Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4        |         prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions by level of education
  2    I,     2.  4        |             Data indicate that most chronic diseases have a higher prevalence
  3    I,     2.  8        |               Mainly from acute and chronic effects of outdoor air pollution,
  4    I,     2.  8        |               Mainly from acute and chronic effects of outdoor air pollution,
  5   II,     4.  1        |            As they were replaced by chronic diseases, the risk of becoming
  6   II,     4.  1        |           MEHM includes measures of chronic morbidity, perceived health
  7   II,     4.  1        |       surveyed individuals have any chronic physical or mental health
  8   II,     5.  1.  1    |         hepatic cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases; nephrological
  9   II,     5.  1.  1    |             the EU. Main non lethal chronic diseases include dermatological
 10   II,     5.  1.  1    |          short life-expectancy, but chronic non-communicable diseases
 11   II,     5.  1.  1    |             and alter the course of chronic non-communicable diseases (
 12   II,     5.  1.  1    |            resistance and diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis can damage
 13   II,     5.  1.  1    |       changes in dietary habitudes.~Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease~
 14   II,     5.  1.  1    |             50% in elderly smokers.~Chronic Kidney Disease and End Stage
 15   II,     5.  1.  1    |            with neoplasias and with chronic infections diseases like
 16   II,     5.  1.  2    |            consultations are due to chronic diseases which cannot be
 17   II,     5.  1.  2    |        dialogue with his patient.~ ~Chronic diseases and their treatments
 18   II,     5.  1.  3    |           providers in the field of chronic disease prevention).~The
 19   II,     5.  1.  3    |      prevention).~The management of chronic diseases requires the development
 20   II,     5.  1.  3    |       treatment to their particular chronic disease as well as in coping
 21   II,     5.  1.  4    |              A person affected by a chronic disease is a member of society
 22   II,     5.  1.  4    |    information need for people with chronic diseases in several ways.
 23   II,     5.  1.  4    |            care. People affected by chronic diseases should be informed
 24   II,     5.  1.  4    |             person suffering from a chronic disease is essential. The
 25   II,     5.  1.  4    |          suitable for people with a chronic disease and information
 26   II,     5.  2.  3    |             efficient therapies for chronic conditions and the management
 27   II,     5.  4.  1    | Introduction~Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, characterised by
 28   II,     5.  4.  1    |            level. As for many other chronic diseases, an adequate self-management
 29   II,     5.  4.  2    |           the collection of data on chronic diseases hamper the establishment
 30   II,     5.  4.  2    |           an almost ideal model for chronic diseases, with very little
 31   II,     5.  4.  2    |             reduce the cost of this chronic disease.~To make targets
 32   II,     5.  4.  5    |            resistance and diabetes. Chronic pancreatitis can damage
 33   II,     5.  4.  7    |          care. Diabetes, like other chronic diseases, needs a long-term
 34   II,     5.  4.  7    |         disease areas, particularly chronic diseases although no one
 35   II,     5.  4.  8    |             for the epidemiology of chronic diseases: the example of
 36   II,     5.  5.Int    |            likely to have 2 or more chronic illnesses and 2-6 times
 37   II,     5.  5.  1    |            associated with physical chronic disease. Negative life-events,
 38   II,     5.  5.  1    |             even more than physical chronic conditions (Ormel et al,
 39   II,     5.  5.  1    |         Anxiety disorders are often chronic, even life-long. Predisposing
 40   II,     5.  5.  1    |             2006). The impact of 29 chronic conditions on health-related
 41   II,     5.  5.  3    |            additional third shows a chronic progressive course, the
 42   II,     5.  5.  3    |           factors associated with a chronic course of disease.~Figure
 43   II,     5.  5.  3    |     intervention in order to reduce chronic cases and financial burden;~·
 44   II,     5.  5.  3    |       Rare Diseases’ and ‘Major and Chronic DiseasesTask Forces of
 45   II,     5.  5.  3    |      Introduction~ ~ ~Epilepsy is a chronic clinical disorder affecting
 46   II,     5.  5.  3    |       epilepsy is, by definition, a chronic clinical condition, about
 47   II,     5.  5.  3    |          epilepsy, in patients with chronic epilepsy most deaths appear
 48   II,     5.  5.  3    |             middle-aged person with chronic refractory epilepsy, generalized
 49   II,     5.  5.  3    |        Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive potentially
 50   II,     5.  5.  3    |             progressive (SP-MS) and chronic progressive (CP)- or PP-MS (
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |        patients with MS. Journal of Chronic Disability 1985;38(2):203-
 52   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Multiple Sclerosis~CP-MS~Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis~
 53   II,     5.  5.  3    |            It is characterized by a chronic slowly progressive course,
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |           of Parkinson’s disease. J Chronic Dis 26(4):243-254.~Späte
 55   II,     5.  6.  2    |           SANCO Report on Major and Chronic Diseases. These data have
 56   II,     5.  6.  3    |            low back pain; or may be chronic as is usually the situation
 57   II,     5.  6.  3    |           most common self-reported chronic sickness in men and women
 58   II,     5.  6.  3    |           by a cumulative effect of chronic musculoskeletal conditions,
 59   II,     5.  6.  3    |          sex-specific prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain (95%
 60   II,     5.  6.  3    |           life if compared to other chronic conditions (Sprangers et
 61   II,     5.  6.  3    |          life they have experienced chronic restrictive musculoskeletal
 62   II,     5.  6.  3    |          that ask for self-reported chronic conditions including osteoarthritis
 63   II,     5.  6.  3    |              OA is a major cause of chronic pain and disability resulting
 64   II,     5.  6.  3    |             the most common form of chronic polyarthritis. The established
 65   II,     5.  6.  3    |       progress into another form of chronic arthritis. At present, there
 66   II,     5.  6.  3    |             cause most limitations. Chronic vertebral osteoporosis,
 67   II,     5.  6.  3    |           and 3 months duration and chronic when it lasts more than
 68   II,     5.  6.  3    |   characterised by exacerbations of chronic low back pain. Many people
 69   II,     5.  6.  3    |         back pain. Many people with chronic low back pain also have
 70   II,     5.  6.  3    |           flares on a background of chronic pain. Pain is often worse
 71   II,     5.  6.  3    |        disturbed and some also have chronic widespread pain. Strenuous
 72   II,     5.  6.  3    |         than 1 month. In cases with chronic back pain, the impact on
 73   II,     5.  6.  4    |       disease for the individual. A chronic pain condition might lead
 74   II,     5.  6.  6    |         Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. Lancet 354:
 75   II,     5.  6.  6    |        Leden I, Rosenberg C (1993): Chronic pain in a geographically
 76   II,     5.  6.  6    |             disorders as a cause of chronic health problems, disability,
 77   II,     5.  6.  6    |             B, Jacobsson LT (2001): Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence
 78   II,     5.  6.  6    |             The contribution of six chronic conditions to the total
 79   II,     5.  6.  6    |            de Haes HC (2000): Which chronic conditions are associated
 80   II,     5.  7        |                                5.7. Chronic kidney disease and end stage
 81   II,     5.  7.Acr    |             Risk in Communities~CKD~Chronic Kidney Disease~ESRD~End
 82   II,     5.  7.  1    |               5.7.1. Introduction~ ~Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is
 83   II,     5.  7.  1    |            CKD was not listed among chronic diseases in the 2005 WHO
 84   II,     5.  7.  1    |     clinical complications in other chronic diseases like in neoplasia
 85   II,     5.  7.  1    |            like in neoplasia and in chronic infections. Interpretative
 86   II,     5.  7.  1    |          link between CKD and other chronic diseases with the ultimate
 87   II,     5.  7.  1    |       context where costs for other chronic diseases such as hypertension,
 88   II,     5.  7.  1    |    contributor to the death toll of chronic diseases, communicable diseases
 89   II,     5.  7.  1    |             with policies for other chronic diseases.~ ~Information
 90   II,     5.  7.  1    |            7.1. KDIGO Definition of Chronic Kidney Disease~ ~ ~Structural
 91   II,     5.  7.  3    |         Figure 5.7.2. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease per stage
 92   II,     5.  7.  3    |         Prevalence of stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease in selected
 93   II,     5.  7.  3    |         prevalence of stages 3-5 of chronic kidney disease by age and
 94   II,     5.  7.  4    |            with neoplasias and with chronic infectious diseases such
 95   II,     5.  7.  5    |             with neoplasia and with chronic infectious diseases such
 96   II,     5.  7.  5    |         neoplasia and in those with chronic infections, screening for
 97   II,     5.  7.  5    |              two of which concerned chronic renal failure: (1) to stabilize (
 98   II,     5.  7.  5    |             to reduce the impact of chronic renal failure on quality
 99   II,     5.  7.  5    |   Statistica did not list CKD among chronic diseases. On September 26th
100   II,     5.  7.  6    |             with policies for other chronic diseases.~ ~In Europe there
101   II,     5.  7.  7    |              2003): Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children:
102   II,     5.  7.  7    |           cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure. Lancet 2000
103   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Lacher DA, et al (2005): Chronic kidney disease awareness,
104   II,     5.  7.  7    |         2006): Obesity and risk for chronic renal failure. J Am Soc
105   II,     5.  7.  7    |              1997): Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children:
106   II,     5.  7.  7    |  functioning among adolescents with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr
107   II,     5.  7.  7    |        McCulloch CE, Hsu CY (2004): Chronic kidney disease and the risks
108   II,     5.  7.  7    |             estimates of utility in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int
109   II,     5.  7.  7    |   comparison of the relationship of chronic kidney disease prevalence
110   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the general
111   II,     5.  7.  7    |       faster than the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency. Ann
112   II,     5.  7.  7    |            of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: focus on
113   II,     5.  7.  7    |           syndrome and the risk for chronic kidney disease among nondiabetic
114   II,     5.  7.  7    |        patients and risk factors in chronic kidney disease -- evaluating
115   II,     5.  7.  7    |            of life in children with chronic kidney disease-patient and
116   II,     5.  7.  7    |           Doring A, Lowel H (2006): Chronic kidney disease and risk
117   II,     5.  7.  7    |       recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney
118   II,     5.  7.  7    |             practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation,
119   II,     5.  7.  7    |           managing dyslipidemias in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney
120   II,     5.  7.  7    |           metabolism and disease in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney
121   II,     5.  7.  7    |          antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney
122   II,     5.  7.  7    |        Pereira BJ, Kausz AT (2002): Chronic kidney disease in the United
123   II,     5.  7.  7    |              2005): Epidemiology of chronic renal disease in the Galician
124   II,     5.  7.  7    |            Cost of medical care for chronic kidney disease and comorbidity
125   II,     5.  7.  7    |          Middleton R, et al (2007): Chronic kidney disease management
126   II,     5.  7.  7    |             C, Fok M, et al (2006): Chronic kidney disease and mortality
127   II,     5.  8        |                                5.8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~
128   II,     5.  8.Acr    |             airway obstruction~COPD~chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~
129   II,     5.  8.Acr    |           the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease~
130   II,     5.  8.  1    |             Introduction~ ~The term Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (
131   II,     5.  8.  1    |             limitation (AL) such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
132   II,     5.  8.  1    |           main elements of COPD are chronic bronchitis and emphysema: (
133   II,     5.  8.  1    |          severe airflow limitation, chronic respiratory failure, different
134   II,     5.  8.  2    |           11% in Pisa also reported chronic bronchitis or emphysema,
135   II,     5.  8.  2    |        whereas, among patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema,
136   II,     5.  8.  2    |           subcutaneous ( T7 ~· with chronic (obstructive) bronchitis ( J4 )~
137   II,     5.  8.  2    |            bleb~ ~ ~ ~ ~J44~ ~Other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~ ~
138   II,     5.  8.  2    |     pulmonary disease~ ~ ~Includes:~chronic:~· bronchitis:~ · asthmatic (
139   II,     5.  8.  2    |              bronchiectasis ( J47 )~chronic:~· bronchitis:~ · NOS ( J4 ·
140   II,     5.  8.  2    |      external agents ( J6 )~J44.0~ ~Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
141   II,     5.  8.  2    |            influenza ( J9 )~J44.1~ ~Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
142   II,     5.  8.  2    |             J44.8~ ~Other specified chronic obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~ ~
143   II,     5.  8.  2    |   obstructive pulmonary disease~ ~ ~Chronic bronchitis:~· asthmatic (
144   II,     5.  8.  2    |            infection ( J4 )~J44.9~ ~Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
145   II,     5.  8.  2    |            disease, unspecified~ ~ ~Chronic obstructive:~· airway disease
146   II,     5.  8.  3    |            cumulative incidences of chronic bronchitis and COPD were
147   II,     5.  8.  3    |            Cost and Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (
148   II,     5.  8.  3    |             a prevalence of 6.2% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
149   II,     5.  8.  3    |           et al, 2006). People with chronic cough or phlegm ranged from
150   II,     5.  8.  3    |          while mortality from other chronic conditions declined (Chapman
151   II,     5.  8.  3    |            frequently have multiple chronic health conditions. The severity
152   II,     5.  8.  3    |          co-morbidities: Coexisting chronic conditions with unrelated
153   II,     5.  8.  3    |            on patients with a given chronic disease. For example, upper
154   II,     5.  8.  3    |           association with reported chronic bronchitis and emphysema
155   II,     5.  8.  3    |       proposed the additional termchronic inflammatory syndrome” to
156   II,     5.  8.  3(27)|            FEV1 <50% predicted plus chronic respiratory failure~ ~
157   II,     5.  8.  4    |            cumulative incidences of chronic bronchitis and COPD were
158   II,     5.  8.  4    |            follow-up, subjects with chronic bronchitis showed 252 mL
159   II,     5.  8.  4    |           significantly affected by chronic cough and phlegm (odds ratio
160   II,     5.  8.  4    |        fumes increased the risk for chronic bronchitis from smoking
161   II,     5.  8.  4    |        increase in the incidence of chronic phlegm was found in individuals
162   II,     5.  8.  4    |              COPD is one of several chronic diseases that will become
163   II,     5.  8.  5    |             Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD)
164   II,     5.  8.  5    |           the EU to the research on chronic respiratory diseases (MacNee
165   II,     5.  8.  6    |          burden for lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (
166   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases.~Eur
167   II,     5.  8.  7    |             co-morbidity of asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema:
168   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Is Airway Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (
169   II,     5.  8.  7    |            Events? COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
170   II,     5.  8.  7    |         Viegi G, de Marco R (2003): Chronic cough and phlegm in young
171   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
172   II,     5.  8.  7    |             international survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
173   II,     5.  8.  7    |            related to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
174   II,     5.  8.  7    |   Respiratory Society (ERS) (2003). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
175   II,     5.  8.  7    |             KF (2007): From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome?.
176   II,     5.  8.  7    |        obstruction due to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
177   II,     5.  8.  7    |             M-C (2006): Deaths from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
178   II,     5.  8.  7    |        utilization of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
179   II,     5.  8.  7    |           The Global initiative for Chronic obstructive lung disease. [
180   II,     5.  8.  7    |            telecare for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
181   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Soriano JB (2003): What do chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
182   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Incidence of GOLD-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
183   II,     5.  8.  7    |       osteoporosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:
184   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Comorbidity of somatic chronic diseases and decline in
185   II,     5.  8.  7    |      Miravitlles M. (2004):Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
186   II,     5.  8.  7    |         depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (
187   II,     5.  8.  7    |             Alvarez-Sala JL (2006): Chronic respiratory symptoms, spirometry
188   II,     5.  8.  7    |             cumulative incidence of chronic bronchitis and COPD in relation
189   II,     5.  8.  7    |             P, Didsbury P (2004): A chronic disease management programme
190   II,     5.  8.  7    |          hospital for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
191   II,     5.  8.  7    |           differential diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
192   II,     5.  8.  7    |         disease. In: “Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”.
193   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Lung Function Decline, Chronic Bronchitis, and Occupational
194   II,     5.  8.  7    |             high risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
195   II,     5.  8.  7    |           in employees with asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema:
196   II,     5.  8.  7    |           Group (2001): Occupation, Chronic Bronchitis, and Lung Function
197   II,     5.  9.  1    |          Introduction~ ~Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory condition
198   II,     5.  9.  2    |         status asthmaticus 493.11Chronic obstructive asthma 493.2~(
199   II,     5.  9.  2    |             asthma 493.2~(Excluded:~Chronic asthmatic bronchitis 491.
200   II,     5.  9.  2    |        bronchitis 491.2~Obstructive chronic bronchitis 491.2)~· Chronic
201   II,     5.  9.  2    |         chronic bronchitis 491.2)~· Chronic obstructive asthma without
202   II,     5.  9.  2    |         status asthmaticus 493.2CChronic obstructive asthma with
203   II,     5.  9.  2    |    asthmaticus 493.91Obstructive chronic bronchitis with (acute)
204   II,     5.  9.  3    |             to €17.7 billion . As a chronic disease which is often difficult
205   II,     5.  9.  4    |            and workers experiencing chronic exposure to gases, fumes,
206   II,     5.  9.  5    |       patients as well as for other chronic diseases;~3. monitoring
207   II,     5.  9.  6    |             Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) (Bo l,
208   II,     5.  9.  6    |         existing programs regarding chronic respiratory diseases. The
209   II,     5.  9.  6    |           prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases, with
210   II,     5.  9.  7    |             Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases). Rev
211   II,     5. 10.  2    |           plants~490~Bronchitis~491~Chronic bronchitis~492~Emphysema~
212   II,     5. 10.  2    |             allergic alveolitis~496~Chronic airways obstruction, not
213   II,     5. 11.  3    |       morbidity results mainly from chronic dermatologic illness. Occupational
214   II,     5. 11.  3    |         toxic epidermal necrolysis.~Chronic severe skin disease accounts
215   II,     5. 11.  3    |      recalcitrant bullous diseases, chronic wounds such as venous and
216   II,     5. 11.  3    |             atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin
217   II,     5. 11.  3    |       eczema that may be recurrent, chronic and severe, and might affect
218   II,     5. 11.  3    |             for an entire life, the chronic exposure to a low concentration
219   II,     5. 11.  3    |    Psoriasis~Psoriasis is a common, chronic, relapsing, inflammatory
220   II,     5. 11.  4    |            while leg ulcers produce chronic pain and limit the ability
221   II,     5. 11.  4    |             Mortality and Morbidity~Chronic suffering rather than mortality
222   II,     5. 11.  4    |          disease among the top four chronic diseases when entire communities
223   II,     5. 12.  5    |    avoidance of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases is based
224   II,     5. 12.  6    |        impact of transplantation on chronic liver disease would be attributed
225   II,     5. 12.  7    |            for the future burden of chronic liver disease in the United
226   II,     5. 14.  1    |           one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of people worldwide;
227   II,     5. 14.  1    |            seen as a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease initially
228   II,     5. 14.  2    |         systems for surveillance of chronic disease and risk factors (
229   II,     5. 14.  2    |   population is based on integrated chronic questionnaire schemes. In
230   II,     5. 14.  4    |           dietary excess leading to chronic diseases such as obesity,
231   II,     6.  3.  3    |              5%), and patients with chronic infection serve as a reservoir
232   II,     6.  3.  3    |           those infected develops a chronic infection and many of those
233   II,     6.  3.  3    |       nature of the disease (mainly chronic, asymptomatic infections)
234   II,     6.  3.  4    |   healthcare workers and those with chronic medical conditions of all
235   II,     6.  3.  6    |              causing both acute and chronic diarrhoea. Infants and children
236   II,     7.  4        |             to be the main cause of chronic disability among young people,
237   II,     8.  1.  1    |             to be the main cause of chronic disability among younger
238   II,     9            |           congenital anomaly due to chronic disease status. Diabetes
239   II,     9            |           inflammatory disease, and chronic pelvic pain. There is a
240   II,     9            |           are more likely to suffer chronic health problems and resulting
241   II,     9            |         later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which reduce functional
242   II,     9.  1.  1    |       severe learning disabilities, chronic lung disease, visual and
243   II,     9.  1.  2    |           congenital anomaly due to chronic disease status. Diabetes
244   II,     9.  2.  3    |           Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, with
245   II,     9.  2.  3    |            inflammatory disease and chronic pelvic pain. Adolescents
246   II,     9.  2.  4    |           inflammatory disease, and chronic pelvic pain. There is a
247   II,     9.  2.  7    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. Brussels~ ~European
248   II,     9.  3.  1    |            Europe the prevalence of chronic infection is low, but there
249   II,     9.  3.  1    |     untreated, gonorrhoea can cause chronic pelvic inflammatory disease,
250   II,     9.  3.  1    |           are more likely to suffer chronic health problems and resulting
251   II,     9.  3.  2    |           more common prevalence of chronic diseases and maternal conditions,
252   II,     9.  4.  2    |             the size and pattern of chronic diseases and the socioeconomic
253   II,     9.  4.  2    |             sixties.~ ~In addition, chronic illness and acute conditions
254   II,     9.  4.  2    |       conditions that can result in chronic disability, such as stroke
255   II,     9.  4.  2    | independently. People with the same chronic condition may have different
256   II,     9.  4.  2    |             the perception of how a chronic condition impacts on the
257   II,     9.  4.  3    |      explains the growing burden of chronic disease (European Commission,
258   II,     9.  4.  3    |            Cancer Leagues, 2005).~ ~Chronic diseases and disablement
259   II,     9.  4.  3    |           likely to suffer from the chronic diseases commonly associated
260   II,     9.  4.  3    |         incontinence and arthritis. Chronic illness and decreased mobility
261   II,     9.  4.  3    |            likely to have 2 or more chronic illnesses and 2-6 times
262   II,     9.  4.  3    |        oldest individuals, who have chronic diseases affecting respiratory
263   II,     9.  4.  4    |         later life.~ ~Alcohol. Many chronic diseases which reduce functional
264   II,     9.  4.  5    |           higher risk of almost all chronic diseases than those in more
265   II,     9.  4.  5    |        mortality is higher for most chronic conditions in older men;
266   II,     9.  4.  6    |          ageing process or due to a chronic illness (Mukaetova-Ladinska,
267   II,     9.  4.  6    |          clearly some people with a chronic condition such as dementia
268   II,     9.  4.  6    |         older people and those with chronic conditions (UK DoH, 2005),
269   II,     9.  4.  6    |            minimizing the impact of chronic illness, social supports
270   II,     9.  5.  3    |           are more likely to suffer chronic from health problems and
271   II,     9.  5.  3    |        violence, severe depression, chronic stress, oppressive racial
272   II,     9.  5.  3    |       increasing life expectancies, chronic disease prevalence and incidence,
273   II,     9.  5.  4    |           those who are coping with chronic disease or long term disabilities
274  III,    10.  1.  1    |    cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases (Burke et al, 1995;
275  III,    10.  1.  1    |            cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In this regard,
276  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and Health: ASH UK~COPD~Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.~
277  III,    10.  2.  1    |           second-hand smoke~Cancers~Chronic diseases~Childen~Adults~
278  III,    10.  2.  1    |          respiratory illness~COPD*, chronic respiratory symptoms*, asthma*,
279  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Nasal sinuses~- Liver~- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (
280  III,    10.  2.  1    |             and a massive burden of chronic illness.~Cardiovascular
281  III,    10.  2.  1    |             implications for future chronic disease burden in adults.
282  III,    10.  2.  1    |          low-consuming countries.~ ~Chronic harm from alcohol~ ~Alcohol
283  III,    10.  2.  1    |             cirrhosis and acute and chronic pancreatitis. The reduction
284  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Investigation into Cancer, Chronic Diseases, Nutrition and
285  III,    10.  2.  1    |    accidents or injuries as well as chronic problems such as drug dependence
286  III,    10.  2.  1    |           of highly problematic and chronic individuals, predominantly
287  III,    10.  2.  1    |           are the same as for major chronic non-communicable diseases
288  III,    10.  2.  1    |    attempting to tackle each single chronic disease alone, a more effective
289  III,    10.  2.  1    |             section. Plaque-induced chronic gingivitis in children can
290  III,    10.  2.  1    |         prevention and treatment of chronic non-communicable and communicable
291  III,    10.  2.  1    |           are the same as for major chronic non-communicable diseases
292  III,    10.  2.  1    |           attempting to tackle each chronic disease individually, a
293  III,    10.  2.  1    |       health as an integral part of chronic disease prevention, amongst
294  III,    10.  2.  1    |         independent risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases
295  III,    10.  2.  1    |          programme, which assembles chronic disease risk factor data
296  III,    10.  2.  1    |       incidences of obesity-related chronic diseases, such as type II
297  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases (European Commission,
298  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. Brussels, Commission
299  III,    10.  2.  1    |     Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases” (2003).~· WHO
300  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases (European Commission,
301  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. Brussels, Commission
302  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases”. National Institute
303  III,    10.  2.  1    |     nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint
304  III,    10.  2.  1    |             overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. Green paper, Brussels,
305  III,    10.  2.  5    |           as a predictor of child's chronic health problems. Child Care
306  III,    10.  3.  3    |              causing both acute and chronic diarrhoea. Infants and children
307  III,    10.  3.  4    |               Children, people with chronic diseases and those confined
308  III,    10.  3.  4    |   respiratory diseases. People with chronic debilitating diseases are
309  III,    10.  3.  4    |          associated with a range of chronic conditions in the non-indigenous
310  III,    10.  3.  4    |    rodent-borne diseases), acute or chronic effects of exposure to chemical
311  III,    10.  3.  4    |             contribute to acute and chronic illnesses of the respiratory
312  III,    10.  3.  4    |    respiratory diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases .
313  III,    10.  4.  1    |        determines both the risks of chronic effects of pollution on
314  III,    10.  4.  1    |          residence, the presence of chronic respiratory (especially
315  III,    10.  4.  1    |           an increased frequency of chronic bronchitis, respiratory
316  III,    10.  4.  1    |          has become the most common chronic disease among children and
317  III,    10.  4.  1    |           in CAFE CBA included:~ ~· Chronic exposure:~o Mortality (PM) –
318  III,    10.  4.  1    |              O3 )~ ~ In people with chronic lung disease (sthma, COPD)~·
319  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Organism~Mild 1~Severe 2~Chronic 3~Mortality 4~ ~Bacteria320  III,    10.  4.  2    |            type of exposure (acute, chronic), guidelines will be needed
321  III,    10.  4.  3    |        contaminant of ground water. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming
322  III,    10.  5.  2    |             a greater prevalence of chronic diseases which is posing
323  III,    10.  5.  2    |              a higher prevalence of chronic conditions and more overweight
324  III,    10.  5.  2    |            pregnancies, infections, chronic diseases, acute somatic
325  III,    10.  5.  2    |             to deal more often with chronic diseases such as heart disease,
326  III,    10.  6.  2    |         prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions per level of
327  III,    10.  6.  2    |            and indicating that most chronic diseases have a higher prevalence
328  III,    10.  6.  2    |          Table 10.6.2.1. Odds Ratio Chronic diseases in eight European
329  III,    10.  6.  2    |            the prevalence of common chronic diseases: an overview of
330   IV,    11.  1.  5    |          other goals e.g. improving chronic disease management (Spooner
331   IV,    11.  2        |          care and the management of chronic diseases. There is growing
332   IV,    11.  2.  1    |        created in the US to improve chronic care and contain costs -
333   IV,    11.  2.  1    |        prevalence and complexity of chronic diseases. DMPs emphasise
334   IV,    11.  2.  1    |           treatment. Similarly, the Chronic Care Model - which is a
335   IV,    11.  2.  1    |            a more specific guide of chronic disease management for provider
336   IV,    11.  6.  2    |               Switzerland~ ~Certain chronic conditions:~- France~- Germany~-
337   IV,    11.  6.  2    |       diseases:~- Austria~ ~Certain chronic conditions and serious diseases:~-
338   IV,    12.  2        |          Investigation into Cancer, Chronic Diseases, Nutrition and
339   IV,    12. 10        |        prevention and management of chronic diseases including diabetes, htt l~
340   IV,    12. 10        |            of life of patients with chronic diseases, health and violence (
341   IV,    13.  2.  2    |           the high-income countries chronic diseases at older ages (
342   IV,    13.  5        |      elderly suffer more often from chronic and degenerative illnesses
343   IV,    13.  5        |             the younger population. Chronic diseases may contribute
344   IV,    13.  5        |            39 percent after age 90. Chronic diseases are a heavy burden
345   IV,    13.  7.  3    |             demographic changes and chronic illness, health promotion
346   IV,    13.  7.  5    |           minorities, morbidity and chronic diseases, use of cross-border