Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     4.  1    |                 consumption of alcohol, drugs and tobacco and reducing environmental
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|                    influenced by past exposure to tobacco smoking, and the geographic
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|                           Therefore, awareness of tobacco as a risk factor promoting
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|                   increasing, but the war against tobacco has not been won yet. To
  5   II,     5.  1.  1|              sensitization; cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental exposure;
  6   II,     5.  1.  1|                      relate to poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption,
  7   II,     5.  2.  4|                    obesity, blood cholesterol and tobacco use would more than halve
  8   II,     5.  3.  4|                    influenced by past exposure to tobacco smoking, and the geographic
  9   II,     5.  3.  4|                           Therefore, awareness of tobacco as a risk factor promoting
 10   II,     5.  3.  4|                   increasing, but the war against tobacco has not been won yet. To
 11   II,     5.  6.  5|                   avoidance of alcohol excess, of tobacco smoking, etc.~ ~ ~
 12   II,     5.  8.  1|                           to noxious agents (e.g. tobacco active and passive tobacco
 13   II,     5.  8.  1|                        tobacco active and passive tobacco smoking, occupational factors
 14   II,     5.  8.  4|                      factors~ ~Active and passive tobacco smoking are major risk factors
 15   II,     5.  9.  4|                          2. cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental exposure;~
 16   II,     5.  9.  4|                     effects of smoking in the EU. Tobacco exposure, in fact, is associated
 17   II,     5.  9.  5|                             cigarette smoking and tobacco environmental exposure;~·
 18   II,     5. 14.  4|                      relate to poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption,
 19   II,     9.  2.  1|                      girls), alcohol consumption, tobacco use, illegal drug use, obesity/
 20   II,     9.  2.  2|                           with regard to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Its web
 21   II,     9.  2.  3|                  behaviour as well as of alcohol, tobacco and illegal drug use (WHO,
 22   II,     9.  3.  1|                     Cancer, largely associated to tobacco smoking, causes 35% of all
 23   II,     9.  3.  1|                     throughout life. Avoidance of tobacco use and moderation in alcohol
 24   II,     9.  5.  1|                         in health behaviour (e.g. tobacco use), risk taking, and medical
 25   II,     9.  5.  3|                      alcoholic drink weekly (%)~ ~Tobacco smoking~ ~Women are more
 26   II,     9.  5.  3|                   behaviour. About nine out of 10 tobacco users start before they
 27  III,    10.  1.  1|                      Association within subgroup (tobacco use)~Health determinants
 28  III,    10.  1.  1|                  determinants within the field of tobacco use are manifold: predisposing
 29  III,    10.  1.  1|                         adverse health effects of tobacco use, attitudes towards tobacco
 30  III,    10.  1.  1|                    tobacco use, attitudes towards tobacco use, biological / genetic
 31  III,    10.  1.  1|                        factors including costs of tobacco, taxes on tobacco products (
 32  III,    10.  1.  1|                        costs of tobacco, taxes on tobacco products (e.g. smuggling
 33  III,    10.  1.  1|                      cigarettes), availability of tobacco products as well as reinforcing
 34  III,    10.  1.  1|                    delivery, social disapproval). Tobacco use as behavioural risk
 35  III,    10.  1.  1|                           also applicable to the “tobacco usehealth determinant.~
 36  III,    10.  1.  3|                         1994): Active and passive tobacco exposure: a serious pediatric
 37  III,    10.  2.  1|                                         10.2.1.1. Tobacco use~ ~
 38  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control~GDP~Gross Domestic
 39  III,    10.  2.  1|                         SHS~Second-hand smoke~TCS~Tobacco Control Scale~TSNAs~Tobacco
 40  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Tobacco Control Scale~TSNAs~Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines~WHO~
 41  III,    10.  2.  1|                          WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic 2008, 100 million
 42  III,    10.  2.  1|                      worldwide were killed by the tobacco epidemic in the 20th century.~ ~
 43  III,    10.  2.  1|                       life expectancy. In the EU, tobacco kills more than AIDS, car
 44  III,    10.  2.  1|                       shown in Figure 10.2.1.1.1, tobacco use is a risk factor for
 45  III,    10.  2.  1|                           2.~ ~Figure 10.2.1.1.1. Tobacco as a risk factor for several
 46  III,    10.  2.  1|                           multiple sources by the Tobacco or Health unit at WHO/EURO.
 47  III,    10.  2.  1|                          in June of 2006. The WHO Tobacco Control database uses these
 48  III,    10.  2.  1|                        current high prevalence of tobacco use among European women.~ ~
 49  III,    10.  2.  1|                           in the EU25~ ~The term 'Tobacco epidemic' refers to certain,
 50  III,    10.  2.  1|                      certain, regular patterns in tobacco consumption across the globe.
 51  III,    10.  2.  1|                        four distinctive stages of tobacco consumption prevalence in
 52  III,    10.  2.  1|                          2.1.1.6. Features of the tobacco epidemic~ ~The tobacco epidemic
 53  III,    10.  2.  1|                        the tobacco epidemic~ ~The tobacco epidemic is at different
 54  III,    10.  2.  1|                          are in stage four of the tobacco epidemic - e.g. Denmark,
 55  III,    10.  2.  1|                         of the harmful effects of tobacco smoking was low until the
 56  III,    10.  2.  1|                        decrease. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey however showed a
 57  III,    10.  2.  1|                      older ones. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey also revealed that
 58  III,    10.  2.  1|                     socio-economic aspects of the tobacco epidemic, four stages can
 59  III,    10.  2.  1|                     differences found reflect the tobacco epidemic stages.~Social
 60  III,    10.  2.  1|                           involuntary exposure to tobacco, such as serum cotinine,
 61  III,    10.  2.  1|                         2006).~ ~Disease burden~ ~Tobacco is the leading cause for
 62  III,    10.  2.  1|                      adjusted life years (DALYs). Tobacco is a leading risk factor
 63  III,    10.  2.  1|                      total DALYs (Lopez, 2005).~ ~Tobacco is strongly linked to COPD
 64  III,    10.  2.  1|                           to lifestyle in common: tobacco use (WHO, 2002).~ ~Economic
 65  III,    10.  2.  1|                          in Europe. The impact of tobacco morbidity and mortality
 66  III,    10.  2.  1|                        drug delivery system. When tobacco is smoked, nicotine rapidly
 67  III,    10.  2.  1|                          chemical constituents of tobacco. When tobacco is burned
 68  III,    10.  2.  1|                     constituents of tobacco. When tobacco is burned incompletely during
 69  III,    10.  2.  1|                         behavioral treatments for tobacco addiction (NID ~ ~Snuff
 70  III,    10.  2.  1|                        Snuff is fine ground moist tobacco that is used in small portions
 71  III,    10.  2.  1|                           gum. Nicotine from oral tobacco is absorbed more slowly,
 72  III,    10.  2.  1|                        Health impact of smokeless tobacco~ ~There is no safe or harmless
 73  III,    10.  2.  1|                      There is no safe or harmless tobacco product. Smokeless tobacco
 74  III,    10.  2.  1|                        tobacco product. Smokeless tobacco use, however, appears to
 75  III,    10.  2.  1|                         less harmful than smoking tobacco. An incomplete tobacco combustion
 76  III,    10.  2.  1|                    smoking tobacco. An incomplete tobacco combustion that occurs during
 77  III,    10.  2.  1|                            Major contributors are tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs),
 78  III,    10.  2.  1|                     common carcinogens in unburnt tobacco that are formed in the process
 79  III,    10.  2.  1|                        fermentation and curing of tobacco. The Swedish snuff manufacturer
 80  III,    10.  2.  1|                            Health effects of oral tobacco use include an increased
 81  III,    10.  2.  1|                                       10.2.1.1.4. Tobacco harm reduction~ ~Individual
 82  III,    10.  2.  1|                          helpful at all phases of tobacco addiction treatment, not
 83  III,    10.  2.  1|                        Collective interventionstobacco control in the EU~ ~Collective
 84  III,    10.  2.  1|                          towards the reduction of tobacco related harm can be categorized
 85  III,    10.  2.  1|                          to reduce the demand for tobacco products (price, taxation);~·
 86  III,    10.  2.  1|                      places);~· measures to limit tobacco industry advertising, promotion
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|                      nature and health hazards of tobacco use; and~· measures to raise
 88  III,    10.  2.  1|                          possibilities.~ ~Curbing tobacco use is a longstanding EU
 89  III,    10.  2.  1|                  contributing to the reduction of tobacco consumption for more than
 90  III,    10.  2.  1|                      cancer, to a broad strategic tobacco control approach. The current
 91  III,    10.  2.  1|                      programmes and the Community Tobacco Fund;~· mainstreaming of
 92  III,    10.  2.  1|                          Fund;~· mainstreaming of tobacco control into a range of
 93  III,    10.  2.  1|                         taking on a major role in tobacco control at global level.~ ~
 94  III,    10.  2.  1|                           unique contributions to tobacco control both in Europe and
 95  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which all
 96  III,    10.  2.  1|                        the further advancement of tobacco control at EU and Member
 97  III,    10.  2.  1|                         and action in the area of tobacco control. These articles
 98  III,    10.  2.  1|                          s efforts in the area of tobacco control.~The provisions
 99  III,    10.  2.  1|                         legal measures to support tobacco control. Together, they
100  III,    10.  2.  1|                    advertising and sponsorship of tobacco products;~· the structure
101  III,    10.  2.  1|                           applied on manufactured tobacco;~· the manufacture, presentation
102  III,    10.  2.  1|                          presentation and sale of tobacco products;~· television broadcasting,
103  III,    10.  2.  1|                        banning the advertising of tobacco products; and~· minimum
104  III,    10.  2.  1|                         on initiatives to improve tobacco control. This recommendation
105  III,    10.  2.  1|                       restricting youth access to tobacco; and~ ~2) a Resolution on
106  III,    10.  2.  1|                         provided legal ground for tobacco control measures. There
107  III,    10.  2.  1|                            Bans on advertising of tobacco products , appropriate consumer
108  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first-ever
109  III,    10.  2.  1|                         providing a comprehensive tobacco control framework (WHO ).
110  III,    10.  2.  1|                          economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure
111  III,    10.  2.  1|                          to reduce the demand for tobacco, supported by the FCTC include:~·
112  III,    10.  2.  1|                     regulation of the contents of tobacco products;~· regulation of
113  III,    10.  2.  1|                         products;~· regulation of tobacco product disclosures;~· packaging
114  III,    10.  2.  1|                         packaging and labeling of tobacco products, requiring large
115  III,    10.  2.  1|                           and public awareness;~· tobacco advertising, promotion and
116  III,    10.  2.  1|                  undertake a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and
117  III,    10.  2.  1|                     reduction measures concerning tobacco dependence and cessation.~ ~
118  III,    10.  2.  1|                           to reduce the supply of tobacco. These include:~1. illicit
119  III,    10.  2.  1|                      include:~1. illicit trade in tobacco products (smuggling);~2.
120  III,    10.  2.  1|                      mechanism or focal point for tobacco control;~· the inclusion
121  III,    10.  2.  1|                       control;~· the inclusion of tobacco cessation services in national
122  III,    10.  2.  1|                           development of national tobacco control programmes.~ ~Under
123  III,    10.  2.  1|                                  Their Reso 62 on Tobacco Control supports the WHO
124  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and urges UN Member
125  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Member States to strengthen tobacco control measures and programmes.~
126  III,    10.  2.  1|                           a new Report on “Global Tobacco Epidemicshowing that while
127  III,    10.  2.  1|                         fully implemented all key tobacco control measures. The report
128  III,    10.  2.  1|                  comprehensive analysis of global tobacco use and control efforts,
129  III,    10.  2.  1|                           500 times more money in tobacco taxes each year than they
130  III,    10.  2.  1|               anti-tobacco efforts. It finds that tobacco taxes, the single most effective
131  III,    10.  2.  1|                        strategies are:~ ~ Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies~·
132  III,    10.  2.  1|                tobacco smokeOffer help to quit tobacco useWarn about the dangers
133  III,    10.  2.  1|                         Warn about the dangers of tobaccoEnforce bans on tobacco
134  III,    10.  2.  1|                         tobacco~· Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and
135  III,    10.  2.  1|                      sponsorshipRaise taxes on tobacco~ ~The report documents the
136  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which came into
137  III,    10.  2.  1|                    comprehensive national bans on tobacco advertising and promotion;~·
138  III,    10.  2.  1|                     mandate pictorial warnings on tobacco packaging;~· Services to
139  III,    10.  2.  1|                    packaging;~· Services to treat tobacco dependence are fully available
140  III,    10.  2.  1|                         the world’s population;~· Tobacco tax revenues are more than
141  III,    10.  2.  1|                          greater than spending on tobacco control in middle-income
142  III,    10.  2.  1|                           340 times more money in tobacco taxes than they spend on
143  III,    10.  2.  1|                          taxes than they spend on tobacco control.~ ~Snuff and tobacco
144  III,    10.  2.  1|                      tobacco control.~ ~Snuff and tobacco harm reduction debate~ ~
145  III,    10.  2.  1|                           harm reduction debate~ ~Tobacco harm reduction is a “strategy
146  III,    10.  2.  1|                         resulting from the use of tobacco products or their substitutes” (
147  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Gilmore, 2007).~Current tobacco control policies seek to
148  III,    10.  2.  1|                           to reduce the supply of tobacco (e.g. through price and
149  III,    10.  2.  1|                      policies) and the demand for tobacco (by e.g. raising awareness
150  III,    10.  2.  1|                          a less hazardous form of tobacco. An alternative to the classical “
151  III,    10.  2.  1|                           maintain that smokeless tobacco is a risk to health and
152  III,    10.  2.  1|                        factors, such as effective tobacco control policies in Sweden
153  III,    10.  2.  1|                       patterns of smoking or oral tobacco prevalence if oral tobacco
154  III,    10.  2.  1|                        tobacco prevalence if oral tobacco were made available in EU
155  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products in 2007, while
156  III,    10.  2.  1|                       health effects of smokeless tobacco products was adopted in
157  III,    10.  2.  1|                        SCENHIR are that smokeless tobacco products (STP) are addictive
158  III,    10.  2.  1|                       extrapolate the patterns of tobacco use from one country where
159  III,    10.  2.  1|                       from one country where oral tobacco is available to other countries,
160  III,    10.  2.  1|                           10.2.1.1.5. Progress in tobacco control in 30 European countries,
161  III,    10.  2.  1|                           2007~ ~The "Progress in Tobacco Control in 30 European Counrties
162  III,    10.  2.  1|                        the results of a survey on tobacco control activity in 30 European
163  III,    10.  2.  1|                           2005 and 2007 using the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and
164  III,    10.  2.  1|                           places, the spending on tobacco control and advertising
165  III,    10.  2.  1|                      pricing, health warnings and tobacco dependence treatment subscales
166  III,    10.  2.  1|                        significant improvement in tobacco control in Europe in this
167  III,    10.  2.  1|                         2003 EU directive banning tobacco advertising and to the adoption
168  III,    10.  2.  1|                   improvement in the reduction of tobacco use:~· Tobacco control programmes
169  III,    10.  2.  1|                       reduction of tobacco use:~· Tobacco control programmes should
170  III,    10.  2.  1|                          3 per capita per year on tobacco control.~· Countries should
171  III,    10.  2.  1|                              Regular increases in tobacco taxes should be the policy
172  III,    10.  2.  1|                          on the two main sides of tobacco product packages should
173  III,    10.  2.  1|                      Despite the progress made in tobacco control, smoking continues
174  III,    10.  2.  1|                    disease in the European Union. Tobacco causes one in seven deaths
175  III,    10.  2.  1|                    million deaths annually.~ ~The tobacco epidemic is shifting its
176  III,    10.  2.  1|                        particularly vulnerable to tobacco advertising and its smoking
177  III,    10.  2.  1|                      There is clear evidence that tobacco control measures can make
178  III,    10.  2.  1|                            Bans on advertising of tobacco products (3), appropriate
179  III,    10.  2.  1|                           increase of spending on tobacco control and the implementation
180  III,    10.  2.  1|                      Economic evidence shows that tobacco control interventions are
181  III,    10.  2.  1|                                 ASPECT Consortium Tobacco or health in the European
182  III,    10.  2.  1|                           determinants/life_style/Tobacco/Documents/tobacco_fr_en.
183  III,    10.  2.  1|                           style/Tobacco/Documents/tobacco_fr_en.pdf~ ~Bates C, Fagerström
184  III,    10.  2.  1|                         Union policy on smokeless tobacco: a statement in favour of
185  III,    10.  2.  1|                     regulation for public health. Tobacco Control; 12:360-367~ ~Boyle
186  III,    10.  2.  1|                          2004), ASPECT Consortium Tobacco or health in the European
187  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products, Preliminary Report.
188  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products, Preliminary Report.
189  III,    10.  2.  1|                             Status Report on Oral Tobacco. Available at: htt ~ ~European
190  III,    10.  2.  1|                         Cohen SJ (2000): Treating tobacco use and dependence: Clinical
191  III,    10.  2.  1|               Developments in pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence: past, present
192  III,    10.  2.  1|                         Raw M (2008): Progress in tobacco control in 30 European countries,
193  III,    10.  2.  1|                        applying an equity lens to tobacco control policies. Brussels:
194  III,    10.  2.  1|                           in developed countries. Tobacco Control, 1994; 3: 242-247.~ ~
195  III,    10.  2.  1|                           2007): Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm reduction:
196  III,    10.  2.  1|                      Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm reduction: what are
197  III,    10.  2.  1|                            Commentary - Smokeless tobacco: seeing the whole picture.
198  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Research report series: tobacco addiction. Available at: htt ~ ~
199  III,    10.  2.  1|                         http://rum.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/~tobacco/.~ ~Pirkle JL, Bernert JT,
200  III,    10.  2.  1|                       Health Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Products, Preliminary Report.
201  III,    10.  2.  1|                         2006): Patterns of global tobacco use in young people and
202  III,    10.  2.  1|                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Available at:~htt ~ ~
203  III,    10.  2.  1|                       2008): Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. The MPower package.
204  III,    10.  2.  1|                          Health Data database~WHO tobacco control database~WHO-HFA.
205  III,    10.  2.  1|                       important risk factor after tobacco and high blood pressure.
206  III,    10.  2.  1|                         that, as is the case with tobacco, consideration should be
207  III,    10.  2.  1|                     Giesbrecht N (2003): Alcohol, tobacco and local control. A comparison
208  III,    10.  2.  1|                       availability of alcohol and tobacco, the settings where substance
209  III,    10.  2.  1|                        are also using alcohol and tobacco and sometimes prescribed
210  III,    10.  2.  1|                         intake, types) as well as tobacco use and excessive alcohol
211  III,    10.  2.  1|                          and adults who are using tobacco at a point in time.~ ~ ~
212  III,    10.  2.  1|                   consumption of sugary foods and tobacco use. A more progressive
213  III,    10.  2.  1|                    affects general health such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption
214  III,    10.  2.  1|                       lifestyles by incorporating tobacco cessation programmes and
215  III,    10.  2.  1|                        successfully performed for tobacco and alcohol; pricing policies
216  III,    10.  6.  2|                           food~11. Reduced use of tobacco and alcohol, a society free
217   IV,    12.Acr    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control~FDA~Food and Drug
218   IV,    12.  1    |                     Without~Frontiers~Controlling tobacco~advertising.~Information~
219   IV,    12.  1    |                           goods (health products, tobacco) or to the Common Agricultural
220   IV,    12.  1    |                       illustrated in pandemics or tobacco control. A more complete
221   IV,    12.  2    |                 instruments such as strategies on tobacco, nutrition and physical activity,
222   IV,    12.  2    |                          health determinants~ ~1. Tobacco~ ~1.1. Individual interventions~ ~
223   IV,    12.  2    |                          helpful at all phases of tobacco addiction treatment, not
224   IV,    12.  2    |                        Collective interventionstobacco control in the EU~ ~Collective
225   IV,    12.  2    |                          towards the reduction of tobacco related harm can be categorized
226   IV,    12.  2    |                          to reduce the demand for tobacco products (price, taxation);~·
227   IV,    12.  2    |                      places);~· measures to limit tobacco industry advertising, promotion
228   IV,    12.  2    |                      nature and health hazards of tobacco use~Curbing tobacco use
229   IV,    12.  2    |                    hazards of tobacco use~Curbing tobacco use is a longstanding EU
230   IV,    12.  2    |                  contributing to the reduction of tobacco consumption for more than
231   IV,    12.  2    |                      cancer, to a broad strategic tobacco control approach. The current
232   IV,    12.  2    |                      programmes and the Community Tobacco Fund;~· mainstreaming of
233   IV,    12.  2    |                          Fund;~· mainstreaming of tobacco control into a range of
234   IV,    12.  2    |                         taking on a major role in tobacco control at a global level.~ ~
235   IV,    12.  2    |                           unique contributions to tobacco control in Europe, and indeed
236   IV,    12.  2    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which all
237   IV,    12.  2    |                        the further advancement of tobacco control at EU and Member
238   IV,    12.  2    |                         and action in the area of tobacco control. These articles
239   IV,    12.  2    |                          s efforts in the area of tobacco control.~The provisions
240   IV,    12.  2    |                         legal measures to support tobacco control. Together, they
241   IV,    12.  2    |                    advertising and sponsorship of tobacco products;~· the structure
242   IV,    12.  2    |                           applied on manufactured tobacco;~· the manufacture, presentation
243   IV,    12.  2    |                          presentation and sale of tobacco products;~· television broadcasting,
244   IV,    12.  2    |                        banning the advertising of tobacco products; and~· minimum
245   IV,    12.  2    |                         on initiatives to improve tobacco control. This recommendation
246   IV,    12.  2    |                       restricting youth access to tobacco; and~2) a Resolution on
247   IV,    12.  2    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first-ever
248   IV,    12.  2    |                         providing a comprehensive tobacco control framework (WHO,
249   IV,    12.  2    |                          economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure
250   IV,    12.  2    |                          to reduce the demand for tobacco, that are supported by the
251   IV,    12.  2    |                     regulation of the contents of tobacco products;~regulation of
252   IV,    12.  2    |                           products;~regulation of tobacco product disclosures;~packaging
253   IV,    12.  2    |                         packaging and labeling of tobacco products, requiring large
254   IV,    12.  2    |                    training and public awareness;~tobacco advertising, promotion and
255   IV,    12.  2    |                  undertake a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and
256   IV,    12.  2    |                     reduction measures concerning tobacco dependence and cessation.~
257   IV,    12.  2    |                           to reduce the supply of tobacco. These include:~1. illicit
258   IV,    12.  2    |                      include:~1. illicit trade in tobacco products (smuggling);~2.
259   IV,    12.  2    |                      mechanism or focal point for tobacco control;~the inclusion of
260   IV,    12.  2    |                         control;~the inclusion of tobacco cessation services in national
261   IV,    12.  2    |                           development of national tobacco control programmes.~ ~Under
262   IV,    12.  2    |                       Their Resolution 2004/62 on Tobacco Control supports the WHO
263   IV,    12.  2    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It urges UN Member
264   IV,    12.  2    |                       Member States to strengthen tobacco control measures and programmes.~
265   IV,    12.  2    |                           a new Report on “Global Tobacco Epidemicshowing that while
266   IV,    12.  2    |                          fully implements all key tobacco control measures, and outlined
267   IV,    12.  2    |                  comprehensive analysis of global tobacco use and control efforts,
268   IV,    12.  2    |                           500 times more money in tobacco taxes each year than they
269   IV,    12.  2    |               anti-tobacco efforts. It finds that tobacco taxes, the single most effective
270   IV,    12.  2    |                           strategies are:~Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies~
271   IV,    12.  2    |                  tobacco smoke~Offer help to quit tobacco use~Warn about the dangers
272   IV,    12.  2    |                         Warn about the dangers of tobacco~Enforce bans on tobacco
273   IV,    12.  2    |                           tobacco~Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and
274   IV,    12.  2    |                        sponsorship~Raise taxes on tobacco.~The report also documents
275   IV,    12.  2    |                        the widely embraced global tobacco treaty known as the WHO
276   IV,    12.  2    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which came into
277   IV,    12.  2    |                    comprehensive national bans on tobacco advertising and promotion;~
278   IV,    12.  2    |                     mandate pictorial warnings on tobacco packaging;~Services to treat
279   IV,    12.  2    |                      packaging;~Services to treat tobacco dependence are fully available
280   IV,    12.  2    |                            of the world’s people;~Tobacco tax revenues are more than
281   IV,    12.  2    |                          greater than spending on tobacco control in middle-income
282   IV,    12.  2    |                           340 times more money in tobacco taxes than they spend on
283   IV,    12.  2    |                          taxes than they spend on tobacco control.~ ~2. Alcohol~ ~
284   IV,    12.  2    |                         that, as is the case with tobacco, consideration should be
285   IV,    12.  4    |                        partnership.~OLAF~trade in tobacco products~REGIO~Regional
286   IV,    12.  4    |                    promotion campaigns under CAP; Tobacco Fund information campaigns (
287   IV,    12.  5    |            addiction-related determinants such as tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs
288   IV,    12.  9    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC);~· revision
289   IV,    12. 10    |                           empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High ~National/
290   IV,    12. 10    |                           and effect.~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~Act No.
291   IV,    12. 10    |                         on prohibition of sale af tobacco and alcohol to people under
292   IV,    12. 10    |                     product descriptions etc. for tobacco products~http ~ ~2006 Campaign:
293   IV,    12. 10    |                         on prohibition of sale af tobacco and alcohol to people under
294   IV,    12. 10    |                           behaviours ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High priority
295   IV,    12. 10    |                         High priority as reducing tobacco consumption is one out of
296   IV,    12. 10    |                     public places and work sites, tobacco advertising and selling
297   IV,    12. 10    |                           advertising and selling tobacco products to under age youth.
298   IV,    12. 10    |                           smoking, other forms of tobacco use like snuff or shisha/
299   IV,    12. 10    |                           addressed.~Increases in tobacco taxes (5 steps between 2002
300   IV,    12. 10    |                        and prohibition of selling tobacco products to under age youth)
301   IV,    12. 10    | Arbeitsstättenschutzverodnung) from 2002).~Ban of tobacco advertising (implementation
302   IV,    12. 10    |                            List of ingredients of tobacco products (Tabakzusatzstoffliste)
303   IV,    12. 10    |                          collaborating centre for tobacco control, based at German
304   IV,    12. 10    |                        feed and veterinary drugs, tobacco products, plant protection
305   IV,    12. 10    |                        feed and veterinary drugs, tobacco products, plant protection
306   IV,    12. 10    |                    behaviours~ ~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~High~Joint Committee
307   IV,    12. 10    |                         and health (1999 & 2001).~Tobacco Free Policy Review Group
308   IV,    12. 10    |                         the legal age to purchase tobacco rose from 16 to 18 years
309   IV,    12. 10    |                           of age~ ~Public Health (Tobacco) Acts, 2002 and 2004~- Establishment
310   IV,    12. 10    |                   statutory agency, the Office of Tobacco Control, in 2002 www. Introduction
311   IV,    12. 10    |                     confectioneries that resemble tobacco products also become illegal~ ~
312   IV,    12. 10    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) (Nov 2005)~ ~
313   IV,    12. 10    |                          excise duties charged on tobacco in the “interests of improved
314   IV,    12. 10    |                  provisions of the Public Health (Tobacco) Acts, 2002 and 2004 to
315   IV,    12. 10    |                      point-of-sale advertising of tobacco products,~· ban on the display
316   IV,    12. 10    |                             ban on the display of tobacco products in retail premises,~·
317   IV,    12. 10    |                         location and operation of tobacco vending machines,~· introduction
318   IV,    12. 10    |                          of a retail register for tobacco retailers~ ~ Nicotine Replacement
319   IV,    12. 10    |                          of retailers not to sell tobacco to those under 18 years (
320   IV,    12. 10    |                      behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~· According
321   IV,    12. 10    |                           2001/ΕΚ, which arranges tobacco production and sale issues,
322   IV,    12. 10    |                           2003/ΕΚ which regulates tobacco advertisement and sponsoring.~·
323   IV,    12. 10    |                           Health Organization for tobacco control and Greece became
324   IV,    12. 10    |                        law for the forbiddance of tobacco sale from and to juveniles
325   IV,    12. 10    |                           empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~ Law 31/
326   IV,    12. 10    |                          2003 aiming to limit the tobacco consumption by young people~
327   IV,    12. 10    |                           framework convention on tobacco control~ ~Many prevention
328   IV,    12. 10    |                      behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~Law 3/2003
329   IV,    12. 10    |                          sva.gov.lv~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~Law on Restrictions
330   IV,    12. 10    |                            Advertising and Use of Tobacco Products~ ~Adoption of WHO
331   IV,    12. 10    |                           framework convention on tobacco control~ ~National Program
332   IV,    12. 10    |                     control~ ~National Program on Tobacco Control, 2005-2010~ ~Special
333   IV,    12. 10    |                           from alcohol, drugs and tobacco” in national Public Health
334   IV,    12. 10    |                           from alcohol, drugs and tobacco” in national Public Health
335   IV,    12. 10    |                           from alcohol, drugs and tobacco” in national Public Health
336   IV,    12. 10    |                 favourable to health.~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~Ratification
337   IV,    12. 10    |                           Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) – Decree
338   IV,    12. 10    |                       reinforces measures against tobacco sales to minors of 18 years,
339   IV,    12. 10    |                        public~Awareness Days – No tobacco Day (every year) and Non
340   IV,    12. 10    |                      regarding healthy nutrition, tobacco and physical activity.~
341   IV,    12. 10    |                           Framework Convention on tobacco law (1st of January 2008)~ ~
342   IV,    12. 10    |                      behaviours~ ~ ~ ~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ high~Ministry
343   IV,    12. 10    |                          Program for reduction of tobacco use and for smoking cease;~ ~
344   IV,    12. 10    |                           framework convention on tobacco control);~ ~Law 349/06/2002,
345   IV,    12. 10    |                    control of the side effects of tobacco consumption;~ ~Increasing
346   IV,    12. 10    |                           proposal for an amended Tobacco Act to the Parliament, and
347   IV,    12. 10    |                           policies on alcohol and tobacco, with emphases on measures
348   IV,    12. 10    |                      expertise are public health (tobacco and alcohol), economic security,
349   IV,    12. 10    |                        objective and policy areas~Tobacco use~Self-reported tobacco
350   IV,    12. 10    |                         Tobacco use~Self-reported tobacco use~ ~Self-reported exposure
351   IV,    12. 10    |                           food~11. Reduced use of tobacco and alcohol, a society free
352   IV,    12. 10    |                           empowerment~Smoking and tobacco snuff use~ High~ At national
353   IV,    12. 10    |                           High~ At national level~Tobacco Control Action Plan Proposal~
354   IV,    13.  2.  2|                        the WHO European Region.~· Tobacco smoking is the single most
355   IV,    13.  2.  3|                       total disease burden due to tobacco use, 10.9% attributable
356   IV,    13.  2.  3|                    substantial burden of disease. Tobacco and alcohol use, physical
357   IV,    13.  5    |               cardiovascular disease, alcohol and tobacco related mortality, and drug
358  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|                  thunderstorms~thyroid~tick-borne~tobacco~tobacco smoke~tooth~tooth-brushing~