Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |              via its effects on labour costs, labour market flexibility
  2    I,     2.  2    |                well as sharply reduced costs of transportation and telecommunications,
  3    I,     2.  2    |            themselves aims at lowering costs and improving service quality
  4    I,     2.  5    |              whilst controlling labour costs. Their approach has included
  5    I,     2.  5    |                well as sharply reduced costs of transportation and telecommunications,
  6    I,     2.  5    |              capital as well as actual costs and fees – which can affect
  7    I,     2. 10.  4|      preventing counterfeiting, saving costs and increasing the healthcare
  8    I,     2. 10.  4|                example, administrative costs along supply chains in healthcare
  9    I,     2. 10.  4|                30 to 40% of healthcare costs but only 6-8% in the retail
 10    I,     2. 10.  4|                in inventory management costs can significantly improve
 11    I,     2. 10.  4|            market, which increases the costs of production and supply
 12   II,     5.  2.  1|          services and medications. The costs for our society are huge
 13   II,     5.  2.  1|        consequent increase in economic costs. Therefore, across Europe
 14   II,     5.  2.  1|             pressing need to cope with costs increase and make CVD prevention
 15   II,     5.  2.  6|        substantially to the escalating costs of health services. Therefore,
 16   II,     5.  2.  7|           earlier in life and Medicare costs in the last year of life.
 17   II,     5.  3.  7|            produce less harm and lower costs than spontaneous (opportunistic)
 18   II,     5.  3.  7|           screening programme, and its costs, should be carefully predicted
 19   II,     5.  3.  7|           basis.~· There is a need for costs and budget impact to be
 20   II,     5.  3.  7|               2 years (as increases in costs >5% are often difficult
 21   II,     5.  3.  8|              address the escalation of costs of cancer control, that
 22   II,     5.  4.  1|          diabetes is the one involving costs. The CODE-2 study has measured
 23   II,     5.  4.  1|               measured the health care costs of people with type 2 diabetes
 24   II,     5.  4.  1|          countries, the average annual costs per patient with type 2
 25   II,     5.  4.  1|               in 1999. The health care costs of diabetes as a percentage
 26   II,     5.  4.  1|             the greatest proportion of costs (55%). A Swedish study (
 27   II,     5.  4.  1|            shaped with relatively high costs immediately after diagnosis,
 28   II,     5.  4.  1|                complications. Indirect costs by diabetes due to loss
 29   II,     5.  4.  1|                than direct health care costs (WHO 2002). Unfortunately,
 30   II,     5.  4.  1|                 information on overall costs of diabetes is not collected
 31   II,     5.  4.  8|              Wall S, Ostman J., Excess costs of medical care 1 and 8
 32   II,     5.  5.  1|               et al, 2008).~ ~Most the costs for mood disorders are indirect
 33   II,     5.  5.  1|              example in 2004 the total costs from depression were estimated
 34   II,     5.  5.  1|         Sobocki et al 2006). The total costs of depression have doubled
 35   II,     5.  5.  1|            increase is due to indirect costs (Sobocki et al, 2007).~ ~
 36   II,     5.  5.  1|                estimated that economic costs from suicide in Ireland
 37   II,     5.  5.  2|              seen as leading to higher costs for health care and support
 38   II,     5.  5.  2|               reduced which would save costs as long-term residential care
 39   II,     5.  5.  2|            with the prospect of higher costs for healthcare, it is likely
 40   II,     5.  5.  2|          measures introduced to reduce costs. This has already been seen
 41   II,     5.  5.  3|           exceeds the direct treatment costs due to remarkable unemployment
 42   II,     5.  5.  3|   schizophrenia, on treatment gaps and costs to cover at least the main
 43   II,     5.  5.  3|                and economic disability costs. Substantially reducing
 44   II,     5.  5.  3|             2005).~Direct and indirect costs of schizophrenia~A number
 45   II,     5.  5.  3|             single diagnosis. Economic costs vary by country; this is
 46   II,     5.  5.  3|              schizophrenia. The direct costs account only for a small
 47   II,     5.  5.  3|              Council has evaluated the costs of brain disorders in Europe
 48   II,     5.  5.  3|             stressed the fact that the costs provided by the countries
 49   II,     5.  5.  3|           Rössler, 2005).~In 2004, the costs for hospital stays due to
 50   II,     5.  5.  3|               highest amount of direct costs, as evaluated by Andlin-Sobocki (
 51   II,     5.  5.  3|               that a great part of the costs for hospital stays is related
 52   II,     5.  5.  3|                the direct and indirect costs in a cohort of patients
 53   II,     5.  5.  3|             They found that the direct costs were dominated by hospitalization;
 54   II,     5.  5.  3|               by hospitalization; drug costs represented only 7% of the
 55   II,     5.  5.  3|      represented only 7% of the direct costs. Indirect costs represented
 56   II,     5.  5.  3|             the direct costs. Indirect costs represented 43% of total
 57   II,     5.  5.  3|               represented 43% of total costs within these 5 years (Lindström
 58   II,     5.  5.  3|               3.2.7. Direct healthcare costs by brain disorder~The most
 59   II,     5.  5.  3|            comprehensive evaluation of costs for brain disorders was
 60   II,     5.  5.  3|             account.~Figure 5.5.3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia
 61   II,     5.  5.  3|            within present budgets.~The costs as segmented according to
 62   II,     5.  5.  3|            guidelines and thereby save costs” (Leucht, 2006).~Fighting
 63   II,     5.  5.  3|          Neovius M, Levander S (2007): Costs of schizophrenia during
 64   II,     5.  5.  3|                with autism the highest costs are those generated by health
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|               in the future.~MS social costs are high. Cost data were
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|       countries (Sobocki et al, 2007). Costs, retrospectively assessed,
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|          patient in 2005, total direct costs (healthcare costs [inpatient
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|               direct costs (healthcare costs [inpatient care, outpatient
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|            care, outpatient care, drug costs and tests], non-medical
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|                and tests], non-medical costs [services, and investments]
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|               informal care), indirect costs (production loss due to
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|            retirement), and intangible costs (comparison of patients’
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|        European inhabitant. Intangible costs would add an additional €
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|                mean of €31 000. Direct costs, excluding informal care,
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|                 and within these, drug costs dominate with €2.5 billion
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|         billion in 2005 (41% of direct costs or 20% of the total costs).
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|              costs or 20% of the total costs). Social services only represent
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|            informal care (22% of total costs) to help patients in their
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|             early retirement (indirect costs) represent 22% of the total
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|                the greater proportion) costs14 300 per year, €31 200
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|                recent review estimated costs due to PD resulting in €
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|           Council (ECB), estimated the costs of brain disorders in the
 83   II,     5.  5.  3|              results excluded indirect costs due to production losses
 84   II,     5.  5.  3|           portion of the burden, while costs due to informal care and
 85   II,     5.  5.  3|         disease. A similar increase of costs with increasing severity
 86   II,     5.  5.  3|       Nevertheless, also a decrease of costs in HY stages IV and V has
 87   II,     5.  5.  3|              also demonstrate that the costs for brain disorders are
 88   II,     5.  5.  3|                employment and indirect costs~Only few data about the
 89   II,     5.  5.  3|                data about the indirect costs of PD are available for
 90   II,     5.  5.  3|                Singer E (1973): Social costs of Parkinson’s disease.
 91   II,     5.  6.  3|                6% of total health care costs compared to 8.1% for mental
 92   II,     5.  6.  3|                only considered medical costs. The inclusion of indirect
 93   II,     5.  6.  3|              The inclusion of indirect costs, such as informal care would
 94   II,     5.  6.  3|             have greatly increased the costs related musculoskeletal
 95   II,     5.  6.  3|               arthritis the healthcare costs only represent between a
 96   II,     5.  6.  3|               and a third of the total costs. The costs were considerable
 97   II,     5.  6.  3|                of the total costs. The costs were considerable at all
 98   II,     5.  6.  3|                France estimates of the costs of osteoarthritis from national
 99   II,     5.  6.  3|          almost two-thirds were direct costs of medical care (Levy et
100   II,     5.  6.  3|       replacement surgery although the costs of this will be considerable
101   II,     5.  6.  3|               et al, 2000). The direct costs are typically between 25
102   II,     5.  6.  3|            total (Woolf, 2008). Direct costs are high during the first
103   II,     5.  6.  3|            subsequent years due to the costs of devices, adaptations
104   II,     5.  6.  3|         contribute to 40% of the total costs after 10 years (Hulsemann
105   II,     5.  6.  3|          Hulsemann et al, 2005). These costs are strongly influenced
106   II,     5.  6.  3|             and between countries. The costs of medication have been
107   II,     5.  6.  3|                less than 20% of direct costs in earlier studies but this
108   II,     5.  6.  3|          aspect and its frequency, the costs to society are enormous.
109   II,     5.  6.  3|              low back pain http ). The costs are mainly incurred by 10110   II,     5.  6.  4|               social care. Most of the costs are indirect related to
111   II,     5.  6.  4|             care, with a minor part of costs related to the direct costs
112   II,     5.  6.  4|            costs related to the direct costs of health care, although
113   II,     5.  6.  4|             not negligible. The direct costs will increase with more
114   II,     5.  6.  4|                the society in terms of costs. Musculoskeletal injuries
115   II,     5.  6.  4|             The associated health care costs that are generated by these
116   II,     5.  6.  4|     retardation to generate healthcare costs in the Netherlands (Meerding,
117   II,     5.  6.  6|             2000): Direct and Indirect Costs of Rheumatoid Arthritis
118   II,     5.  6.  6|               H, Ruof J (2005): Direct Costs Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis:
119   II,     5.  6.  6|             sjukdomarna? (What are the costs of illness?) Stockholm,
120   II,     5.  6.  6|                M (2000): Socioeconomic Costs of Rheumatic Diseases. Implications
121   II,     5.  6.  6|               I (1993): [Socioeconomic Costs of Osteoarthritis in France].
122   II,     5.  6.  6|             determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of
123   II,     5.  7.  1|         population. In a context where costs for other chronic diseases
124   II,     5.  7.  1|             outcomes and the resulting costs in these conditions. For
125   II,     5.  7.  1|               high direct and indirect costs to society. CKD in the pre
126   II,     5.  7.  1|                White et al, 2008). The costs of treating patients living
127   II,     5.  7.  3|       considerably improved at reduced costs by increasing organ donation
128   II,     5.  7.  6|             dialysis patients, whereas costs of treatment are lower,
129   II,     5.  8.  1|              cause great suffering and costs.~ ~
130   II,     5.  8.  3|          Society, 2003).~ ~ ~The total costs of COPD in different countries (
131   II,     5.  8.  3|             estimates of direct annual costs per patient were about 1
132   II,     5.  8.  3|               al, 2004). Moreover, the costs increased in proportion
133   II,     5.  8.  3|                studies, average direct costs per patient were estimated
134   II,     5.  8.  3|                Only one third of these costs were due to the treatment
135   II,     5.  8.  3|         represented by hospitalisation costs, accounting for about 60%
136   II,     5.  8.  3|                for about 60% of direct costs (Jansson et al, 2002).~ ~
137   II,     5.  8.  5|               mortality, morbidity and costs of COPD. A second edition
138   II,     5.  8.  6|            natural history, deaths and costs are necessary to contrast
139   II,     5.  8.  7|                2006): Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary
140   II,     5.  8.  7|          Jonsson E, Lundback B (2002): Costs of COPD in Sweden according
141   II,     5.  8.  7|              JL, Miravitlles M. (2004):Costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary
142   II,     5.  9. FB|         besides increasing health care costs and lost productivity. The
143   II,     5.  9.  3|               Figure 5.9.5.)~ ~ ~ ~The costs of health care~ ~Data provided
144   II,     5.  9.  3|                factor in public health costs. Although they can be calculated
145   II,     5.  9.  3|               effective socio-economic costs, different factors must
146   II,     5.  9.  3|            such as direct and indirect costs. A more sophisticated approach
147   II,     5.  9.  3|          needed: it would be useful if costs related to allergic asthma
148   II,     5.  9.  3|       reduction of direct and indirect costs.~ ~At the moment, in Europe
149   II,     5.  9.  3|               lost work days (indirect costs amounting to €9.8 billion) (
150   II,     5.  9.  3|              consistent and the direct costs are related to outpatient
151   II,     5.  9.  3|               the proportion of direct costs of asthma care. The average
152   II,     5.  9.  3|            care. The average physician costs were 22% (of which 75% related
153   II,     5.  9.  3|               specialist visits). Drug costs make up 37% of the total
154   II,     5.  9.  3|               cost of asthma; hospital costs were 20-25%: inpatient cost
155   II,     5.  9.  3|               heavier socio-economical costs in the future.~ ~A study
156   II,     5.  9.  5|               be useful if figures and costs related to the major allergic
157   II,     5.  9.  5|         systems, but also reducing the costs of allergic care to society
158   II,     5.  9.  5|               term direct and indirect costs and include the improvement
159   II,     5.  9.  6|                in terms of health care costs and lost productivity but
160   II,     5.  9.  7|           Barnes PJ, Jon B (1996): The costs of asthma. Eur Respir J.
161   II,     5. 11.  3|               with accompanying social costs (Dalgard et al, 2003).~Relatively
162   II,     5. 11.  4|          hypertension.~ ~High economic costs~Although skin disease is
163   II,     5. 11.  4|           these have shown that direct costs are as high as for many
164   II,     5. 11.  4|                 Williams, 1997). Other costs such as unemployment and
165   II,     5. 11.  4|               also important. Indirect costs e.g. the adverse effects
166   II,     5. 11.  4|               life and the opportunity costs due to time lost for daily
167   II,     5. 13    |              through increased medical costs to treat the diseases associated
168   II,     5. 13    |             associated with it (direct costs); lost of productivity due
169   II,     5. 13    |              premature death (indirect costs); missed opportunities,
170   II,     5. 13    |            quality of life (intangible costs) (Branca et al, 2007a; Branca
171   II,     5. 13    |                up to 7% of health care costs and this amount will further
172   II,     5. 13    |             direct and indirect annual costs of obesity in the EU15 (
173   II,     5. 14.  2|            order to rationally control costs, help assure quality and
174   II,     5. 14.  6|   professionals and limiting treatment costs have also to be taken into
175   II,     6.  3.  1|           found positive.~ ~The annual costs for health services for
176   II,     6.  3.  1|               hospital admissions, the costs related to communicable
177   II,     6.  3.  1|       Netherlands has estimated annual costs based on both the direct
178   II,     6.  3.  1|              the direct health service costs and indirect costs (i.e.
179   II,     6.  3.  1|             service costs and indirect costs (i.e. the impact on sectors
180   II,     6.  3.  1|              estimates indicate annual costs in the EU of the order of
181   II,     6.  3.  1|             direct and indirect annual costs, the last decade saw high
182   II,     6.  3.  1|             agricultural sectors) with costs around €10 billion per episode
183   II,     6.  3.  1|                  annual and continuing costs to the health and related
184   II,     7.  1    |               systems often exceed the costs of intervention by a factor
185   II,     7.  1    |              in healthcare and welfare costs can be expected.~ ~Although
186   II,     7.  2.  9|                figures for the medical costs of injuries.~htt ~ ~The
187   II,     7.  2.  9|        sick leaves /indirect and human costs is lacking and requires
188   II,     7.  3.  3|         causing billions of healthcare costs (Figure 7.5).~ ~Figure 7.
189   II,     7.  4    |               morbidity and healthcare costs: On average, in all age
190   II,     7.  4    |            needed (e.g. calculation of costs, calculation of Potential
191   II,     7.  4.  2|            share in the direct medical costs~ ~Every year approximately
192   II,     7.  4.  4|              result in high healthcare costs.~Sports activities that
193   II,     7.  5    |               systems often exceed the costs of interventions by a factor
194   II,     7.  5    |               e.g. on disabilities and costs;~· Collaborate in implementing
195   II,     7.  6    |                health expenditures and costs of disabilities, governments
196   II,     7.  6    |               of indicators for health costs and disability has not yet
197   II,     8.  2.  2|     consequences in all societies. The costs of lost productivity and
198   II,     8.  2.  2|               into direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are those
199   II,     8.  2.  2|             indirect costs. The direct costs are those of the treatment
200   II,     8.  2.  2|                relevant proportions of costs for running medical and
201   II,     8.  2.  2|           administration. The indirect costs include lost earnings of
202   II,     8.  2.  2|               and their caregivers and costs for visual aids, equipment,
203   II,     9.  1.  2|            years of life and emotional costs to the familyprovision,
204   II,     9.  3.  1|             lowest healthcare diabetes costs (2.5% of total healthcare
205   II,     9.  3.  1|            compatible, and because the costs involved in overhauling
206   II,     9.  3.  1|           financial and human resource costs of change can overstretch
207   II,     9.  4.  5|           long-term care services, the costs of which often exceed the
208   II,     9.  4.  5|              in the face of increasing costs, with several proposing
209   II,     9.  5.  3|              the non-victimised. Wider costs include those to judicial
210   II,     9.  5.  3|            lost earnings and emotional costs to the victim. In England &
211   II,     9.  5.  3|              25 billion) for emotional costs to the victim (WHO, 2007).
212   II,     9.  5.  3|          treatment for the perpetrator costs as little as Euro 1 000 (
213  III,    10.  1    |               disease, but also reduce costs to the health-care system.~ ~
214  III,    10.  1.  1|             enabling factors including costs of tobacco, taxes on tobacco
215  III,    10.  2.  1|         conservative estimates put the costs for only two smoking related
216  III,    10.  2.  1|              expressed as~ ~ ~ “Direct costs”, associated with health
217  III,    10.  2.  1|               victims, and~· “Indirect costs”, associated with the loss
218  III,    10.  2.  1|             total smoking-attributable costs for the two leading categories
219  III,    10.  2.  1|             region’s GDP. The indirect costs of smoking account for two
220  III,    10.  2.  1|             even for these two not all costs have been taken into account (
221  III,    10.  2.  1|           taken into account (e.g. the costs of informal care, the costs
222  III,    10.  2.  1|            costs of informal care, the costs linked to the treatment
223  III,    10.  2.  1|             reproductive problems, the costs related to SHS and budgetary
224  III,    10.  2.  1|           related to SHS and budgetary costs related to social services).
225  III,    10.  2.  1|   comprehensive estimate of net social costs for Australia ranges between
226  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Estimate of the social costs of drug abuse in Australia
227  III,    10.  2.  1|              European Union~ ~Economic costs of alcohol consumption~ ~
228  III,    10.  2.  1|       affordable because of escalating costs and limited resources. This,
229  III,    10.  2.  1|            2002~ ~Impact on health and costs of physical inactivity~ ~
230  III,    10.  2.  1|              expenditure is related to costs incurred by lack of physical activity
231  III,    10.  2.  1|              through increased medical costs to treat the diseases associated
232  III,    10.  2.  1|             associated with it (direct costs); lost of productivity due
233  III,    10.  2.  1|              premature death (indirect costs); missed opportunities,
234  III,    10.  2.  1|            quality of life (intangible costs) (Branca et al, 2007a; Branca
235  III,    10.  2.  1|                up to 7% of health care costs and this amount will further
236  III,    10.  2.  1|             direct and indirect annual costs of obesity in the EU15 (
237  III,    10.  2.  1|      practicability and administrative costs involved."~ ~ In keeping
238  III,    10.  2.  1|              2005): The prevalence and costs of obesity in the EU. Proceedings
239  III,    10.  3.  2|               50 times higher than the costs.~ ~ ~Emissions and release
240  III,    10.  3.  2|              Rh catalysts that, due to costs, are being increasingly
241  III,    10.  3.  4|               complete analysis of the costs of inaction. The on-going
242  III,    10.  3.  4|             occurs. Adaptation reduces costs in the medium term up to
243  III,    10.  3.  4|            beach nourishment. However, costs will remain considerable.
244  III,    10.  3.  4|               and increased production costs, led to an estimated damage
245  III,    10.  4.  1|                are also considered the costs may be lower.~ ~There are
246  III,    10.  4.  3|             public health benefits and costs of optimising Legionella
247  III,    10.  4.  5|        compared to the total estimated costs. Annual expenditure on the
248  III,    10.  4.  5|           estimated overall management costs in the countries for which
249  III,    10.  5.  3|             work, early retirement and costs from production losses will
250  III,    10.  5.  3|             two-thirds of the indirect costs and CVD illness, in those
251  III,    10.  5.  3|                 for one-third of these costs.~In view of their high prevalence,
252  III,    10.  5.  3|              immense. The total annual costs for the year 2004 was estimated
253  III,    10.  5.  3|               in Europe. Most of these costs (55%) are related to indirect
254  III,    10.  5.  3|                are related to indirect costs which amounted to €132 billion (
255  III,    10.  5.  3|                disorders, the indirect costs of mood disorders (depression
256  III,    10.  5.  3|               followed by the indirect costs for addictions (alcohol,
257  III,    10.  5.  3|             these, the distribution of costs depends very much on the
258  III,    10.  5.  3|              whilst controlling labour costs. Their approach has included
259  III,    10.  5.  3|                well as sharply reduced costs of transportation and telecommunications,
260  III,    10.  5.  3|             due to reduced absenteeism costs. The effect of workplace
261  III,    10.  5.  3| health promotion on the direct medical costs was also studied and turns
262  III,    10.  5.  3|           average reduction in medical costs of 26%, the return-on-investment
263  III,    10.  5.  3|         Wittchen H-U, Olesen J (2005): Costs of disorders of the brain
264   IV,    11.  1.  3|         agendas. Constantly increasing costs to fund desired activities
265   IV,    11.  1.  3|               for their own health and costs of health care; improve
266   IV,    11.  1.  3|            budgetary limits to contain costs and in many cases introduced
267   IV,    11.  1.  3|               some measures to contain costs and improve efficiency consisted
268   IV,    11.  1.  3|               capture the multitude of costs and benefits of the health
269   IV,    11.  1.  5|              additional administrative costs to the system, these programmes
270   IV,    11.  1.  5|                the human and financial costs of medical errors. The Agency
271   IV,    11.  1.  5|              errors lead to intangible costs, such as diminished trust
272   IV,    11.  1.  6|              to the health system e.g. costs and utilization rates (Figueras
273   IV,    11.  1.  6|          provide some insight into the costs and benefits of the NHS.~ ~
274   IV,    11.  1.  6|           negotiated amount will cover costs and leave a profit. The
275   IV,    11.  1.  6|             capitation methods control costs but provide an incentive
276   IV,    11.  1.  6|              activity, shift patientscosts onto others and do not encourage
277   IV,    11.  1.  6|              serve both to measure the costs of treating a given patient
278   IV,    11.  1.  6|       diagnostic group have equivalent costs and equivalent clinical
279   IV,    11.  1.  6|           patients with lower expected costs than the reimbursement,
280   IV,    11.  1.  6|          patients with higher expected costs than the reimbursement,
281   IV,    11.  1.  6|              the incentive to minimize costs within a treatment group (
282   IV,    11.  1.  6|         hospitals to determine average costs (300 hospitals), the Netherlands
283   IV,    11.  1.  6|             used. Whether with average costs or weights, further adjustments
284   IV,    11.  1.  6|           funds improved, and hospital costs increased more slowly, but
285   IV,    11.  1.  6|               waste and administration costs), and the hospital budget
286   IV,    11.  1.  6|           financial savings. In Italy, costs of services have fallen
287   IV,    11.  1.  6|   implementation, higher than expected costs, and to date no evidence
288   IV,    11.  1.  6|                2007).~ ~Administrative costs~ ~Administrative costs reflect
289   IV,    11.  1.  6|  Administrative costs~ ~Administrative costs reflect part of healthcare
290   IV,    11.  1.  6|              health. Included in these costs are the planning, management,
291   IV,    11.  1.  6|             have higher administrative costs (i.e. Germany, Luxembourg,
292   IV,    11.  1.  6|                 the Netherlands), with costs in Austria being relatively
293   IV,    11.  1.  6|                level of administrative costs in Austria and France could
294   IV,    11.  1.  6|           increased the administrative costs within the country (Thomson
295   IV,    11.  1.  6|               levels of administrative costs than statutory public health
296   IV,    11.  1.  6|                example, administrative costs of PHI in Germany, Luxembourg,
297   IV,    11.  1.  6|          France are about 10% of total costs, while in Austria, Belgium,
298   IV,    11.  1.  6|               they may be up to 25% of costs (Mossialos and Thomson 2004).
299   IV,    11.  1.  6|       Mossialos and Thomson 2004). The costs of administration are much
300   IV,    11.  1.  6|         therefore, that the additional costs of administration associated
301   IV,    11.  2.  1|               chronic care and contain costs - have increasingly been
302   IV,    11.  2.  2|         environmental sectors; and the costs for some activities, in
303   IV,    11.  3.  2|        effective medicines and control costs. On the other hand, the
304   IV,    11.  3.  2|               successful at containing costs, it does encourage innovation (
305   IV,    11.  3.  2|        approach, such as deciding what costs and consequences to include
306   IV,    11.  3.  2|          pricing mechanisms to contain costs include the Ramsay method –
307   IV,    11.  3.  2|              containing pharmaceutical costs and encouraging innovation
308   IV,    11.  3.  2|              containing pharmaceutical costs, much depends on whether
309   IV,    11.  6.  1|                 2002).~ ~Rising health costs can be seen in all countries
310   IV,    11.  6.  1|            include increases in labour costs, technological innovation
311   IV,    11.  6.  2|               with higher transactions costs and weaker purchasing power,
312   IV,    11.  6.  2|            large contributions, labour costs may rise resulting in negative
313   IV,    11.  6.  2|              have lower administrative costs because of the monopsony
314   IV,    11.  6.  2|                covered pay part of the costs of care received) and informal
315   IV,    11.  6.  2|              fixed amount of the total costs.~ ~On the basis of traditional
316   IV,    11.  6.  2|           micro level while containing costs at macro level. In countries
317   IV,    11.  6.  3|             insurance coverage for the costs of user charges and expanded
318   IV,    11.  6.  4|          reimbursement of all provider costs has been identified as the
319   IV,    11.  6.  4|                incurs high transaction costs.~ ~The potential for health
320   IV,    11.  6.  4|          formulae generate significant costs and require technical capacity
321   IV,    11.  6.  4|              sex, mortality (and rural costs)~Slovakia~5 health insurance
322   IV,    11.  6.  4|          society and rising healthcare costs have put pressure on decision-makers
323   IV,    11.  6.  4|      generating revenue and containing costs through reductions in the
324   IV,    11.  6.  4|             services and on management costs, rather than assessing outcomes.
325   IV,    11.  6.  5|             Culprit behind Health Care Costs? Washington, DC, Government
326   IV,    11.  6.  5|                fees: they don't reduce costs and they increase inequity [
327   IV,    11.  6.  5|           Green B et al. (2000): "Age, costs of acute and long-term care
328   IV,    12.  1    |                the potential to reduce costs that would otherwise have
329   IV,    13.Acr    |             environmental sectors; and costs for some activities, in
330   IV,    13.  5    |              and increased health care costs. Although the risk of disease
331   IV,    13.  6.  1|               cases, lifelong societal costs for supporting a person
332   IV,    13.  7.  3|              FP7 covers 75% of project costs, while the researchers