Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1        |           intrinsic characteristics (e.g. genome and age) and biological,
  2    I,     2.  3    |             be eradicated in the EU (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, Hansen
  3    I,     2.  4    |         health-conducive behaviours (e.g. less smoking, modest improvements
  4    I,     2.  4    |            healthcare interventions (e.g. hypertension detection and
  5    I,     2.  4    |            sometimes for the better (e.g. in the Czech Republic) but
  6    I,     2.  4    |             but often for the worse (e.g. in Hungary and Estonia),
  7    I,     2.  4    |             in some other countries (e.g. the Czech Republic), however,
  8    I,     2.  4    |           reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk factors
  9    I,     2.  8    |           essential forms of energy (e.g. as is currently the case
 10    I,     2.  8    |  manufactured and transported goods (e.g. food).~ ~
 11    I,     2.  9    |             extreme climatic events, e.g. the summer heat of 2003
 12    I,     2. 10.  1|          between the two directions, e.g. as Public Health services,
 13    I,     2. 10.  1|             genetic makeup of crops, e.g. improve nutrient/water use
 14    I,     2. 10.  1|           for agricultural purposes (e.g. improvement of specific
 15    I,     2. 10.  1|              varieties and products, e.g. bioactive molecules.~ ~ ~
 16    I,     2. 10.  2|              for the classification (e.g. natural occurring vs. manufactured
 17    I,     2. 10.  3|            are provided to citizens (e.g. information on healthy living
 18    I,     2. 10.  3|       related preventative services (e.g. air and water quality on-line
 19    I,     2. 10.  4|            and inventory management (e.g. monitoring shelf life and
 20   II,     5.  1.  1|         irritant contact dermatitis (e.g. frequent exposure to mild
 21   II,     5.  1.  1|     pharmaceuticals. Some chemicals (e.g.: polychlorinated biphenyls (
 22   II,     5.  3.  2|  notifications from several sources (e.g. district hospitals, cancer
 23   II,     5.  3.  2|            from different divisions (e.g. pathology departments, medical
 24   II,     5.  3.  4|              and lifestyle factors ( e.g. unbalanced diet and alcohol)
 25   II,     5.  4.  2|         average national indicators (e.g. blood pressure increase
 26   II,     5.  4.  2|       involve clinical measurements (e.g. hospital discharges), frequently
 27   II,     5.  4.  2|    particularly for sensitive topics e.g. heavy drinking, smoking
 28   II,     5.  4.  2|            of different pathologies (e.g. diabetes mellitus). National
 29   II,     5.  4.  7|            typically a smaller State e.g. Malta, Cyprus etc), but
 30   II,     5.  4.  7|        diabetes status, risk factors e.g. obesity, lifestyle, clinical
 31   II,     5.  5.Int|             part of its policy work (e.g. on key competences for the
 32   II,     5.  5.Int|             patientsorganizations (e.g. Mental Health Europe, EUFAMI,
 33   II,     5.  5.  1|             other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder and generalised
 34   II,     5.  5.  1|             exclusion at individual (e.g. Blakely et al 2003) and
 35   II,     5.  5.  1|     behaviour and completed suicide (e.g. Owens et al, 2002). The
 36   II,     5.  5.  1|           noted that some countries, e.g. Nordic Countries, currently
 37   II,     5.  5.  1|              psychological symptoms: E.g. the HBSC study, a large
 38   II,     5.  5.  2|            and executive functioning e.g. planning, organising, problem
 39   II,     5.  5.  2|             care. In some countries (e.g. Luxembourg and Germany),
 40   II,     5.  5.  2|              that is what they wish (e.g. Iceland). Younger people
 41   II,     5.  5.  2|            relatives providing care (e.g. in Greece and Romania),
 42   II,     5.  5.  3|          reported in textbooks - and e.g. in the fourth edition of
 43   II,     5.  5.  3|             to many other countries (e.g. Hovatta et al, 1997); more
 44   II,     5.  5.  3|             a decline in prevalence (e.g. Suvisaari et al, 1999),
 45   II,     5.  5.  3|            in schizophrenia research e.g. in Germany. Establishing
 46   II,     5.  5.  3|              Respective programmese.g. Romania has initiated a
 47   II,     5.  5.  3|           may become more prominent (e.g., elongated face and ears),
 48   II,     5.  5.  3|             of other health problems e.g. cardio-vascular diseases,
 49   II,     5.  5.  3|           neurological dysfunctions (e.g., visual and sensory disturbances,
 50   II,     5.  5.  3|              nervous system function e.g bladder, bowel and sexual
 51   II,     5.  5.  3|          several European countries (e.g. http ). These guidelines
 52   II,     5.  6.  1|        include: (1) joint conditions e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis; (
 53   II,     5.  6.  1|  osteoarthritis; (2) bone conditions e.g. osteoporosis and associated
 54   II,     5.  6.  1|      fractures; (3) spinal disorders e.g. low back pain; (4) regional
 55   II,     5.  6.  1|             musculoskeletal injuries e.g. high energy limb fractures,
 56   II,     5.  7.  4|           so-called competing risks (e.g. cardiovascular mortality
 57   II,     5.  7.  6|         models and new technologies (e.g. telemedicine) may be very
 58   II,     5.  8.  1|          Exposure to noxious agents (e.g. tobacco active and passive
 59   II,     5.  9. FB|         treat upper airways disease (e.g. allergic rhinitis ) to reduce
 60   II,     5.  9.  4|      observed within some countries (e.g. olive in Spain). While this
 61   II,     5.  9.  4|             in some large countries (e.g. Spain), it is also likely
 62   II,     5. 10.  1|            cross-reactive allergens (e.g., cross-reactivity between
 63   II,     5. 10.  2|       diagnosis), other information (e.g. EU legislation) and taxonomic
 64   II,     5. 10.  2|              or sensitization tests (e.g., skin prick tests, specific
 65   II,     5. 10.  6|            introduced in the market (e.g. novel foods, genetically
 66   II,     5. 11.  1|             major systemic diseases (e.g. infectious, vascular and
 67   II,     5. 11.  1|            conversely, skin failure (e.g. caused by a severe drug
 68   II,     5. 11.  3|         irritant contact dermatitis (e.g. frequent exposure to mild
 69   II,     5. 11.  3|       disorders. Metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes, hyperlipidemias,
 70   II,     5. 11.  3|            digestive tract diseases (e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis
 71   II,     5. 11.  3|        specific autoimmune diseases (e.g. alopecia areata, vitiligo)
 72   II,     5. 11.  3|             conduct reliable studies e.g., the mapping of molecular
 73   II,     5. 11.  4|  Nevertheless, there are exceptions, e.g. once melanoma has spread
 74   II,     5. 11.  4|              sites such as the face (e.g. acne) can result in loss
 75   II,     5. 11.  4|            important. Indirect costs e.g. the adverse effects on the
 76   II,     5. 12.  3|          central and Eastern Europe (e.g., Hungary, Romania, Croazia,
 77   II,     5. 13    |             Europe, some nutrients ( e.g. folate, calcium, iodine
 78   II,     5. 14.  5|             of sustainable measures, e.g. through innovative projects
 79   II,     5. 15.  4|            describes the incentives (e.g. 10-year market exclusivity,
 80   II,     6.  3.  1|      diseases further joint actions (e.g. through vaccination and
 81   II,     6.  3.  2|            against bacterial, viral (e.g. HIV, influenza), parasitic (
 82   II,     6.  3.  3|             data collection for STI, e.g. through screening programmes
 83   II,     7.  1    |            regulations for products (e.g. toys, child care articles,
 84   II,     7.  1    |         safety labels) and services (e.g. playgrounds, skiing slopes,
 85   II,     7.  1    |              are known as effective, e.g. car seat belts, pool fencing,
 86   II,     7.  2    |            particular injury sectors e.g. police recorded data for
 87   II,     7.  2    |           and accounting of services e.g. – and with a specific methodology.
 88   II,     7.  2.  1|         comparability issues remain (e.g. common coding practices
 89   II,     7.  2.  6|             detailed external causes e.g. activity, type of sports,
 90   II,     7.  3.  4|          several governmental units, e.g. health sector, consumer
 91   II,     7.  4    |             not yet widely available e.g. due to a lack of reliable
 92   II,     7.  4    |              the European standards (e.g. road traffic injuries and,
 93   II,     7.  4    |              and research is needed (e.g. calculation of costs, calculation
 94   II,     7.  4.  2|             individual risk factors (e.g. training of muscular strengths,
 95   II,     7.  4.  4|          adolescentspriority area: e.g. almost 70% of people injured
 96   II,     7.  5    |        initiatives of the Community (e.g. projects and tools), and
 97   II,     7.  5    |      comparable national indicators, e.g. on disabilities and costs;~·
 98   II,     7.  5    |              within the Commission, (e.g. Transport, Employment, Justice,
 99   II,     7.  5    |         support from the Commission, e.g. by means of the Public Health
100   II,     7.  6    |  improvements of medical treatment ( e.g. trauma and emergency care).
101   II,     7.  6    |        capacities at national level, e.g. national focal agencies
102   II,     8.  1.  5| participation through accessibility, e.g. by fostering accessibility
103   II,     9        |           being developed over time (e.g. intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
104   II,     9.  1.  2|              health service factors (e.g. the proportion of stillbirths
105   II,     9.  1.  2|                and registry factors (e.g. specificity of coding and
106   II,     9.  1.  2|            for congenital anomalies (e.g. surgery for congenital heart
107   II,     9.  1.  2|       surgery is routinely indicated e.g. hypospadias, gastroschisis
108   II,     9.  1.  2|        commonly prenatally diagnosed e.g. 39% of transposition of
109   II,     9.  1.  2|           being developed over time (e.g. intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
110   II,     9.  1.  2|   development of non-drug treatments e.g. improved shunts for hydrocephalus.~ ~
111   II,     9.  2.  3|         affecting immune competence, e.g. AIDS.~ ~Overweight and obesity:
112   II,     9.  3.  1|            within countries in type (e.g., vasomotor and psychological)
113   II,     9.  3.  3|             addressing many topics ( e.g. first intercourse, number
114   II,     9.  4.  2|             issues and older people (e.g. smoking, sexual health etc.)
115   II,     9.  4.  2|             specific fatal diseases (e.g. stroke) and non-fatal diseases (
116   II,     9.  4.  2|              and non-fatal diseases (e.g. arthritis) require special
117   II,     9.  5.  1|        Denton, 2004; Iredale, 2007); e.g. risk factors, symptoms and
118   II,     9.  5.  1|     Differences in health behaviour (e.g. tobacco use), risk taking,
119   II,     9.  5.  3|            prone to risk behaviours, e.g. as they are perceived as
120   II,     9.  5.  3|       normally regarded as advanced (e.g. Holland), have no specific
121   II,     9.  5.  3|         punished. In some countries (e.g. Portugal), laws were adopted
122   II,     9.  5.  4|            cardiovascular diseases - e.g. acute coronary syndrome -
123   II,     9.  5.  4|               and mental illnesses - e.g. depression and schizophrenia;~ ~
124  III,    10.  1    |    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. in diesel fumes~some metals
125  III,    10.  1    |             diesel fumes~some metals e.g. arsenic, cadmium, chromium~
126  III,    10.  1    |            inhalable particles~food, e.g. high cholesterol~stress~ ~
127  III,    10.  1    |             UV radiation~Some metals e.g. nickel~pentachlorophenol~
128  III,    10.  1    |              Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high fat~poor exercise~Reproductive
129  III,    10.  1.  1|           study design and analysis: e.g. matching, adjustment, restriction,
130  III,    10.  1.  1|          social reinforcing factors (e.g. peer acceptance and social
131  III,    10.  1.  1|           taxes on tobacco products (e.g. smuggling and low quality
132  III,    10.  1.  1|              as policies on smoking (e.g. age limits, public smoking,
133  III,    10.  1.  1|           smoking, and social norms (e.g. smoking during pregnancy,
134  III,    10.  1.  1|              between subpopulations (e.g. adolescents vs adults, underserved
135  III,    10.  1.  1|            well as social isolation (e.g. after migration and resettlement)
136  III,    10.  2.  1|            of the tobacco epidemic - e.g. Denmark, Germany, Finland
137  III,    10.  2.  1|             been taken into account (e.g. the costs of informal care,
138  III,    10.  2.  1|        reduce the supply of tobacco (e.g. through price and taxation
139  III,    10.  2.  1|           the demand for tobacco (by e.g. raising awareness about
140  III,    10.  2.  1|           including external causes (e.g. violence, accidents), stroke
141  III,    10.  2.  1|           different risk behaviours (e.g. drugged driving). These
142  III,    10.  2.  1|            high addictive potential (e.g. heroin), mainly due to sampling
143  III,    10.  2.  1|              due to various reasons (e.g. unavailability of data,
144  III,    10.  2.  1|            the common-risk factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol,
145  III,    10.  2.  1|            the common-risk factorse.g. diet, smoking, alcohol,
146  III,    10.  2.  1|          needed to measure activity (e.g. assessing the time spent
147  III,    10.  2.  1|            activity) and inactivity (e.g. assessing the hours spent
148  III,    10.  2.  1|         methods for data collection (e.g. self-administered questionnaires,
149  III,    10.  2.  1|             Europe, some nutrients ( e.g. folate, calcium, iodine
150  III,    10.  2.  1|             demand for antioxidants (e.g, smokers) and vitamins have
151  III,    10.  2.  1|           and environmental factors (e.g. affordability and availability
152  III,    10.  2.  1|   whole-of-government interventions (e.g. taxation and pricing policies)
153  III,    10.  2.  1|         related to health promotion (e.g. those concerning smoking,
154  III,    10.  2.  1|              methods with respect to e.g. establishing amounts and
155  III,    10.  2.  1|          related communication tools e.g. food plate or food pyramid.
156  III,    10.  2.  1|             Support a healthy start (e.g. promote optimal foetal nutrition;
157  III,    10.  2.  1|             sustainable food supply (e.g. improve the availability
158  III,    10.  2.  1|              education to consumers (e.g. conduct public campaigns
159  III,    10.  2.  1|        address related determinants (e.g. increase opportunities to
160  III,    10.  2.  1|         safety in the health sector (e.g. improve standards of service
161  III,    10.  2.  1|             evaluation and research (e.g. establish national and international
162  III,    10.  2.  4|     resulting in the same phenotype (e.g., breast cancer or obesity),
163  III,    10.  2.  4|             factor at the same time (e.g., the role of ACE insertion-deletion
164  III,    10.  2.  4|            to more than one disease (e.g., the role of G-308A TNF
165  III,    10.  2.  4|           other health determinants (e.g. social, behavioural, environmental,
166  III,    10.  2.  4|      modifier and triggering factor (e.g., epigenomic effects or the
167  III,    10.  2.  4|         subgroups of the population (e.g. newborn screening, breast
168  III,    10.  2.  4|            by communicable diseases (e.g. obesity by adenoviruses)
169  III,    10.  2.  4|     adenoviruses) and one phenotype (e.g. obesity) can be rare in
170  III,    10.  2.  4|             be rare in the one case (e.g., due to MC4R mutant and
171  III,    10.  3.  1|             a given time interval T (e.g. 24 hour period, a night,
172  III,    10.  3.  1|              static magnetic fields, e.g. with MRI (Magnetic Resonance
173  III,    10.  3.  1|              self-reported symptoms (e.g. headache, fatigue, dizziness
174  III,    10.  3.  1|              of the European region (e.g. regions or countries) with
175  III,    10.  3.  1|           level will be facilitated, e.g. per sources and 5 dB band
176  III,    10.  3.  2|            chemicals, agrochemicals (e.g. fertilizers, pesticides),
177  III,    10.  3.  2|      emissions of certain pollutants e.g. carbon dioxide.~Industrial
178  III,    10.  3.  2|          rapidly developing regions, e.g. in Asia, also leading to
179  III,    10.  3.  2|    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. in diesel fumes~some metals
180  III,    10.  3.  2|             diesel fumes~some metals e.g. arsenic, cadmium, chromium~
181  III,    10.  3.  2|            inhalable particles~food, e.g. high cholesterol~stress~ ~
182  III,    10.  3.  2|             UV radiation~Some metals e.g. nickel~pentachlorophenol~
183  III,    10.  3.  2|              Diabetes, obesity~food, e.g. high fat~poor exercise~Reproductive
184  III,    10.  3.  2|            proven for some stressors e.g. asbestos/cancer, or lead
185  III,    10.  3.  2|          come from consumer products e.g. textiles (BgVV 2000, WHO
186  III,    10.  3.  2|     environment via diffused sources e.g. in accidental cases, as
187  III,    10.  3.  2|    measurements from some countries, e.g. Sweden. These show that
188  III,    10.  3.  3|          also evolved against viral (e.g. HIV, influenza), parasitic (
189  III,    10.  3.  4|      exacerbated by extreme weather, e.g. outdoor air pollutants (
190  III,    10.  4.  2|          initiated relevant measures e.g. withdrawal or recall; (ii)
191  III,    10.  4.  2|            well as by subpopulations e.g. infants, pregnant women,
192  III,    10.  4.  2|            adopted relevant measures(e.g. withdrawal or recall); (
193  III,    10.  4.  2|             their exported products (e.g. Thailand, Argentina and
194  III,    10.  4.  2|             foods~Food-born viruses (e.g. Caliciviruses)~Most important
195  III,    10.  4.  2|       naturally~present in the body, e.g.~oestradiol; analogues,~e.g.
196  III,    10.  4.  2|          e.g.~oestradiol; analogues,~e.g. trenbolone; others,~e.g.
197  III,    10.  4.  2|             e.g. trenbolone; others,~e.g. clenbuterol)~Residues in
198  III,    10.  4.  2|            for certain contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins, dioxins, heavy
199  III,    10.  4.  2|             in other countries, too (e.g. Switzerland, Norway, United
200  III,    10.  4.  2|     industries and consumer products e.g. metal plating, fire fighting
201  III,    10.  4.  2|           using selective detectors (e.g. fluorescence) with a reporting
202  III,    10.  4.  2|             a series of food crises (e.g. BSE and dioxins) that threatened
203  III,    10.  4.  2|              modified microorganism, e.g. laboratory research (in
204  III,    10.  4.  2|           for experimental purposes (e.g. for field testing), is governed
205  III,    10.  4.  2|              or consisting of GMOs), e.g. for cultivation, import
206  III,    10.  4.  2|             such as for a food item (e.g. fish) containing useful
207  III,    10.  4.  2|           certain population groups, e.g. vulnerable groups, should
208  III,    10.  4.  2|              other European Agencies(e.g. ECDL and EEA). A scientific
209  III,    10.  4.  3|        drinking water are appearing, e.g. nano-materials or residues
210  III,    10.  4.  4|              of manufactured goodse.g. cosmetics, personal care
211  III,    10.  4.  4|         arise from consumer products e.g. textiles.~ ~One way of signalling
212  III,    10.  4.  4|             of sectoral legislation (e.g. the many Directives on cosmetic
213  III,    10.  4.  5|           human beings when bathing, e.g. by dermal contact with water,
214  III,    10.  4.  5|            been fully developed yet (e.g. for monitoring viruses).
215  III,    10.  4.  5|          involved. In several areas (e.g., the Baltic and North seas,
216  III,    10.  4.  5|              to potential receptors (e.g. the existence of an impermeable
217  III,    10.  4.  5|           exposure of the receptors (e.g. humans or animals). Therefore,
218  III,    10.  4.  5|         frameworks already in place (e.g. Landfill Directive and other
219  III,    10.  5.  1|            are supportive to health (e.g. better access to water supply
220  III,    10.  5.  1|        working on settlement issues (e.g. UNHabitat, EU, ROSTAT, WHO,
221  III,    10.  5.  2|          international Institutions (e.g. Un Habitat, EUROSTAT, WHO,
222  III,    10.  5.  2|              residents, showing that e.g. for female citizens, there
223  III,    10.  5.  2|              better health outcomes (e.g. all-cause mortality and
224  III,    10.  5.  2|              specific rural illness, e.g. zoonoses ~• difficulties
225  III,    10.  5.  3|     differently affected by absence. E.g. whereas 14% of women working
226  III,    10.  5.  3|         current economic activities. E.g. in Belgium and Germany compensation
227  III,    10.  5.  3|            involve external experts, e.g. OSH services, or assign
228  III,    10.  5.  3|       personal protective equipment (e.g. protective footwear) appropriate
229  III,    10.  5.  3|          Charter of health promotion e.g. by~- making workplace health
230  III,    10.  5.  3|           public health institutions e.g. develop common training,
231  III,    10.  6.  1|            social support variables, e.g. social networks and volunteer
232  III,    10.  6.  1|            being safe. Such cues can e.g. be physical incivilities
233  III,    10.  6.  2|         health-conducive behaviours (e.g. less smoking, modest improvements
234  III,    10.  6.  2|           health care interventions (e.g. hypertension detection and
235  III,    10.  6.  2|            sometimes for the better (e.g. in the Czech Republic),
236  III,    10.  6.  2|             but often for the worse (e.g. in Hungary and Estonia),
237  III,    10.  6.  2|           reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk factors
238  III,    10.  6.  2|      examples of effective practice, e.g.Closing the Gap’ and the
239  III,    10.  6.  3|             information on violence (e.g. homicides, are quoted in
240   IV,    11.  1.  3|             ranging social policies (e.g. education leading to cleaner
241   IV,    11.  1.  3|          assessments also in Europe (e.g. Rutstein et al, 1976; Mackenbach
242   IV,    11.  1.  3|              social health insurance e.g. France, Austria, Greece,
243   IV,    11.  1.  3|           competitive sickness funds e.g. Germany and the Netherlands;~
244   IV,    11.  1.  3|          devolved tax funded systems e.g. Sweden and Spain;~4) centralized
245   IV,    11.  1.  3|       centralized tax funded systems e.g. UK and Italy.~This delineation
246   IV,    11.  1.  3|            to increase productivity (e.g. in Italy). For physicians,
247   IV,    11.  1.  3|           prescription drug budgets (e.g. in Germany).~ ~Despite some
248   IV,    11.  1.  3|              promise in this regard (e.g. the OECD Health Project
249   IV,    11.  1.  4|            across population groups, e.g. socio-economic groups. However,
250   IV,    11.  1.  5|            on clinical specialties - e.g. cataracts surgery - and
251   IV,    11.  1.  5|            data to choose providers (e.g. Denmark and some states
252   IV,    11.  1.  5|              have systems in place - e.g. the Czech Republic, Finland,
253   IV,    11.  1.  5|              to introduce guidelines e.g. Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,
254   IV,    11.  1.  5|             motivated by other goals e.g. improving chronic disease
255   IV,    11.  1.  5|            some have seen a decline (e.g. in Slovakia, Hungary, Germany).~ ~
256   IV,    11.  1.  6|       committed to the health system e.g. costs and utilization rates (
257   IV,    11.  1.  6|             developing a new system (e.g. in the Netherlands and Austria) (
258   IV,    11.  2.  1|              determinants of health (e.g. GDP and behavioural factors)
259   IV,    11.  2.  2|              only in some countries, e.g. Austria (from 1.6% total
260   IV,    11.  2.  2|           funded by other ministries e.g. social and environmental
261   IV,    11.  3    |             while physical resources e.g. hospitals and hospital beds,
262   IV,    11.  3.  1|           the first point of contact e.g. the Netherlands, while in
263   IV,    11.  3.  2|             reimbursement decisions, e.g. in Finland and the UK. However,
264   IV,    11.  3.  2|       lower-cost generic equivalent (e.g. in France, the Netherlands,
265   IV,    11.  3.  2|         permitted in some countries (e.g. Denmark, Finland, France,
266   IV,    11.  4    |         examples of technologies are e.g.Diagnostics such as computer
267   IV,    11.  4    |             and biological medicines e.g. monoclonal antibody (Trastuzumab)
268   IV,    11.  4    |           and clinical interventions e.g. acute inpatient care and
269   IV,    11.  5.  6|         potential of organ donation, e.g. by promoting cooperation
270   IV,    11.  6.  1|            also situational factors (e.g. political changes), structural
271   IV,    11.  6.  1|        changes), structural changes (e.g. economic and demographic
272   IV,    11.  6.  1|               environmental factors (e.g. changes in regulation, developments
273   IV,    11.  6.  1|                and cultural factors (e.g. status of professionals
274   IV,    11.  6.  2|     contribution to health spending (e.g. Belgium), the central and
275   IV,    11.  6.  2|             social health insurance (e.g. France, Germany, the Netherlands)
276   IV,    11.  6.  2|      Netherlands) and also taxation (e.g. Latvia shifting from earmarked
277   IV,    11.  6.  2|    predominantly tax-funded systems (e.g. Sweden, Finland, Italy and
278   IV,    11.  6.  2|              exempt from income tax (e.g. savings), or some forms
279   IV,    11.  6.  2|    introduced to limit cost sharing, e.g. in Estonia cost sharing
280   IV,    11.  6.  2|          certain population groupse.g. those considered more vulnerable -
281   IV,    11.  6.  2|             patterns of utilization, e.g. in Germany and France where
282   IV,    11.  6.  2|        Related to specific diseases (e.g. diabetes, epilepsy, transplantation,
283   IV,    11.  6.  2|     information on informal charges (e.g. Slovakia and Romania). By
284   IV,    11.  6.  4|             are also the purchasers (e.g. social insurance funds),
285   IV,    11.  6.  4|             and resource collection, e.g. local health authorities
286   IV,    11.  6.  4|     purchasing relying on an active (e.g. with explicit performance
287   IV,    11.  6.  4|        rather than passive approach (e.g. full retrospective reimbursement) (
288   IV,    11.  6.  4|       combination of positive lists (e.g. benefits catalogues) and
289   IV,    11.  6.  4|        aspects of the health system (e.g., health care budgets, national
290   IV,    11.  6.  4|           that are dedicated to HTA (e.g. National Institute for Sickness
291   IV,    11.  6.  4|       decision-making, while others (e.g. France) employ the assessments
292   IV,    11.  6.  4|         population being considered (e.g., socio-economic level, income)
293   IV,    11.  6.  4|            survival or waiting time (e.g. in case of hip fracture,
294   IV,    11.  6.  4|             the confounding factors (e.g. the specific characteristics
295   IV,    11.  6.  4|         linkage with other archives (e.g. hospital discharges, mortality
296   IV,    12.  3    |       community financial resources (e.g. structural funds and the
297   IV,    12.  3    |            for a variety of reasons (e.g. religion, handicap, age
298   IV,    12.  4    |             ENV~Environmental health e.g. air quality, water quality,
299   IV,    12.  5    |        Action Programme of DG Sanco (e.g. ECHIM and the Working Party
300   IV,    12. 10    |             for adverse by-products, e.g. waste incineration plants,
301   IV,    12. 10    |                    and its agencies (e.g. www. ). Together with civil
302   IV,    12. 10    |         civil society organisations (e.g. Council on Road Traffic
303   IV,    12. 10    |              and problems accumulate e.g. homelessness, violence affected
304   IV,    12. 10    |       disease management programmes, e.g. DMP CVD, structured hypertension
305   IV,    12. 10    |       behaviours relating to health (e.g. exercise, nutrition) and
306   IV,    12. 10    |           Centers for some diseases (e.g AIDS, Influenza, Hepatitis
307   IV,    12. 10    |           some economic initiatives (e.g discounts on connections
308   IV,    12. 10    |     over-consumption~Many campaigns (e.g TV spots, leaflets, events
309   IV,    12. 10    |            studies and student life (e.g. test-anxiety, academic difficulties,
310   IV,    12. 10    |               relationship problems (e.g. friends, fellow students,
311   IV,    12. 10    |              anxiety manifestations (e.g. under-achievement, lack
312   IV,    12. 10    |            of some food ingredients (e.g salt, fat, etc)~ ~The Ministry
313   IV,    13.Acr    |           allocated to public health e.g. Austria, Finland, France,
314   IV,    13.Acr    |           funded by other ministries e.g. social and environmental
315   IV,    13.  5    |             Mortality reversals have e.g. occurred in Eastern Europe.
316   IV,    13.  5    |           reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk factors
317   IV,    13.  5    |        improvements would be needed (e.g. schizophrenia and transplants).~ ~
318   IV,    13.  7.  3|            character of the problem (e.g., infectious diseases and
319   IV,    13.  7.  3|          issues), problems of scale (e.g. when studying very infrequent
320   IV,    13.  7.  4|       include assisted reproduction (e.g. cloning) or birth control (
321   IV,    13.  7.  4|           cloning) or birth control (e.g. day-after pill) methodologies
322   IV,    13.  7.  5|        processing of sensitive data (e.g. health data) states that