Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4       |            and most specific forms of disability;~· over the past decades,
  2    I,     2.  4       |             due to physical or mental disability or to linguistic or cultural
  3   II,     4.Acr       |                         Acronyms~DFLE~Disability Free Life Expectancy (DFLE0
  4   II,     4.  1       |       morbidity, perceived health and disability, the latter by means of
  5   II,     4.  1       |               The HLY is based on the disability measure: limitation in activities
  6   II,     4.  1       |            health problem, illness or disability and whether they are hampered
  7   II,     4.  1       |               number of years without disability than in total life expectancy,
  8   II,     4.  1       |            proportion of life free of disability in the EU15. However, there
  9   II,     4.  1       |           experience a compression of disability, whilst Denmark, the Netherlands,
 10   II,     4.  1       |           experience a compression of disability whilst Germany, Ireland,
 11   II,     4.  1       |             differential reporting of disability or the omission of the institutionalized
 12   II,     4.  1       |               and years lived free of disability), between men and women
 13   II,     4.  1       |               the required harmonized disability data for the HLY, thus addressing
 14   II,     4.  3       |                 Monitoring population disability: evaluation of a new Global
 15   II,     5.  2.  1   |              is also a major cause of disability and reduced quality of life.~ ~
 16   II,     5.  2.  1   |              loss of quality of life, disability, and life long dependence
 17   II,     5.  2.  3   |             single cause of death and disability. A continuous increase was
 18   II,     5.  5.Int(9)|             english/employment/skills/disability/download/execsums.pdf]~
 19   II,     5.  5.Int   |            causes of years lived with disability are due to neuropsychiatric
 20   II,     5.  5.Int   |       discrimination on the ground of disability in the field of employment; (
 21   II,     5.  5.Int   |           assessment of mental health disability; Information society and
 22   II,     5.  5.  1   |             prevalence, risk factors, disability, health-related quality
 23   II,     5.  5.  1   |             Chaterji S, Agu C (2008). Disability and treatment of specific
 24   II,     5.  5.  2   |               by provisions linked to disability. In countries where the
 25   II,     5.  5.  2   |         prevention is to try to limit disability and dependency which tend
 26   II,     5.  5.  3   |          frequently leading to severe disability with disease onset usually
 27   II,     5.  5.  3   |           major contributor to DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) and
 28   II,     5.  5.  3   |            and YLDs (Years Lived with Disability). People with schizophrenia
 29   II,     5.  5.  3   |     remarkable unemployment rates and disability pensions, as well as increased
 30   II,     5.  5.  3   |             the ten leading causes of disability adjusted life years for
 31   II,     5.  5.  3   |            causes of years lived with disability (WHO, 2001b).~ ~
 32   II,     5.  5.  3   |              of hospital stays and on disability adjusted life-years (DALYs).
 33   II,     5.  5.  3   |              data on outpatient care.~Disability adjusted life-years~In 2005,
 34   II,     5.  5.  3   |         second most frequent cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
 35   II,     5.  5.  3   |             terms of years lived with disability (YLD), the portion is even
 36   II,     5.  5.  3   |               of the years lived with disability (unipolar depressive disorder
 37   II,     5.  5.  3   |            massive human and economic disability costs. Substantially reducing
 38   II,     5.  5.  3   |         develop strategies to prevent disability including the development
 39   II,     5.  5.  3   |              preventing morbidity and disability. There is often a long time
 40   II,     5.  5.  3   |  schizophrenia resulting in increased disability rates.~The efficacy-effectiveness
 41   II,     5.  5.  3   |      expenditures for social welfare, disability pensions etc. A comprehensive
 42   II,     5.  5.  3   |               3.2.7. Acronyms~ ~DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DDD~
 43   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Dose~YLDs~Years Lived with Disability~HMDB~European Hospital Morbidity
 44   II,     5.  5.  3   |           people with severe learning disability (Sanchéz-Valle et al, 2007).~ ~ ~ ~
 45   II,     5.  5.  3   |              in children: prevalence, disability and handicap. Epilepsia
 46   II,     5.  5.  3   |             of non-traumatic physical disability in young adults (Sadovnick
 47   II,     5.  5.  3   |          recovery or by an increasing disability due to irreversible functional
 48   II,     5.  5.  3   |               irreversible functional disability over time (Ebers, 1998).
 49   II,     5.  5.  3   |               sex, disease course and disability,and that of MS mortality
 50   II,     5.  5.  3   |         reported.~The distribution of disability (Kurtzke, 1983) was categorised
 51   II,     5.  5.  3   |       categorised into mild (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0 to
 52   II,     5.  5.  3   |        severity indicated by means of disability score is shown in Table
 53   II,     5.  5.  3   |          burden of MS in Europe~ ~The disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
 54   II,     5.  5.  3   |             to mental and/or physical disability (years of life with disability,
 55   II,     5.  5.  3   |        disability (years of life with disability, YLDs) (Murray and Lopez,
 56   II,     5.  5.  3   |                degree and duration of disability. The total DALY for MS in
 57   II,     5.  5.  3   |        estimates.~A patient with mild disability at the EDSS (the greater
 58   II,     5.  5.  3   |             per year if with moderate disability, and €58 300 per year if
 59   II,     5.  5.  3   |               per year if with severe disability.~ ~
 60   II,     5.  5.  3   |            lumped to RR or PP ones.~ ~Disability~Several scales have been
 61   II,     5.  5.  3   |             have been used to measure disability in MS, aimed at evaluating
 62   II,     5.  5.  3   |               research, the burden of disability is most frequently presented
 63   II,     5.  5.  3   |       presented as Kurtzke’s Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) for
 64   II,     5.  5.  3   |      prevalent cases (Kurtzke, 1983). Disability due to MS can be measured
 65   II,     5.  5.  3   |           which indicate the level of disability. Further lumping is often
 66   II,     5.  5.  3   |     ambulatory with the most moderate disability in at least one functional
 67   II,     5.  5.  3   |            although relatively severe disability, eventually constant bilateral
 68   II,     5.  5.  3   |      discrimination on the grounds of disability, and introduces the concept
 69   II,     5.  5.  3   |               age, gender, education, disability level) that were directly
 70   II,     5.  5.  3   |                Forum and the European Disability Forum. Its parent body at
 71   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Relapses and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis. N
 72   II,     5.  5.  3   |           progression of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis: an
 73   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Calculating and presenting disability adjusted life years (DALYs):
 74   II,     5.  5.  3   |       multiple sclerosis and expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neurology
 75   II,     5.  5.  3   |           with MS. Journal of Chronic Disability 1985;38(2):203-10.~Lensky
 76   II,     5.  5.  3   |         assessment of the spectrum of disability and handicap in multiple
 77   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Central Nervous System~DALY~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DMSR~
 78   II,     5.  5.  3   |      Sclerosis Registry~EDSS~Expanded Disability Status Scale~EFTA~European
 79   II,     5.  5.  3   |   Organization~YLD~Years Of Life With Disability~YLL~Years Of Life Lost~ ~ ~ ~
 80   II,     5.  5.  3   |             disease results in severe disability (Horstink et al, 2006).
 81   II,     5.  5.  3   |              to severe impairment and disability. In particular, data on
 82   II,     5.  5.  3   |        indicate the relative level of disability. Rates stratified by HY
 83   II,     5.  5.  3   |             number of cases with mild disability (HYI-II) in some studies.
 84   II,     5.  5.  3   |            losses associated with the disability and mortality of PD.~The
 85   II,     5.  5.  3   |             formal healthcare sector. Disability due to PD causes a strong
 86   II,     5.  5.  3   |               study of prevalence and disability. Acta neurologica Scandinavica
 87   II,     5.  6.Acr   |            Bone Mineral Density~DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~HRT~
 88   II,     5.  6.Acr   |       Arthritis~YLDs~Years Lived With Disability~ ~ ~
 89   II,     5.  6.  1   |    characterised by pain and physical disability. These symptoms can sometimes
 90   II,     5.  6.  3   |             prevalence; determinants; disability and quality of life; health
 91   II,     5.  6.  3   |              Musculoskeletal Pain and Disability~ ~Definitions~ ~Musculoskeletal
 92   II,     5.  6.  3   |        different group of diseases)~ ~Disability and quality of life~ ~Musculoskeletal
 93   II,     5.  6.  3   |              are the leading cause of disability for both men and women,
 94   II,     5.  6.  3   |               rheumatic diagnosis and disability, found that 24% of the whole
 95   II,     5.  6.  3   |       conditions are a major cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
 96   II,     5.  6.  3   |           DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). They are seldom
 97   II,     5.  6.  3   |         seldom fatal and the level of disability for many is low to moderate.
 98   II,     5.  6.  3   |         leading to increased pain and disability (Dougados et al, 1992).
 99   II,     5.  6.  3   |            Table 5.6.4). The pain and disability associated with OA increases
100   II,     5.  6.  3   |             prevalence and associated disability. Osteoarthritis results
101   II,     5.  6.  3   |              life lost as a result of disability (Global burden and risk
102   II,     5.  6.  3   |             cause of chronic pain and disability resulting in analgesic and
103   II,     5.  6.  3   |           numbers with OA and greater disability. The burden however may
104   II,     5.  6.  3   |       activity and reducing long-term disability. Early treatment aimed at
105   II,     5.  6.  3   |              strategy to prevent this disability (European Commission (2004):
106   II,     5.  6.  3   |       predictors of future functional disability in patients with early RA
107   II,     5.  6.  3   |            cases had mild or moderate disability due to RA and less than
108   II,     5.  6.  3   |              less than 10% had severe disability. The disability starts early
109   II,     5.  6.  3   |            had severe disability. The disability starts early and rises in
110   II,     5.  6.  3   |             no cure for RA, long term disability can be reduced with current
111   II,     5.  6.  3   |       activity and reducing long-term disability, whilst early treatment
112   II,     5.  6.  3   |              strategy to prevent this disability (European Commission (2004):
113   II,     5.  6.  3   |              the home may also reduce disability. It has been recently estimated
114   II,     5.  6.  3   |              optimally, the burden of disability due to RA might be further
115   II,     5.  6.  3   |              the UK at various ages~ ~Disability~ ~Hip fracture results in
116   II,     5.  6.  3   |         fractures are associated with disability. Co-morbidity is common
117   II,     5.  6.  3   |              than physical aspects of disability and physical requirements
118   II,     5.  6.  4   |              chronicity and resulting disability. This has major cost implications
119   II,     5.  6.  4   |              indirect related to work disability and social care, with a
120   II,     5.  6.  4   |                Woolf, 2008). The work disability and use of health resources
121   II,     5.  6.  4   |        illustrated here below.~ ~Work disability~ ~In addition to functional
122   II,     5.  6.  4   |    limitations in everyday life, work disability is a major consequence of
123   II,     5.  6.  4   |               work ability. Permanent disability in the economically active
124   II,     5.  6.  4   |           based upon register data on disability pensions. Temporary disability,
125   II,     5.  6.  4   |        disability pensions. Temporary disability, on the other hand, might
126   II,     5.  6.  4   |            are also common causes for disability pensions, along with mental
127   II,     5.  6.  4   |               disorders as causes for disability pensions. In Norway, low
128   II,     5.  6.  4   |             in per cent) of people on disability pensions due to musculoskeletal
129   II,     5.  6.  6   |              chronic health problems, disability, and health care utilization:
130   II,     5.  6.  6   |                1989): OPCS Surveys of disability in Great Britain Report
131   II,     5.  6.  6   |           Report 1: The prevalence of disability among adults.~ ~Department
132   II,     5.  6.  6   |                1989): OPCS Surveys of Disability in Great Britain Report
133   II,     5.  6.  6   |               Report 1: Prevalence of disability among adults.~Oleksik A,
134   II,     5.  6.  6   |              total burden of mobility disability in the Dutch population.
135   II,     5.  6.  6   |            Tugwell P (1992): Physical disability among Canadians reporting
136   II,     5.  8.  1   |              seventh cause of loss of disability adjusted life years (Mannino
137   II,     5.  8.  7   |          projections of mortality and disability by cause 19902020: Global
138   II,     5. 10.  4   |             manifestations, death and disability linked to anaphylactic reactions,
139   II,     5. 11.  1   |         contact. Perhaps the greatest disability of all is to be unwelcome
140   II,     5. 11.  3   |       frequent causes of occupational disability, need for job retraining,
141   II,     5. 11.  4   |               11.4. Societal impact~ ~Disability due to loss of function~
142   II,     5. 11.  4   |             psoriasis confer a direct disability by affecting one’s ability
143   II,     5. 11.  7   |             10714.~ ~Ryan TJ (1991): Disability in Dermatology. Br J Hosp
144   II,     7.Acr       |             European Injury Data~DALY~Disability Adjusted Life Years~DG Sanco~
145   II,     7.  3.  1   |    consequences (prevalence of injury disability) of injuries by sector are
146   II,     7.  3.  3   |              causes of sick leave and disability due to injuries yet, both
147   II,     7.  3.  3   |         retirements on the grounds of disability and 20% of sick leave days
148   II,     7.  4       |          suicides.~• A major cause of disability: Many survivors of severe
149   II,     7.  4       |             the main cause of chronic disability among young people, leading
150   II,     7.  4       |              causes of sick leave and disability due to injuries. Both are
151   II,     7.  4       |          retirement on the grounds of disability and 20% of sick leave days
152   II,     7.  4       |               Life Years (QALYs), and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) .~ ~
153   II,     7.  4       |             loss of productive years, disability and human suffering;~· Evidence
154   II,     7.  6       |       indicators for health costs and disability has not yet been solved
155   II,     8.Acr       |                        Acronyms~ ~DIS~Disability Interview Surveys~EHIS~European
156   II,     8.  1       |                          8.1. OVERALL DISABILITY DATA AND POLICIES~ ~
157   II,     8.  1.  1   |        policies. Until now, models of disability were typically cast as “
158   II,     8.  1.  1   |              The current construct of disability is fundamentally interactive
159   II,     8.  1.  1   |         Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) (WHO, 2001),
160   II,     8.  1.  1   |            functional limitation from disability. Functional differences
161   II,     8.  1.  1   |                and (3) participation. Disability is not equated with a disease
162   II,     8.  1.  1   |              people with intellectual disability or any other disabilities
163   II,     8.  1.  1   |             the main cause of chronic disability among younger people, leading
164   II,     8.  1.  2   |        longstanding health problem or disability, work limitations (regarding
165   II,     8.  1.  2   |        longstanding health problem or disability (LSHPD) for 6 months or
166   II,     8.  1.  2   |            certain characteristics of disability or of certain socioeconomic
167   II,     8.  1.  2   | characteristics among those reporting disability.~ ~The EU Statistics on
168   II,     8.  1.  2   |              MEHM), made of 3 general disability/health items and questions.
169   II,     8.  1.  2   |               Community statistics on disability and social integration in
170   II,     8.  1.  2   |           general, comparable data on disability and on integration of people
171   II,     8.  1.  2   |           Interview Surveys (HIS) and Disability Interview Surveys (DIS)
172   II,     8.  1.  2   |             topics related to health, disability and social integration.~ ~ ~
173   II,     8.  1.  3   |            standing health problem or disability (LSHPD). About one third
174   II,     8.  1.  3   |       long-standing health problem or disability (LSHPD)~ ~The occurrence
175   II,     8.  1.  3   |     self-perception of the health and disability status.~ ~Access to education~ ~
176   II,     8.  1.  4   |            develop a survey module on Disability and Social Integration (
177   II,     8.  1.  4   |              at a European meeting on Disability statistics. The EDSIM module,
178   II,     8.  1.  5   |               s long-term strategy on disability, which aims to enable disabled
179   II,     8.  1.  5   |               In the framework of its disability strategy2 the Commission
180   II,     8.  1.  5   |      abilities, and (3) mainstreaming disability issues in the broad range
181   II,     8.  1.  5   |           framework for ensuring that disability issues and concerns are
182   II,     8.  1.  5   |              the citizensconcept of disability7 it emphasises the need
183   II,     8.  2.  1   |                   8.2.1. Intellectual disability~ ~ ~
184   II,     8.  2.  1   |           Introduction~ ~Intellectual disability has emerged as the preferred
185   II,     8.  2.  1   |               United Kingdom learning disability is currently used. Multiple
186   II,     8.  2.  1   |            the case that intellectual disability is sometimes interchanged,
187   II,     8.  2.  1   |               known that intellectual disability is a neglected area, essential
188   II,     8.  2.  1   |            prevalence of intellectual disability are not common in most European
189   II,     8.  2.  1   |           mild levels of intellectual disability or young children who have
190   II,     8.  2.  1   |        general population. A National Disability Survey of this kind was
191   II,     8.  2.  1   |   specifically as having intellectual disability: rather, such individuals
192   II,     8.  2.  1   |              Definitions~Intellectual disability is defined by ICD 10 (World
193   II,     8.  2.  1   |            definition of intellectual disability is ‘a disability characterized
194   II,     8.  2.  1   |         intellectual disability is ‘a disability characterized by significant
195   II,     8.  2.  1   |       practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18’ (
196   II,     8.  2.  1   |            from a medical approach to disability, where the disability is
197   II,     8.  2.  1   |              to disability, where the disability is perceived as a person-centered
198   II,     8.  2.  1   |          ecological approach, where a disability is defined in the broader
199   II,     8.  2.  1   |            Prevalence of intellectual disability in adults has been found
200   II,     8.  2.  1   |          severe and profound learning disability is fairly uniformly distributed
201   II,     8.  2.  1   |             Mild to moderate learning disability, however, has a link to
202   II,     8.  2.  1   |             and profound intellectual disability (SPID) in Finland was 0.
203   II,     8.  2.  1   |                Causes of intellectual disability~A number of factors causing
204   II,     8.  2.  1   |          factors causing intellectual disability have been discovered, but
205   II,     8.  2.  1   |           still unknown. Intellectual disability can start anytime before
206   II,     8.  2.  1   |           cause of their intellectual disability is not known. Some of the
207   II,     8.  2.  1   |          known causes of intellectual disability are Down syndrome, fetal
208   II,     8.  2.  1   |          Other causes of intellectual disability are related to premature
209   II,     8.  2.  1   |          other causes of intellectual disability do not happen until a child
210   II,     8.  2.  1   |                can cause intellectual disability and other problems if babies
211   II,     8.  2.  1   |              people with intellectual disability~Lack of comparable health
212   II,     8.  2.  1   |         influenced by the presence of disability through diagnostic overshadowing (
213   II,     8.  2.  1   |             finding that intellectual disability was a significant risk factor
214   II,     8.  2.  1   |              severity of intellectual disability, age and location.~ ~
215   II,     8.  2.  1   |              ecological frameworks of disability, the health of people with
216   II,     8.  2.  1   |            Some cases of intellectual disability can be prevented with proper
217   II,     8.  2.  1   |        diagnosed with an intellectual disability are most successful when
218   II,     8.  2.  1   |     preventable cause of intellectual disability. Women should be informed
219   II,     8.  2.  1   |               related to intellectual disability, such as phenylketonuria,
220   II,     8.  2.  1   |               child with intellectual disability. Folic acid, a vitamin supplement,
221   II,     8.  2.  1   |              the rate of intellectual disability related to prematurity.~
222   II,     8.  2.  1   |          often result in intellectual disability. Amniocentesis or chorionic
223   II,     8.  2.  1   |             also prevent intellectual disability and other consequences resulting
224   II,     8.  2.  1   |            will not have intellectual disability. It is also important for
225   II,     8.  2.  1   |              affected by intellectual disability and other birth defects.~ ~
226   II,     8.  2.  1   |          small set or sets of general disability measures, suitable for use
227   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 50 (9), 667–677.~
228   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 49, 134143.~Emerson,
229   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 51, 866-874.~Fisher,
230   II,     8.  2.  1   |          Rutkowski-Kmitta, V. (2005). Disability Statistics in the Developing
231   II,     8.  2.  1   |            GuidelinesDevelopmental Disability (2005) Melbourne, Australia:
232   II,     8.  2.  1   |              adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual
233   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42 (4), 264-272.~
234   II,     8.  2.  1   |              to the Term Intellectual Disability. INTELLECTUAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL
235   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51, 6, 427-434.~
236   II,     8.  2.  1   |        Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. ICF WHO, Geneva~
237   II,     8.  2.  1   |               Ageing and Intellectual DisabilityImproving Longevity and
238   II,     8.  2.  1   |               8.2.1.8. Acronyms~ ~DIS~Disability Interview Surveys (DIS)~
239   II,     8.  2.  1   |        Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (2001).~WHO~
240   II,     8.  2.  3   |               to result in negligible disability and it has not been considered
241   II,     8.  2.  3   |           estimation of the burden of disability for hearing loss due to
242   II,     8.  2.  3   |              al, 2003).~The burden of disability due to hearing loss has
243   II,     8.  2.  3   |       impairment and reported hearing disability among adults in Great Britain.
244   II,     8.  2.  3   |        Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (2001).~LFS:~
245   II,     8.  2.  3   |            standing health problem or disability~MEHM:~Minimum European Health
246   II,     8.  2.  3   |             Statistical System~EDSIM:~Disability and Social Integration~EHSS:~
247   II,     9           |      developmental delay and learning disability, and diagnosis is often
248   II,     9           |            the day (WHO/HSBC 2004).~ ~Disability. Regrettably, the incidence
249   II,     9           |             the incidence of physical disability in children, or of mental
250   II,     9           |             in children, or of mental disability, is not known at the population
251   II,     9           |     educational and other settings if disability is not to become a major
252   II,     9           |         health problems and resulting disability than more educated patients.
253   II,     9           |              so steep as to result in disability.~ ~The SENECA study demonstrated
254   II,     9           |             the leading cause of male disability in industrialised countries (
255   II,     9.  1.  1   |          Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm
256   II,     9.  1.  2   |      developmental delay and learning disability, and diagnosis is often
257   II,     9.  2.  3   |           children with impairment or disability, or the number with special
258   II,     9.  2.  3   |        Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - and has also
259   II,     9.  2.  3   |               an increasing burden of disability on children. Mood disorders
260   II,     9.  2.  4   |            the day (WHO/HSBC 2004).~ ~Disability. Regrettably, the incidence
261   II,     9.  2.  4   |             the incidence of physical disability in children, or of mental
262   II,     9.  2.  4   |             in children, or of mental disability, is not known at the population
263   II,     9.  2.  4   |     educational and other settings if disability is not to become a major
264   II,     9.  2.  6   |           ages;~ ~· Child impairment, disability, and special needs~Measurement
265   II,     9.  2.  6   |          assessment of impairment and disability in children differ significantly
266   II,     9.  2.  6   |              to adults. The impact of disability on children’s lives at different
267   II,     9.  2.  7   |        Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; WHO, Geneva.~ ~
268   II,     9.  3.  1   |              vaccination campaigns.~ ~Disability~ ~Data on disability are
269   II,     9.  3.  1   |                  Disability~ ~Data on disability are usually limited and
270   II,     9.  3.  1   |         populations have close to 12% disability. There is a suggestion that
271   II,     9.  3.  1   |               life expectancy without disability is either stagnating (United
272   II,     9.  3.  1   |             severe handicap or severe disability (European Commission, 2003).~ ~
273   II,     9.  3.  1   |          various degrees of impact on disability and quality of life which
274   II,     9.  3.  1   |   difficulties, inability to work and disability. Its prevalence in the wider
275   II,     9.  3.  1   |         health problems and resulting disability than more educated patients.
276   II,     9.  3.  1   |             Health Expectancy and the Disability Process project~GIA~Gender
277   II,     9.  3.  2   |          Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm
278   II,     9.  4.  2   |            that can result in chronic disability, such as stroke or heart
279   II,     9.  4.  3   |             major causes of death and disability for women too. The common
280   II,     9.  4.  3   |             great promise of reducing disability and institutionalisation -
281   II,     9.  4.  3   |            causes of years lived with disability. The burden of ill health
282   II,     9.  4.  3   |            Medicine Society, 2002).~ ~Disability: While most elderly people
283   II,     9.  4.  3   |               can be a major cause of disability (Geriatric Medicine Society,
284   II,     9.  4.  3   |            countries show that severe disability is declining in older people
285   II,     9.  4.  3   |             reduce the progression of disability (WHO, 1999). Data on life
286   II,     9.  4.  3   |               life expectancy without disability are limited, but suggest
287   II,     9.  4.  3   |               life expectancy without disability is either stagnating (United
288   II,     9.  4.  3   |             severe handicap or severe disability. Even worse, there may be
289   II,     9.  4.  4   |              so steep as to result in disability.~ ~The SENECA study demonstrated
290   II,     9.  4.  4   |             the leading cause of male disability in industrialised countries (
291   II,     9.  4.  5   |             way to save lives, reduce disability, lessen institutionalisation
292   II,     9.  4.  5   |        present a much greater risk of disability as they age, mostly due
293   II,     9.  4.  5   |         smaller when years lived with disability are taken into account.
294   II,     9.  4.  7   |           assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries,
295   II,     9.  5.  2   |             Health Expectancy and the Disability Process project) and ECHI (
296   II,     9.  5.  2   |              mortality, morbidity and disability and thus determine the likelihood
297   II,     9.  5.  3   |            Males > > Females~Learning disability~Males > > Females~Adolescence~
298   II,     9.  5.  3   |               psychotropic drugs. The disability associated to mental illness
299   II,     9.  5.  3   |         health problems and resulting disability than the more educated.
300  III,    10.  2.  1   |          Cardiovascular disease.~DALY~Disability adjusted life years.~ECHP~
301  III,    10.  2.  1   |               age free of disease and disability. It is usually measured
302  III,    10.  2.  1   |             It is usually measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs).
303  III,    10.  2.  1   |                       Acronyms~ ~DALY~Disability Adjusted Life Year~EMCDDA~
304  III,    10.  3.  2   |            Repro-toxic chemicals~DALY~Disability adjusted life years~DDT~
305  III,    10.  5.  2   |             Long-standing illness and disability in urban and rural settings~ ~
306  III,    10.  5.  3   |               productivity, long-term disability or even premature death.
307  III,    10.  5.  3   |      sick leave, early retirement and disability pension. Because of the
308  III,    10.  5.  3   |              mortality, morbidity and disability~ ~This chapter addresses
309  III,    10.  6.  2   |            and most specific forms of disability;~· over the past decades,
310  III,    10.  6.  2   |             due to physical or mental disability or to linguistic or cultural
311   IV,    11.  1.  5   |       prolonged hospital stays and/or disability levels (Kohn et al, 2000).~ ~
312   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            Institute for Sickness and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI)
313   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            Institute for Sickness and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI)~
314   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Age, sex, unemployment, disability, mortality, urbanization,
315   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               452 municipalities~Age, disability, archipelago, remoteness (
316   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            funds~Age, sex, welfare or disability status, urbanization (and
317   IV,    12.Acr       |             for Disease Control~DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~EACH~
318   IV,    12.  5       |           experience a compression of disability, and Denmark, the Netherlands,
319   IV,    12.  5       |           experience a compression of disability whilst Germany, Ireland,
320   IV,    12.  5       |             differential reporting of disability or the omission of the institutionalized
321   IV,    12. 10       |       Establishment of the Office for Disability~and Mental Health (Jan 08)~ ~
322   IV,    12. 10       |                older people and (iii) disability and mental health were established
323   IV,    12. 10       |           ControlAcute HospitalsDisability and Mental HealthOlder
324   IV,    12. 10       |          length of stay of patients~ ~Disability and Mental Health~The National
325   IV,    12. 10       |            Mental Health~The National Disability Strategy~http nt~provides
326   IV,    12. 10       |               of the Strategy are:~· *Disability Act 2005 ~· **Education
327   IV,    12. 10       |             and plans, the Office for Disability and Mental Health was established
328   IV,    12. 10       |               services, youth issues, disability issues, elderly care, the
329   IV,    12. 10       |          child and adolescent issues, disability issues, elderly care, food
330   IV,    12. 10       |               Domain of objective 1~ ~Disability policy~Housing policy~Old
331   IV,    12. 10       |               Register of People with Disability~Others : Reducing Inequalities
332   IV,    13.Acr       |                      Acronyms~ ~DALYs~Disability Adjusted Life Years~EACH~
333   IV,    13.  2.  1   |                               13.2.1. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs)~ ~
334   IV,    13.  2.  1   |               factors. The use of the Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)
335   IV,    13.  2.  1   |       weighting factor expressing the disability associated with a disease.
336   IV,    13.  2.  2   |         second most frequent cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
337   IV,    13.  2.  2   |             terms of years lived with disability (YLD), the portion of neuropsychiatric
338   IV,    13.  2.  2   |               of the years lived with disability (unipolar depressive disorder
339   IV,    13.  2.  2   |             are a major cause of loss disability adjusted life years (DALYs)
340   IV,    13.  2.  2   |           DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). They are seldom
341   IV,    13.  2.  2   |         seldom fatal and the level of disability for many is low to moderate;
342   IV,    13.  2.  2   |           accounting for about 12% of disability adjusted life years (DALYs)~·
343   IV,    13.  2.  3   |              deaths and 3 % of DALYs (disability adjusted life years). Mild
344   IV,    13.  5       |              mortality, morbidity and disability. The elderly suffer more
345   IV,    13.  5       |               falls and fractures and disability in performing daily life
346   IV,    13.  5       |               the risk of disease and disability clearly increases with advancing
347   IV,    13.  5       |        However, while it is true that disability rates are higher among the
348   IV,    13.  5       |       countries point to a decline in disability rates especially in the
349   IV,    13.  5       |              measures that can reduce disability and favour home care rather
350   IV,    13.  5       |             due to physical or mental disability or to linguistic or cultural
351   IV,    13.  6.  1   |              ill-health in children~ ~Disability Adjusted Life years (DALYs)
352   IV,    13.  6.  1   |           life, burden of illness and disability. Their focus is primarily
353   IV,    13.  6.  1   |            supporting a person with a disability or handicap;~· Effects on
354  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0   |               directives~disabilities~disability~disability-adjusted~disability-free~