.  3    |       instance disorganized thinking. Disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum
146   II,     5.  5.  3    |           with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have a high level of excess
147   II,     5.  5.  3    |             due to treatable physical disorders. There is a huge gap between
148   II,     5.  5.  3    |         Compared to other psychiatric disorders the greatest amount of expenditures
149   II,     5.  5.  3    |            incidence rates for mental disorders as a whole. The calculated
150   II,     5.  5.  3    |            registries for psychiatric disorders in most of the European
151   II,     5.  5.  3    |      diagnostic groups of psychiatric disorders. In general, the quality
152   II,     5.  5.  3    |            mainly caused by co-morbid disorders and suicide (Saha et al,
153   II,     5.  5.  3    |           applied also to treat other disorders, and limited data are available
154   II,     5.  5.  3    |               prevalence of psychotic disorders in EUGLOREH Countries.~The
155   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) where the value
156   II,     5.  5.  3    |     percentage of co-morbid addictive disorders should all be addressed
157   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Europe are neuropsychiatric disorders (depression in third place,
158   II,     5.  5.  3    |              third place, alcohol use disorders sixth rank, self inflicted
159   II,     5.  5.  3    |             on Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) (Demyttenaere et
160   II,     5.  5.  3    |               most severe psychiatric disorders.~The extent and quality
161   II,     5.  5.  3    |              health budgets to mental disorders: Although mental disorders
162   II,     5.  5.  3    |            disorders: Although mental disorders represent 20% of the disease
163   II,     5.  5.  3    |             on Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) providing information
164   II,     5.  5.  3    |          treatment in cases of severe disorders was not met, many people
165   II,     5.  5.  3    |              people with subthreshold disorders were treated. A Nordic study
166   II,     5.  5.  3    |            people afflicted by mental disorders: More than 60% abandon from
167   II,     5.  5.  3    |          evaluated the costs of brain disorders in Europe by an analysis
168   II,     5.  5.  3    |           this analysis are psychotic disorders represented mainly by schizophrenia.
169   II,     5.  5.  3    |          hospital stays due to mental disorders were about 2.5 times as
170   II,     5.  5.  3    |               3.3.6). Since psychotic disorders account for the highest
171   II,     5.  5.  3    |         evaluation of costs for brain disorders was performed by the European
172   II,     5.  5.  3    |             people affected by mental disorders carry an enormous amount
173   II,     5.  5.  3    |            fight the stigma of mental disorders. Such programmes are, however,
174   II,     5.  5.  3    |          ReportPrevention of Mental Disorders: Effective Interventions
175   II,     5.  5.  3    |            2005) mentions 7 groups of disorders for which effective prevention
176   II,     5.  5.  3    |             be designed. One of these disorders is schizophrenia. But when
177   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe.
178   II,     5.  5.  3    |               2005):Cost of psychotic disorders in Europe. Eur J Neurol
179   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization
180   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Prevention of psychotic disorders”. Die Psychiatrie 4:172-
181   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug
182   II,     5.  5.  3    |             epidemiology of affective disorders and schizophrenia World
183   II,     5.  5.  3    |               for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization
184   II,     5.  5.  3    |          2005a): Prevention of Mental Disorders: Effective Interventions
185   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Introduction~ ~Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a lifelong neuro-developmental
186   II,     5.  5.  3    |               several closely-related disorders exist; they share the same
187   II,     5.  5.  3    |             or natural history. These disorders mentioned above are now
188   II,     5.  5.  3    |              known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).~ASDs include the
189   II,     5.  5.  3    |             have related but distinct disorders:~· Asperger’s Syndrome is
190   II,     5.  5.  3    |             sources~ ~Autism Spectrum Disorders seem to be on the increase
191   II,     5.  5.  3    |         public health burden of these disorders is now a considerable one.~
192   II,     5.  5.  3    |         prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from 4 per 10,000
193   II,     5.  5.  3    |        detection and diagnosis of the disorders, particularly in the United
194   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Epidemiology of autistic disorders and other pervasive developmental
195   II,     5.  5.  3    |               pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
196   II,     5.  5.  3    |           Disease for Autism Spectrum Disorders in Spain in 2003. Journal
197   II,     5.  5.  3    |             of Autism and Development Disorders, 10.~ ~ ~
198   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Acronyms~ ~ASD~Autism Spectrum Disorders~CDD~Childhood disintegrative
199   II,     5.  5.  3    |        ascertainment. Cerebrovascular disorders are the most common etiological
200   II,     5.  5.  3    |            against neurodevelopmental disorders can be likely explanations
201   II,     5.  5.  3    |           stroke and degenerative CNS disorders) and to an increased ascertainment
202   II,     5.  5.  3    |             compared. Several somatic disorders were significantly more
203   II,     5.  5.  3    |               tumors, cerebrovascular disorders and Alzheimer’s disease
204   II,     5.  5.  3    |              as an outcome for mental disorders. A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry
205   II,     5.  5.  3    |              1990): Survey of seizure disorders in the French Southwest.
206   II,     5.  5.  3    |        compared to other neurological disorders. Furthermore, comorbidity
207   II,     5.  5.  3    |              common neurodegenerative disorders (von Campenhausen et al,
208   II,     5.  5.  3    |             degeneration (CBD). These disorders, coined as “atypical parkinsonism”,
209   II,     5.  5.  3    |             disturbances (psychiatric disorders (depression, hallucinations,
210   II,     5.  5.  3    |         calculate the burden of brain disorders estimated the number of
211   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Especially psychiatric disorders such as depression have
212   II,     5.  5.  3    |          estimated the costs of brain disorders in the different European
213   II,     5.  5.  3    |              that the costs for brain disorders are generally higher in
214   II,     5.  5.  3    |              been associated with the disorders is low (Gasser, 2007). Environmental
215   II,     5.  5.  3    |            focus on other more common disorders, such as Alzheimer’s dementia.~
216   II,     5.  5.  3    |               also awareness of brain disorders in Europe (htt ). Among
217   II,     5.  5.  3    |          economic evaluation of brain disorders in Europe (Andlin-Sobocki
218   II,     5.  5.  3    |       prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders including PD will increase
219   II,     5.  5.  3    |              Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe.
220   II,     5.  6.  1    |       fragility fractures; (3) spinal disorders e.g. low back pain; (4)
221   II,     5.  6.  1    |          regional and widespread pain disorders; (5) musculoskeletal injuries
222   II,     5.  6.  1    |          congenital and developmental disorders. Problems and conditions
223   II,     5.  6.  4    |            second only to respiratory disorders (Stansfeld, 1995). Musculoskeletal
224   II,     5.  6.  4    |          Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders cause more than half of
225   II,     5.  6.  4    |           pain, 20% neck and shoulder disorders whereas only 3% had rheumatoid
226   II,     5.  6.  4    | musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders by diagnosis and gender.
227   II,     5.  6.  4    |           pensions, along with mental disorders and cardiovascular disorders.
228   II,     5.  6.  4    |          disorders and cardiovascular disorders. The relative importance
229   II,     5.  6.  4    |            mental and musculoskeletal disorders are 2-4 times more frequent
230   II,     5.  6.  4    |          frequent than cardiovascular disorders as causes for disability
231   II,     5.  6.  4    |         pensions. In Norway, low back disorders are the most common reason (
232   II,     5.  6.  4    | musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders by diagnosis and gender.
233   II,     5.  6.  6    |         importance of musculoskeletal disorders as a cause of chronic health
234   II,     5.  6.  6    |          disablement due to rheumatic disorders in a British population:
235   II,     5.  6.  6    |              selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis
236   II,     5.  6.  6    |             burden of musculoskeletal disorders in the community: the comparative
237   II,     5.  7.  7    |                prevalence, associated disorders, and awareness. Kidney Int
238   II,     5.  8.  3    |            burden associated to these disorders.~ ~Incidence~ ~There are
239   II,     5.  8.  3    |            digestive ulcer, articular disorders, cataract, migraine, skin
240   II,     5.  8.  4    |           become more frequent. These disorders will be better managed through
241   II,     5.  9. FB    |               expressions of allergic disorders include allergic rhinitis
242   II,     5.  9. FB    |             the aetiology of allergic disorders. A deeper knowledge of the
243   II,     5.  9.  1    |              epidemiology of allergic disorders has recently gained great
244   II,     5.  9.  3    |               reductions in all three disorders, 16 recorded increases,
245   II,     5.  9.  3    |     registered decreases in all three disorders, 20 showed increases, and
246   II,     5.  9.  3    |         showed increases in all three disorders more often than showing
247   II,     5.  9.  3    |     progressively aware that allergic disorders represent a major and increasing
248   II,     5.  9.  4    |          Italian Study of Respiratory Disorders in Childhood and Environment,
249   II,     5.  9.  5    |             the aetiology of allergic disorders. A better implementation
250   II,     5. 10.  7    |      admissions for systemic allergic disorders in England: analysis of
251   II,     5. 11.  1    |            other more serious medical disorders. The high prevalence of
252   II,     5. 11.  1    |            other more serious medical disorders (Ryan et al, 1991).~Unlike
253   II,     5. 11.  3    |              holds true for some skin disorders. Metabolic diseases (e.g.
254   II,     5. 11.  3    |             skin.~Systemic autoimmune disorderscollagen vascular diseases,
255   II,     5. 11.  3    |             and of autoimmune bullous disorders (pemphigus and pemphigoid
256   II,     5. 11.  3    |          severe autoimmune blistering disorders such as pemphigus (resulting
257   II,     5. 11.  4    |           scabies are intensely itchy disorders, leading to loss of sleep
258   II,     5. 11.  4    |            more traditionalmedicaldisorders such as angina and hypertension.~ ~
259   II,     5. 11.  5    |            asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and birth defects, water-
260   II,     5. 13        |       orthopaedic problems and mental disorders. A high BMI in adolescence
261   II,     5. 14.  3    |          burden of these diseases and disorders, falling disproportionately
262   II,     5. 15.Acr    |         National Organization of Rare Disorders~OD~Orphan Drugs~RD~Rare Diseases~ ~
263   II,     5. 15.  2    |               human genes and genetic disorders. It consists of full-text
264   II,     5. 15.  2    |         National Organization of Rare Disorders (NORD database, 2007). The
265   II,     5. 15.  3    |   rare diseases are mendelian genetic disorders and all mendelian genetic
266   II,     5. 15.  3    |             and all mendelian genetic disorders are rare as the causal mutations
267   II,     5. 15.  3    |            concerns mendelian genetic disorders, the MIM catalogue lists
268   II,     5. 15.  4    |               Fibrosis, Rare bleeding disorders, Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency,
269   II,     7.  4.  6    |           other drug use, and anxiety disorders;~· biological factors or
270   II,     8.  2.  1    |             of obesity, mental health disorders, and lower rates of cardiovascular
271   II,     8.  2.  1    |          Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version IV, 1994) provides
272   II,     8.  2.  1    |            are at risk for infectious disorders that may be harmful to a
273   II,     8.  2.  1    |         family histories of metabolic disorders. Most conditions, however,
274   II,     8.  2.  1    |          Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Edition, Washington
275   II,     8.  2.  1    |             for assessing psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual
276   II,     8.  2.  1    |        neurological and substance use disorders WHO Geneva~World Health
277   II,     8.  2.  2    |          outcomes of childhood visual disorders. Ophtalmic Epidemiology
278   II,     9.  1.  1    |               is a group of permanent disorders of movement and/or posture
279   II,     9.  1.  2    |           figures). Many rare genetic disorders are diagnosed later in childhood
280   II,     9.  2.  1    |            obesity/overweight, eating disorders, teenage pregnancy and childbearing
281   II,     9.  2.  3    |            gall bladder and endocrine disorders (WHO/HSBC 2004). Malta and
282   II,     9.  2.  3    |              or universally.~ ~Eating disorders. Male and female adolescents
283   II,     9.  2.  3    |               causal factor in eating disorders. Weight control methods
284   II,     9.  2.  3    |          disability on children. Mood disorders such as depression are known
285   II,     9.  3.  1    |          psychiatric and neurological disorders.~ ~The European Commission (
286   II,     9.  3.  1    |        through to complex psychiatric disorders.~ ~Depression. Apart from
287   II,     9.  3.  1    |       embolism, heart failure, rhythm disorders, alcoholic cardio-myopathy
288   II,     9.  3.  1    |             as a result of congenital disorders, with a rapid rise between
289   II,     9.  3.  1    |               presence of haemostatic disorders, immobilization, and probably
290   II,     9.  3.  1    |      transrectal ultrasounds.~ ~Other disorders~ ~In part because they live
291   II,     9.  3.  1    |         conditions as musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis and fibromyalgia.
292   II,     9.  3.  1    |       life-threatening. Each of these disorders is characterised by a long
293   II,     9.  3.  1    |              women.~ ~Musculoskeletal Disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders
294   II,     9.  3.  1    |            Disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders affect an increasing proportion
295   II,     9.  3.  1    |           2004); Prevalence of eating disorders: a comparison of Western
296   II,     9.  3.  1    |      depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 71(1-3):1-9.~ ~NIH Consensus
297   II,     9.  3.  2    |               sepsis and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, ranges from
298   II,     9.  4.  3    |          psychiatric and neurological disorders.~ ~ ~Mental health problems
299   II,     9.  4.  3    |             complex neuro-psychiatric disorders represent four of the six
300   II,     9.  5.  3    |              the prevalence of mental disorders across the life-cycle ~Source:
301   II,     9.  5.  3    |             Males > > Females~Conduct disorders~Males > > Females~Learning
302   II,     9.  5.  3    |      self-harm~Females > Males~Eating disorders~Females > > Males~Substance
303   II,     9.  5.  3    |            treatment of psychological disorders. Doctors are more likely
304   II,     9.  5.  3    |               three or more co-morbid disorders; this occurs mainly with
305  III,    10.  1        |  Developmental (foetal and childhood) disorders~lead~mercury~smoking and
306  III,    10.  1        |             disruptors~Nervous system disorders~lead~PCBs~methyl mercury~
307  III,    10.  1.  1    |            development of psychiatric disorders (social phobia, social anxiety)
308  III,    10.  1.  3    |              problems and the anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 147(6):
309  III,    10.  2.  1    |             to more than 60 different disorders and diseases with short
310  III,    10.  2.  1    |             of mental and behavioural disorders, which refers to a condition
311  III,    10.  2.  1    |      childhood mental and behavioural disorders to be more prevalent among
312  III,    10.  2.  1    |               of 60 or more different disorders. Alcohol consumption can
313  III,    10.  2.  1    |             in the risk of depressive disorders, while there is evidence
314  III,    10.  2.  1    |            treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction, 97, 265-277.~ ~
315  III,    10.  2.  1    |       orthopaedic problems and mental disorders. A high BMI in adolescence
316  III,    10.  2.  1    |             to dieting or nutritional disorders such as anorexia nervosa.
317  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28(Suppl. 1):S71.~ ~Kapantais
318  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 24:1111–1118.~ ~Novakova
319  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26:1610-1616.~ ~Savva SC,
320  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 26:1036-1045.~ ~Savva SC,
321  III,    10.  2.  4    |      so-called common complex genetic disorders, often named multifactorial
322  III,    10.  2.  4    |       collecting data on rare genetic disorders (see Chapter 7 on Rare Diseases).
323  III,    10.  2.  4    |              Moreover, common complex disorders require the integration
324  III,    10.  2.  4    |              the cause of single-gene disorders, which affect millions of
325  III,    10.  2.  4    |        allergies, cancer, psychiatric disorders or infectious diseases.
326  III,    10.  2.  5    |            low birth weight to mental disorders like schizophrenia (Wahlbeck
327  III,    10.  2.  5    |              susceptibility to mental disorders. Foetal malnutrition can
328  III,    10.  2.  5    |            psychological symptoms and disorders in childhood (Madigan et
329  III,    10.  3.  2    |      neurodevelopmental and endocrine disorders, but the list of potential
330  III,    10.  3.  2    |            cancer, neurodevelopmental disorders and endocrine disruption.
331  III,    10.  3.  2    |       substances and neurodevelopment disorders (see also chapters on air
332  III,    10.  3.  2    |          chemicals and human diseases/disorders. The associations are of
333  III,    10.  3.  2    |  Developmental (foetal and childhood) disorders~lead~mercury~smoking and
334  III,    10.  3.  2    |             disruptors~Nervous system disorders~lead~PCBs~methyl mercury~
335  III,    10.  3.  4    |            may lead to nervous system disorders in 2030% of people. Deaths
336  III,    10.  3.  4    |             mental and nervous system disorders, blood and metabolic or
337  III,    10.  3.  4    |          metabolic or endocrine gland disorders, diabetes and malnutrition.
338  III,    10.  3.  4    |         supply, post-traumatic stress disorders and poisoning caused by
339  III,    10.  3.  4    |              of post-traumatic stress disorders in high-income countries
340  III,    10.  4.  1    |             of studies found allergic disorders (including asthma) to be
341  III,    10.  4.  2    |             clenbuterol: heart rhythm~disorders, neurological~effects; hormonal
342  III,    10.  5.  3    |            CVD) as well as for mental disorders - both diseases being of
343  III,    10.  5.  3    |            not surprising that mental disorders and mental health problems
344  III,    10.  5.  3    |           burden associated to mental disorders is immense. The total annual
345  III,    10.  5.  3    |            retirement. Amongst mental disorders, the indirect costs of mood
346  III,    10.  5.  3    |            the indirect costs of mood disorders (depression and bipolar
347  III,    10.  5.  3    |                depression and bipolar disorders) was the highest (€ 77 billion),
348  III,    10.  5.  3    |             scores on musculoskeletal disorders. Employees in the education
349  III,    10.  5.  3    |             injuries:~Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) comprise the most
350  III,    10.  5.  3    |             Olesen J (2005): Costs of disorders of the brain in Europe.
351  III,    10.  5.  3    |     Organisation~MSDs~Musculoskeletal disorders~OSH~Occupational Health
352   IV,    11.  2.  2    |           prevalence of mental health disorders.~ ~
353   IV,    11.  5.  4    |              congenital and inherited disorders, history of malignancy or
354   IV,    12. 10        |           web-site focusing on eating disorders (www e) and three Federal
355   IV,    12. 10        |      prevention and therapy of eating disorders (see www. – “Research association
356   IV,    12. 10        |           Research association eating disorders” as example).~ ~Physical activity~
357   IV,    12. 10        |               of mental and affective disorders for infant and adult residents
358   IV,    12. 10        |         Association Against Nutrition Disorders (email: anasa2007@mail.gr)
359   IV,    12. 10        |               citizens with nutrition disorders (through special events
360   IV,    12. 10        |               targetReducing health disorders from violence and accidents”
361   IV,    13.  2.  2    |        compared to other neurological disorders. Furthermore, comorbidity
362   IV,    13.  2.  2    |           Europe are neuropsychiatric disorders (depression in third place,
363   IV,    13.  2.  2    |              third place, alcohol use disorders sixth rank, self inflicted
364   IV,    13.  7.  3    |             such as certain metabolic disorders and cancers in infants,
365   IV,    13.  9        |              Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe.