Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 transcription account for 11% and 12%. While about half
  2    I,     2. 11        |                                         2.11. References~ ~APPLICA (2005):
  3    I,     2. 11        |                Health. htt m (accessed 21.11.06).~European Commission (
  4    I,     2. 11        |                   index.html (accessed 15.11.06):.~Schulte P.A. et al. (
  5    I,     3.  2        |                   growth was in Ireland (+11%), while the lowest was
  6    I,     3.  2        |             population), but also France (11%), the UK (7%), Poland (
  7   II,     4.  2        |               external causes (causes 10, 11 and 12 in table 3) has decreased
  8   II,     4.  2        |                 Table 4.2.6 shows that in 11 out of the 17 selected countries
  9   II,     4.  3        |                Vital Statistics Report 45(11-Sup 2): 1-80.~ ~Commission
 10   II,     5.  2.  4    |             WHO-MONICA Project (Table 5.2.11) collected between mid 1980s
 11   II,     5.  2.  4    |                   conditions.~ ~Table 5.2.11. Prevalence of smoking (%),
 12   II,     5.  2.  7    |               World Health Stat Q. 35 (1):1147.~Pol ): Non-pharmacological
 13   II,     5.  3.  5    |                000 in women). Figures 5.3.11 show that Hungary, Czech Republic
 14   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    for stomach cancer and 11% for lung cancer. Survival
 15   II,     5.  4.  1    |                  and /or a hyperglycaemia 11.1 mmol/l (200mg/dl) in a
 16   II,     5.  4.  1    |                   or a postprandial value 11.1 mmol/l. (Report WHO/IDF
 17   II,     5.  4.  1    |             largest prevalence rates with 11.8% and 11.1%, while the
 18   II,     5.  4.  1    |           prevalence rates with 11.8% and 11.1%, while the UK is the
 19   II,     5.  4.  2    |                000,000 general population~11~HIS/HES/SPSN/RS Registries~
 20   II,     5.  4.  2    |                000,000 general population~11~HIS/HES/SPSN/RS Registries~
 21   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   15 mmol/l (<1.0 mmol/l)~11~Percent of diabetic subjects
 22   II,     5.  4.  2    |                    with an abnormal level~11~Percent of diabetic subjects
 23   II,     5.  4.  2    |          inspection in the last 12 months~11~Percent of diabetic subjects
 24   II,     5.  4.  3    |               diabetic population. Across 11 countries, the indicators
 25   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   The median value across 11 countries is 60.5%, corresponding
 26   II,     5.  4.  3    |                 EUCID indicator varies in 11 countries between 44% (Ireland)
 27   II,     5.  4.  3    |         percentages published by EUCID on 11 countries vary from 6% (
 28   II,     5.  4.  3    |             months. EUCID crude data from 11 countries present a range
 29   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   factor was found across 11 countries in crude percentages
 30   II,     5.  4.  3    |                   in crude percentages of 11% (Ireland) to 51% (Scotland)
 31   II,     5.  4.  3    |               pressure control. In EUCID, 11 countries provided data
 32   II,     5.  4.  3    |                    Crude percentages from 11 EUCID countries report values
 33   II,     5.  4.  3    |                  creatinine ths. In EUCID 11 countries provided figures,
 34   II,     5.  4.  8    |                diabetes in Europe. Lancet 11;355 873-6~EUDIP group (2002):
 35   II,     5.  4.  8    |                  Technol Assess. 2007 May;11(17):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-125~
 36   II,     5.  5.  2(25)|                 elderly and Resolution of 11/03/1998 on Alzheimer’s disease~
 37   II,     5.  5.  2    |          Parliament (1998): Resolution of 11/03/1998 on Alzheimer’s disease~ ~ ~
 38   II,     5.  5.  3    |               increases with age: 28% for 11-year-olds, 37% for 13-year-olds
 39   II,     5.  5.  3    |          increases with age: from 12% for 11-year-olds to 23% for 15-
 40   II,     5.  5.  3    |               increases with age: 12% for 11-year-olds, 23% for 15-year-olds.
 41   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 mortality rate (23.0% vs. 11.2%) was mainly the result
 42   II,     5.  5.  3    |                study.~J Gen Intern Med 21(11):1133-7.~Coodin S (2001):
 43   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Bull World Health Organ. 82(11):858-66.~Lacro JP, Dunn
 44   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Survey.~Schizophr Bull 24:11-20.~Lehman AF, Steinwachs
 45   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 3(11):e442.~McGrath JJ (2006):
 46   II,     5.  5.  3    |              health. Lancet 370(9590):810-11.~Sato M (2006): Renaming
 47   II,     5.  5.  3    |            followed up prospectively over 11-14 years. J Neurol Neurosurg
 48   II,     5.  5.  3    |                review. Epilepsia 38(suppl 11):S15-S19.~Olafsson E, Hauser
 49   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Prevalence ranges between 11 and 282 per 100 000 in women
 50   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   prospects. Eur J Neurol 11:511–520~EUROPA. The EU at
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  study. Neuroepidemiology 11:1-10.~Koch-Henriksen N (
 52   II,     5.  5.  3    |      approximately 120 to 257/100,000 and 11 to 19/100,000 per year,
 53   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   s disease. Neurology 43(11):2227-2229.~Gorell JM, Rybicki
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  disease. Eur J Neurol 13(11):1170-1185.~Hughes AJ, Daniel
 55   II,     5.  6.  3    |               back pain with sciatica was 11.6 / 1000 people per year,
 56   II,     5.  6.  4    |           rheumatoid arthritis (Table 5.6.11).~ ~Table 5.6.11. Distribution (
 57   II,     5.  6.  4    |                Table 5.6.11).~ ~Table 5.6.11. Distribution (in per cent)
 58   II,     5.  6.  6    |                   for Europe, Copenhagen, 11-14 September 2006. Available
 59   II,     5.  7.  3    |            current prevalence in the USA (11%). This contrasts with ESRD
 60   II,     5.  7.  7    |                  Pediatr Nephrol 1997 Aug;11(4):438-42.~Fadrowski J,
 61   II,     5.  8.  2    |             patients, 14% in Po Delta and 11% in Pisa also reported chronic
 62   II,     5.  8.  3    |          cumulative incidence of COPD was 11.0% according to the GOLD
 63   II,     5.  8.  3    |              prevalence rates ranged from 11.0% with the ERS criterion (
 64   II,     5.  8.  3    |                 Slovak Republic) to about 11% in Vilnius (Lithuania) (
 65   II,     5.  8.  3    |               stage II was 10.1% overall, 11.8% for men, and 8.5% for
 66   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   of low BMI and low FFMI 11%. Low BMI and low FFMI were
 67   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   of stay in hospital was 11.37 days and the cost of
 68   II,     5.  8.  4    |                  with prevalence rates of 11.8% for the pre-clinical
 69   II,     5.  8.  5    |              history of 10+ pack-years (n=11,027). After a minimal antismoking
 70   II,     5.  8.  5    |                   355 subjects (aged 53.5±11.5 yrs; 58.2% males) among
 71   II,     5.  8.  7    |                   J Tuberc Lung Dis 2007; 11: 695-702.~ ~Buist AS, McBurnie
 72   II,     5.  8.  7    |             disease. Intern Med J 2004;34(11):608-14~ ~ ~Schirnhofer
 73   II,     5.  8.  7    |                  Mon, Monograph 38, 2006; 11: 1-6.~ ~Sidney S, Sorel
 74   II,     5.  9.  1    |                 to affect approximately 411% of the general population
 75   II,     5.  9.  2    |               with status asthmaticus 493.11Chronic obstructive asthma
 76   II,     5.  9.  2    |                   children aged from 9 to 11 years. ISAAC Phase III is
 77   II,     5.  9.  3    |                   the general population: 11.2% in children of 6-7 years
 78   II,     5.  9.  3    |                     Croatia 12.1%, Serbia 11.6%, Iceland 11%, Spain 10.
 79   II,     5.  9.  3    |                     Serbia 11.6%, Iceland 11%, Spain 10.6% and Poland
 80   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 1314 years of age-group, 11 of 105 centres registered
 81   II,     5.  9.  4    |                 in school-children aged 9-11. Over these 15 years the
 82   II,     5.  9.  4    |                spills (RR=3.3, 95% CI 1.0-11.1, P=0.051). The population-attributable
 83   II,     5.  9.  4    |            in-vitro tests were available. 11.1% suffered from current
 84   II,     5.  9.  7    |              Lippincot-Raven Press, 1990: 11-23~ ~Sc W (2007): Allergic
 85   II,     5. 10.  2    |             allergic reactions to food in 11 countries of the European
 86   II,     5. 10.  7    |            Allergen databases. Allergy 58(11):1093-1100.~ ~de Blok BMJ,
 87   II,     5. 10.  7    |                  European Union L 308, 25.11.2003, pp. 1518.~htt ~ ~
 88   II,     5. 10.  7    |                  European Union L 310, 28.11.2007, pp. 11–14.~ ~European
 89   II,     5. 10.  7    |              Union L 310, 28.11.2007, pp. 1114.~ ~European Food Safety
 90   II,     5. 10.  7    |                adults. Eur Respir J 1998; 11(1):151-155.~ ~Woods RK,
 91   II,     5. 11        |                                         5.11. Dermatological diseases~ ~
 92   II,     5. 11.  1    |                                         5.11.1. Introduction~ ~Diseases
 93   II,     5. 11.  2    |                                         5.11.2. Data sources~ ~ ~This
 94   II,     5. 11.  3    |                                         5.11.3. Data description and
 95   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  are reported in Tables 5.11.1 and 5.11.2.~ ~Table 5.
 96   II,     5. 11.  3    |           reported in Tables 5.11.1 and 5.11.2.~ ~Table 5.11.1. Prevalence
 97   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   1 and 5.11.2.~ ~Table 5.11.1. Prevalence of selected
 98   II,     5. 11.  3    |               2006;16:212-218~ ~ ~Table 5.11.2. Prevalence of examined
 99   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   5% to 20% by the age of 11 (Kay et al, 1994; Schmied
100   II,     5. 11.  3    |           dermatological departments from 11 European countries was founded
101   II,     5. 11.  3    |                 the year 2004, altogether 11,643 patients were patch
102   II,     5. 11.  3    |               especially of NMSC (Table 5.11.3).~ ~Table 5.11.3. Age-standardized
103   II,     5. 11.  3    |                  Table 5.11.3).~ ~Table 5.11.3. Age-standardized rates
104   II,     5. 11.  3    |                   for BCC (17% in men and 11% in women) and upper limbs
105   II,     5. 11.  4    |                                         5.11.4. Societal impact~ ~Disability
106   II,     5. 11.  5    |                                         5.11.5. Control tools and policies~ ~
107   II,     5. 11.  6    |                                         5.11.6. Future developments~ ~
108   II,     5. 11.  7    |                                         5.11.7. References~ ~Böhme M,
109   II,     5. 11.  7    |                 Health Statistics: Series 11, No. 212. DHEW publication
110   II,     5. 12.  3    |                whose rates increased from 11.3 in 1980-82 to 15/100,000
111   II,     5. 15.  6    |                Orphan Drugs. Published 16/11/04. Available at:~htt / (
112   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 were reported by Iceland (11.24 per 100 000), followed
113   II,     6.  3.  4    |                 whole influenza season in 11 out of 24 countries. Seven
114   II,     6.  3.  5    |               with a second peak in 2000 (11 per 100 000 per year). In
115   II,     6.  3.  5    |                000), followed by Italy (0.11 per 100 000).~ ~
116   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 States. Slovakia reported 11 cases; however, the criteria
117   II,     7.  3.  4    |             safety institutions (Figure 7.11).~ ~ ~Figure 7.11. Fatalities
118   II,     7.  3.  4    |                Figure 7.11).~ ~ ~Figure 7.11. Fatalities at work by economic
119   II,     8.  1.  2    |                   The module consisted of 11 variables dealing with the
120   II,     8.  1.  3    |                   compare with just under 11% of women and 10% of men,
121   II,     8.  2.  1    |                 followed up to the age of 11.5 years, showed a prevalence
122   II,     8.  2.  2    |                   Ophthalmic Epidemiology 11:67-115.~Resnikoff S, Pascolini
123   II,     9            |                  age from over a tenth of 11 year old boys in six countries
124   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  0 (Ireland and Malta) to 11.4 (France) per 1 000 births.
125   II,     9.  1.  2    |          Environmental Health, Vol 18, pp 11-17.~De Walle HE, de Jong
126   II,     9.  1.  2    |                  Gynecology, Vol 25, pp 6-11.~Garne E, Loane M, de Vigan
127   II,     9.  2.  2    |                health of adolescents aged 11, 13 and 15 years, who attend
128   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 14 in Europe. Over 40% of 1115-year-olds sustained injuries
129   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 increase slightly between 11 and 15 years of age. The
130   II,     9.  2.  3    |                approximately a quarter of 11-year-old girls consider
131   II,     9.  2.  3    |             Hungary and Wales. Fewer than 11% of boys report dieting (
132   II,     9.  2.  3    |                 HBSC) study, covering the 11-15 years of age group, shows
133   II,     9.  2.  4    |                  age from over a tenth of 11 year old boys in six countries
134   II,     9.  2.  7    |              commitments.pdf (accessed 26.11.06)~ ~European Commission (
135   II,     9.  2.  7    |                   recommend.pdf (accessed 11.06)~ ~Heuveline P., Timberlake
136   II,     9.  2.  7    |                 adolescents. Adolescence, 11, 313-326, 1976.~ ~Levi F,
137   II,     9.  2.  7    |                   the General Assembly on 11 October 2002 - A world fit
138   II,     9.  3.  1    |                   to the 25-34 age group (11.2 per 100 000 population),
139   II,     9.  3.  1    |               health services see Chapter 11.~ ~
140   II,     9.  3.  1    |                  Article online, accessed 11.07.07~ ~Aus G, Bergdahl
141   II,     9.  3.  1    |             Mental Health Review Journal, 11(4), 3-6.~ ~White AK , Cash
142   II,     9.  3.  3    |               from surveys carried out in 11 European countries between
143   II,     9.  3.  3    |                   1993 to 2003 from about 11 to about 9 for men and has
144   II,     9.  3.  3    |             Official Journal C 271 E , 12/11/2003 P. 0369 - 0374~Facultes
145   II,     9.  4.  7    |            Geragogia.net:http l [Accessed 11.07.07]~De Groot Lc., Verheijden
146   II,     9.  4.  7    |                prevented? htt 4 [Accessed 11.07.07]~ ~
147   II,     9.  5.  3    |            reached menarche by the age of 11 are more likely to say they
148   II,     9.  5.  3    |                and 60 r ed an act of phys 11% rep ed an act of seve lt~
149   II,     9.  5.  3    |              weekly rises sharply between 11 and 15 years of age. A survey
150   II,     9.  5.  3    |                    In Greece the rate was 11% and 6% respectively (Jernigan,
151   II,     9.  5.  3    |                  survey has found that in 11 out of 15 Member States
152  III,    10.  1.  3    |                consequences. Addiction 91(11):1663-1674.~Brady KT, Sonne
153  III,    10.  1.  3    |                   Med Sci Sports Exerc 31(11) Suppl 1:S534-541.~King
154  III,    10.  1.  3    |          aggression. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 11:53-61.~Miller NS, Giannini
155  III,    10.  1.  3    |                consequences. Addiction 91(11):1615-1621.~Rosner B (2000):
156  III,    10.  1.  3    |          aggression. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 11:78-88.~Thakker KD (1998):
157  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 their mouth approximately 11-14 hours per day (ENSP,
158  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 adult drinking on average 11 litres of pure alcohol each
159  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Finland (17%) and Sweden (11%). A much higher proportion
160  III,    10.  2.  1    |            between 0.5g/L and 0.79g/L and 11 times with a BAC between
161  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   cancer deaths, of which 11,000 are female breast cancer
162  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   deaths corresponding to 11% of female mortality at
163  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Mortality in Middle Aged Men in 11 European Countries: Comparison
164  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Contemporary Drug Problems 11, 325-353.~ ~Rehm J (2005):
165  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   among young people aged 11, 13 and 15 years HBSC studies
166  III,    10.  2.  1    |          countries, however, ranging from 11% of girls and 25% of boys
167  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  of boys in Ireland among 11-year-olds. Similar variations
168  III,    10.  2.  1    |           sufficient physical activity in 11-year-old children in the
169  III,    10.  2.  1    |           physically active children aged 11, 13 and 15 years, selected
170  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Paderborn, 2004 (htt f, accessed 11 April 2007).~ ~Caspersen
171  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   Sports and Exercise, 31(11 Suppl.):S526-S533.~ ~Sjöström
172  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  2003 parental reports of 11-year-old children from nationally
173  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   on weight and height in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents
174  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    the Netherlands (boys: 11.6%; girls: 8.6%) and Denmark (
175  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Obesity among children under 11. London, National Centre
176  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Morbidity Weekly Report 54:1-11.~ ~Kelleher C, Gabhainn
177  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Journal of Pediatric Obesity 1:1125.~ ~ ~WHO Regional Office
178  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  an average between 1 and 11 ng/l for Pt with high peaks
179  III,    10.  3.  2    |                Available: htt f [accessed 11 May 2007].~ ~World Health
180  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  Second Edition Chapter 6.11 Platinum. WHO Europe. Available
181  III,    10.  3.  4    |             estimated damage of more than 11 billion euro.~ ~The effects
182  III,    10.  4.  1    |                 both children and adults (11). In addition to particles (
183  III,    10.  4.  2(28)|                   Directive 2002/63/EC of 11 July 2002 establishing Community
184  III,    10.  4.  2    | Polychlorobiphenyls~(PCBs); see textbox 4.11~ ~Oils and fats of animal~
185  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   average in 2004 of over 11 products per crop. The reduction
186  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  the EMS. – Articles 10 & 11;~· database of the Authority
187  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 delivering conclusions on 11 active substances from list
188  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Decision No. 89/662/EEC of 11 December 1989 concerning
189  III,    10.  5.  1    |                         Volume 28, Number 11, November 1998, pp. 1389-
190  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    Sleep Medicine Reviews 11(2): 135-142.~ ~Norback JP, (
191  III,    10.  5.  2    |                  1.000 populations versus 11.57 in urban settings), a
192  III,    10.  5.  2    |                  actions.~ ~Figure 10.5.2.11. Health problems in urban
193  III,    10.  5.  2    |                   than in rural settings (11.7%) (Roel et al., 2005).~ ~
194  III,    10.  5.  3    |           percentage points since 2000.~· 11.4% of people aged 15-64
195  III,    10.  5.  3    |                  than women (table 10.5.3.11). About 40% of all workers
196  III,    10.  5.  3    |          repetitive tasks.~ ~Table 10.5.3.11. Work organisational risks
197  III,    10.  5.  3    |               Public Health). In the past 11 years, the ENWHP has been
198  III,    10.  6.  1    |                  social support, scores 9-11 moderate social support
199  III,    10.  6.  1    |                was implemented in 2004 in 11 EU Member States and 14
200  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 four-year intervals among 11, 13 and 15 year old school
201  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 in all age groups between 11 and 15 years and from France
202  III,    10.  6.  1    |                 15 year old group. 77% of 11 year old girls, 65% of 13
203  III,    10.  6.  1    |               contrast, in Greece, 96% of 11 year old girls, in Slovenia
204  III,    10.  6.  1    |                   with Luxembourg. 76% of 11 year old boys, 74% of 13
205  III,    10.  6.  1    |                  daily contact (59%of the 11 year old girls and 44% of
206  III,    10.  6.  1    |          Hungarian school children. Among 11 year old Hungarian girls
207  III,    10.  6.  1    |                  Depression. Health Rep 7:11-22.~ ~Börsch-Supan A, Jürges
208  III,    10.  6.  2    |               eating habits and safe food~11. Reduced use of tobacco
209   IV,    11            |                                           11. HEALTH SERVICES~ ~
210   IV,    11.  1        |                                           11.1. Factors determining the
211   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                                           11.1.1. Introduction~ ~Health
212   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                                           11.1.2. Data sources~ ~This
213   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                                           11.1.3. The Performance of
214   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                                           11.1.3.1. Cost pressures and
215   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                 per capita in 2004 (table 11.1). Luxembourg spends almost
216   IV,    11.  1.  3    |               capita at US$4,603.~ ~Table 11.1. Private and Public expenditure ($
217   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                                           11.1.3.2. Access to healthcare~ ~
218   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                Thomson 2003) (see Section 11.6 on Financing health care).
219   IV,    11.  1.  4    |          individuals in about half of the 11 European countries included
220   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                   2002). See also Section 11.4.2 Public Health Services).~ ~
221   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                                           11.1.3.3. Quality in health
222   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 of the variation.~ ~Table 11.2. Perceived quality of
223   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                less than 3.5) (See Figure 11.1). In most countries, there
224   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               system as a whole.~ ~Figure 11.1. Overall satisfaction
225   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                                           11.1.3.4. Technical efficiency~ ~
226   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                negative incentives. Table 11.3 shows the physician payment
227   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             physicians in Europe.~ ~Table 11.3. Physician payment methods
228   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                form of payment (see Table 11.3). While DRGs are a retrospective
229   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                   regulation (see Section 11.6 Financing Health Care).
230   IV,    11.  2        |                                           11.2. Health service provision~ ~
231   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                                           11.2.1. Personal services~ ~
232   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                   those after is minimal (11.4. versus 7.9), partly owing
233   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                 2004), and below.~ ~Table 11.4. Number of outpatient
234   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                   European region (Figure 11.2). When examining the number
235   IV,    11.  2.  1    |             largely by taxation.~ ~Figure 11.2.Number of hospital beds
236   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                  in most countries (Table 11.5). The exceptions are Germany,
237   IV,    11.  2.  1    |           increase was seen.~ ~F ~ ~Table 11.5. Number of psychiatric
238   IV,    11.  2.  2    |                                           11.2.2. Public health services~ ~
239   IV,    11.  3        |                                           11.3. Health system resources~ ~
240   IV,    11.  3.  1    |                                           11.3.1. Health workforce~ ~
241   IV,    11.  3.  1    |                financial reasons.~ ~Table 11.6. Numbers of practising
242   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                                           11.3.2. Pharmaceuticals~ ~Pharmaceutical
243   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                 Indeed, as shown in Table 11.7, the growth in spending
244   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                 the Czech Republic (Table 11.7).~ ~Additionally, while
245   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                Turkey (HFA 2007).~ ~Table 11.7. Spending on pharmaceuticals
246   IV,    11.  3.  2    |               company agreements.~ ~Table 11.8. Contribution of European
247   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                 China and India.~ ~Figure 11.4. Relative prices of drugs
248   IV,    11.  3.  2    |               priority diseases.~ ~Figure 11.5. Current levels of research
249   IV,    11.  3.  2    |            anti-neoplastic agents (figure 11.5).~ ~Therapeutic focus
250   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                  years 2008-2010~ ~Figure 11.6. Therapeutic focus of
251   IV,    11.  3.  2    |               overall product-mix (figure 11.6.).~ ~
252   IV,    11.  4        |                                           11.4. Health Technology Assessment~ ~
253   IV,    11.  4        |                   decision-making. Figure 11.7 depicts how HTA projects
254   IV,    11.  4        |               specific policies.~ ~Figure 11.7. Relations between research
255   IV,    11.  4        |                 be covered by HTA (Figure 11.8).~ ~Figure 11.8. HTA as
256   IV,    11.  4        |                    Figure 11.8).~ ~Figure 11.8. HTA as an input to priority-setting
257   IV,    11.  4        |           described as depicted in Figure 11.9. The key point that HTA
258   IV,    11.  4        |       epidemiologic studies etc.~ ~Figure 11.9. Conduction of an assessment~ ~ ~
259   IV,    11.  5        |                                           11.5. Tissue, cell and organ
260   IV,    11.  5.  1    |                                           11.5.1. Introduction~ ~Over
261   IV,    11.  5.  1    |                  extremely varied (Figure 11.10):~· a few nations with
262   IV,    11.  5.  1    |                 transplantation.~ ~Figure 11.10. International Figures
263   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                                           11.5.2. Data sources~ ~A number
264   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                                           11.5.3. European survey on
265   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                   transplantation (figure 11.12) organ exchange and organ
266   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 are shown in Figures from 11.11 to 11.14.~ ~Figure 11.
267   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  shown in Figures from 11.11 to 11.14.~ ~Figure 11.11.
268   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  in Figures from 11.11 to 11.14.~ ~Figure 11.11. Organ
269   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  11.11 to 11.14.~ ~Figure 11.11. Organ Procurement in
270   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  11 to 11.14.~ ~Figure 11.11. Organ Procurement in different
271   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 European countries~Figure 11.12. Organ transplantation
272   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 European countries~Figure 11.13. Exchanges and import/
273   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 European countries~Figure 11.14. Percentage and absolute
274   IV,    11.  5.  3    |              technical guidelines.~Figure 11.15 shows the different factors
275   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  not regulated).~ ~Figure 11.15. Risk assessment criteria
276   IV,    11.  5.  3    |              technical guidelines. Figure 11.16 shows the biological
277   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 characteristics.~ ~Figure 11.16. Biological tests in
278   IV,    11.  5.  3    |              organ transplant~ ~As Figure 11.16 shows, there is consensus
279   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  donor evaluation, Figure 11.17 shows the different practices
280   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                   routine basis.~ ~Figure 11.17. Tumour markers in organs
281   IV,    11.  5.  3    |              number of countries~ ~Figure 11.18 shows the different procedures
282   IV,    11.  5.  3    |            technical guidelines:~ ~Figure 11.18. Organ transplantation
283   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                                           11.5.4. Organ shortage~ ~The
284   IV,    11.  5.  4    |            European countries (see Figure 11.10). These differences cannot
285   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                                           11.5.5. Research in the transplantation
286   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                                           11.5.6. Policy tools~ ~European
287   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                 in 2006 and 2007.~ ~Annex 11.7.1. List of recommendations
288   IV,    11.  5.  7    |                                           11.5.7. Future developments~ ~
289   IV,    11.  6        |                                           11.6. Financing healthcare~ ~
290   IV,    11.  6.  1    |                                           11.6.1. Health expenditure
291   IV,    11.  6.  1    |                 Mossialos, 1999).~ ~Table 11.9. Total health care expenditure
292   IV,    11.  6.  1    |                 of GDP, 1990-2004~ ~Table 11.10. Total health care expenditure
293   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                                           11.6.2. Description and assessment
294   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 public expenditure. Table 11.11 shows that the public
295   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              public expenditure. Table 11.11 shows that the public share (%)
296   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                Health data 2006).~ ~Table 11.11. Public expenditure as
297   IV,    11.  6.  2    |             Health data 2006).~ ~Table 11.11. Public expenditure as a
298   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                Latvia). As shown in Table 11.12, the countries with predominantly
299   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                  insurance funds.~ ~Table 11.12. Financing mix separated
300   IV,    11.  6.  2    |             Mossialos, 2008) (see Section 11.8.3 on Progressivity).~ ~
301   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 the CSG) have fallen from 11.8% to 0.75% of gross earnings.
302   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 Greece and Latvia (Figure 11.19). Unfortunately, available
303   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                   are summarized in Table 11.13. Also in some countries,
304   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                  Mossialos 2008).~ ~Table 11.13. Examples for cost sharing
305   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              Norway~- Poland~ ~ ~ ~Figure 11.19. Out-of-pocket payments (
306   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                                           11.6.3. Progressiveness of
307   IV,    11.  6.  3    |                 higher income households (11.3%) (Glennerster, 1997).
308   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                                           11.6.4. Description of arrangements
309   IV,    11.  6.  4    |             health insurance funds (Table 11.14), the resources generated
310   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                 et al, 2005). See section 11.3.4. Technical efficiency
311   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                  Ven et al 2007).~ ~Table 11.14. Collection and allocation
312   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                                           11.7. References~ ~Altman S,
313   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Journal of Health Economics 11: 9398.~ ~Culyer AJ, Wagstaff
314   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 and Safety in Health Care 11(3): 233-8.~ ~Dovey SM, Phillips
315   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   Community Health 44:106-11.~ ~Mainz J, Bartels PD (
316   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Journal of Health Economics 11: 199205.~ ~Mossialos E,
317   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  index." Health Economics 11: 103-115.~ ~Wagstaff A,
318   IV,    12.  2        |                policies (see also Chapter 11.5) and global health issues.
319   IV,    12. 10        |                  increasing. It is now at 11% of the overall population,
320   IV,    12. 10        |                  the Council Directive 97/11 and 96/61~o Common Ministerial
321   IV,    12. 10        |                with Council Directives 97/11 and 96/61.~o Common Ministerial
322   IV,    12. 10        |               Ministerial Decision 245090/11.1.2006 for determining additional
323   IV,    12. 10        |               Public Health Decision 1438/11/2006 to approve the Program
324   IV,    12. 10        |                  smoking cease;~ ~Law 433/11/2006, harmonizing law 349/
325   IV,    12. 10        |           Directive 2001/37/CE;~ ~Law 332/11/2005, ratifying FCTC of
326   IV,    12. 10        |                 abuse~ High~Decision 1654/11/2006 for approval of National
327   IV,    12. 10        |                intermediate~Decision 1830/11/2007 Noise maps~Occupational
328   IV,    12. 10        |             linked to objective domains 6-11 as well as economic security,
329   IV,    12. 10        |         tobacco smoke~Domain of objective 11~ ~Public health policy~Health
330   IV,    12. 10        |              injuries~Domain of objective 11~ ~Public health policy~Health
331   IV,    12. 10        |             Mortality~Domain of objective 11~ ~Public health policy~Health
332   IV,    12. 10        |               eating habits and safe food~11. Reduced use of tobacco