Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1   |       cardiovascular diseases; cancer; asthma and other respiratory diseases;
  2   II,     5.  1.  1   |         Respiratory diseases including asthma~The main determinants considered
  3   II,     5.  1.  3   |            proof it can help to reduce asthma morbidity in both adults
  4   II,     5.  8.  2   |             Europe~ ~Although COPD and asthma are considered as two different
  5   II,     5.  8.  2   |              14% in Pisa also reported asthma (Viegi et al 2004).~ ~Table
  6   II,     5.  8.  2   |            emphysemaobstructive:~ · asthma~ · bronchitis~ · tracheobronchitis~ ~ ~
  7   II,     5.  8.  2   |        tracheobronchitis~ ~ ~Excludes:~asthma ( J4 )~asthmatic bronchitis
  8   II,     5.  8.  3   |   cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, asthma was found in a French study
  9   II,     5.  8.  3   |               disease, lung cancer and asthma were more likely to be the
 10   II,     5.  8.  3   |              in the past year, namely: asthma, allergy, osteoporosis,
 11   II,     5.  8.  3   |             2004) smoker patients with asthma or COPD proved to be at
 12   II,     5.  8.  3   |          Service Network with reported asthma or COPD. The results demonstrate
 13   II,     5.  8.  3   |              on the burden of COPD and asthma was performed in the city
 14   II,     5.  8.  3   |               higher for COPD than for asthma (Vrbica, 2007)..~ ~
 15   II,     5.  8.  5   |             diagnosis of COPD includes asthma, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis,
 16   II,     5.  8.  7   |         prevalence and co-morbidity of asthma, chronic bronchitis and
 17   II,     5.  8.  7   |             airflow obstruction due to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary
 18   II,     5.  8.  7   |                Prevalence estimates of asthma or COPD from a health interview
 19   II,     5.  8.  7   |               newly diagnosed COPD and asthma in primary care. Chest 2005;
 20   II,     5.  8.  7   |             self-reported diagnosis of asthma or COPD. Chest 2004; 126:
 21   II,     5.  8.  7   |              Vrbica  (2007): COPD and Asthma: comparison of the utilization
 22   II,     5.  8.  7   |       depressed mood in employees with asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema:
 23   II,     5.  9       |                                   5.9. Asthma and allergic rhinitis~ ~ ~ ~
 24   II,     5.  9.Acr   |                        Acronyms~ ~AIRE~Asthma Insights & Reality in Europe~
 25   II,     5.  9.Acr   |             Rhinitis and its impact on Asthma~ECRHS~European Community
 26   II,     5.  9.Acr   |              GA LEN~Global Allergy and Asthma European Network~GINA~Global
 27   II,     5.  9.Acr   |             GINA~Global Initiative for Asthma~ISAAC~International Study
 28   II,     5.  9.Acr   |           ISAAC~International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood~
 29   II,     5.  9.Acr   |       Childhood~ISAYA~Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults~MAS~Multicentric
 30   II,     5.  9. FB   |        allergic rhinitis or hay fever, asthma, atopic dermatitis - eczema -
 31   II,     5.  9. FB   |           typical symptoms of allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic
 32   II,     5.  9. FB   |          allergic rhinitis and then to asthma. This evolution, known as “
 33   II,     5.  9. FB   |              However, it can evolve in asthma; thus, prompt diagnosis
 34   II,     5.  9. FB   |         further allergic reactions and asthma,.~ ~There are still some
 35   II,     5.  9. FB   |       prevalence of atopy and allergic asthma was observed in the early
 36   II,     5.  9. FB   |             the prevalence of allergic asthma and of bronchial hyperresponsiveness
 37   II,     5.  9. FB   |              the incidence of allergic asthma, rhinitis and food allergies.
 38   II,     5.  9. FB   |              the outcome of subsequent asthma, showed a 50% increase in
 39   II,     5.  9. FB   |             birth weight on subsequent asthma had a pooled RR of 1.2 (
 40   II,     5.  9. FB   |              increased risk for future asthma. Potential biological mechanisms
 41   II,     5.  9. FB   |             the incidence of atopy and asthma. As stated by the America
 42   II,     5.  9. FB   |               sensitization, atopy and asthma, additional measures for
 43   II,     5.  9. FB   |             the risk of development of asthma; In young children already
 44   II,     5.  9. FB   |               interplay of obesity and asthma. Current allergy and asthma
 45   II,     5.  9. FB   |            asthma. Current allergy and asthma reports 2007, 7:385-389.~ ~
 46   II,     5.  9. FB   |                389.~ ~Story RE (2007): Asthma and obesity in children.
 47   II,     5.  9.  1   |                  5.9.1. Introduction~ ~Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory
 48   II,     5.  9.  1   |          functioning (Skoner, 2001).~ ~Asthma is estimated to affect approximately
 49   II,     5.  9.  1   |            estimated to affect 1030%. Asthma and AR are often co-morbid
 50   II,     5.  9.  1   |          burden of AR in patients with asthma, AR can complicate asthma
 51   II,     5.  9.  1   |              asthma, AR can complicate asthma management and result in
 52   II,     5.  9.  1   |        management and result in poorer asthma outcomes. As a result, asthma-related
 53   II,     5.  9.  1   |              increase in patients with asthma and concomitant AR compared
 54   II,     5.  9.  1   |              AR compared to those with asthma alone (Braido et al, 2007).
 55   II,     5.  9.  1   |        rhinitis may improve coexisting asthma and vice versa; thus a combined
 56   II,     5.  9.  1   |             the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (
 57   II,     5.  9.  1   |            prevalence of both allergic asthma and rhinitis althought comparisons
 58   II,     5.  9.  1   |         attention as the prevalence of asthma is on a steady increase (
 59   II,     5.  9.  1   |              to the economic burden of asthma, which is considerable,
 60   II,     5.  9.  2   |            GA²LEN - Global Allergy and Asthma European Network funded
 61   II,     5.  9.  2   |               Paper~ ~Mortality due to asthma (J45-J46 ICD9)~Groups of
 62   II,     5.  9.  2   |        reference to ICD 9:~· Extrinsic asthma 493.00~(Excluded:~Allergic
 63   II,     5.  9.  2   |             493.00~(Excluded:~Allergic asthma SAI 493.9~Detergent asthma
 64   II,     5.  9.  2   |             asthma SAI 493.9~Detergent asthma 507.8~Wood asthma 95.8~Miner’
 65   II,     5.  9.  2   |            Detergent asthma 507.8~Wood asthma 95.8~Miner’s asthma 500)~·
 66   II,     5.  9.  2   |               Wood asthma 95.8~Miner’s asthma 500)~· Extrinsic asthma
 67   II,     5.  9.  2   |                asthma 500)~· Extrinsic asthma without mention of status
 68   II,     5.  9.  2   |         asthmaticus 493.00Extrinsic asthma with status asthmaticus
 69   II,     5.  9.  2   |         asthmaticus 493.01Intrinsic asthma 493.1Late onset asthma
 70   II,     5.  9.  2   |              asthma 493.1Late onset asthma 493.1Intrinsic asthma
 71   II,     5.  9.  2   |               asthma 493.1Intrinsic asthma without mention of status
 72   II,     5.  9.  2   |         asthmaticus 493.10Intrinsic asthma with status asthmaticus
 73   II,     5.  9.  2   |               11Chronic obstructive asthma 493.2~(Excluded:~Chronic
 74   II,     5.  9.  2   |               2)~· Chronic obstructive asthma without mention of status
 75   II,     5.  9.  2   |               2CChronic obstructive asthma with status asthmaticus
 76   II,     5.  9.  2   |       asthmaticus 493.21Unspecified asthma without mention of status
 77   II,     5.  9.  2   |         asthmaticus 493.90Specified asthma with status asthmaticus
 78   II,     5.  9.  2   |            cases and the prevalence of asthma and AR for each country
 79   II,     5.  9.  2   |         methods for data collection on asthma. The first one is the International
 80   II,     5.  9.  2   |             the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (
 81   II,     5.  9.  2   |              prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis
 82   II,     5.  9.  2   |             about symptoms referred to asthma, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis
 83   II,     5.  9.  2   |            with symptoms suggestive of asthma, the use of medication for
 84   II,     5.  9.  2   |              the use of medication for asthma and the presence of hay
 85   II,     5.  9.  2   |                age groups with current asthma. A total of 213,158 people
 86   II,     5.  9.  2   |           literature on time trends in asthma prevalence among children
 87   II,     5.  9.  3   |                to its natural history, asthma presents two different forms:
 88   II,     5.  9.  3   |           forms: early- and late-onset asthma.~ ~The first one occurs
 89   II,     5.  9.  3   |                people with early-onset asthma have a greater percentage
 90   II,     5.  9.  3   |            than people with late-onset asthma and the minority of the
 91   II,     5.  9.  3   |              patients with early-onset asthma represents about 35% of
 92   II,     5.  9.  3   |               described the history of asthma in childhood and in adulthood
 93   II,     5.  9.  3   |          between early- and late-onset asthma has not been noticed before
 94   II,     5.  9.  3   |             incidence and remission of asthma from birth to the age of
 95   II,     5.  9.  3   |             than patients with current asthma. The probability of remission
 96   II,     5.  9.  3   |              of the natural history of asthma, from birth to adulthood,
 97   II,     5.  9.  3   |              between the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was
 98   II,     5.  9.  3   |               with a low prevalence of asthma, such as Greece, presented
 99   II,     5.  9.  3   |                 such as the UK), where asthma prevalence was higher than
100   II,     5.  9.  3   |           again that the prevalence of asthma varies widely, whilst the
101   II,     5.  9.  3   |               good correlation between asthma (74% of country level and
102   II,     5.  9.  3   |                country~ ~Figure 5.9.2. Asthma ever in ECHRS phase II and
103   II,     5.  9.  3   |               country.~ ~Figure 5.9.3. Asthma by age 14 years in ECHRS
104   II,     5.  9.  3   |       population prevalence of current asthma of 2.7% for the seven AIRE
105   II,     5.  9.  3   |                to the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA) (
106   II,     5.  9.  3   |                substantial increase in asthma prevalence has been emphasized
107   II,     5.  9.  3   |         decreasing or stable trend for asthma or current wheeze at any
108   II,     5.  9.  3   |              that the rising trends in asthma prevalence among adults
109   II,     5.  9.  3   |             stable trends in childhood asthma since the late 90s (Greece,
110   II,     5.  9.  3   |                shown a steadily rising asthma prevalence (East Germany,
111   II,     5.  9.  3   |                trends in prevalence of asthma~ ~Table 5.9.2. Summary of
112   II,     5.  9.  3   |                trends in prevalence of asthma~ ~Table 5.9.3. Summary of
113   II,     5.  9.  3   |              disparities in trends for asthma and allergic rhinitis~ ~
114   II,     5.  9.  3   |              changes; on the contrary, asthma symptoms were less common
115   II,     5.  9.  3   |            marked reduction in current asthma symptoms prevalence in English
116   II,     5.  9.  3   |        Although mortality is low, most asthma deaths result from acute
117   II,     5.  9.  3   |               be avoidable. Death from asthma may thus be considered a
118   II,     5.  9.  3   |           health care.~ ~Deaths due to asthma are estimated to be 250,
119   II,     5.  9.  3   |         worldwide. EU mortality due to asthma (death defined by ICD-10
120   II,     5.  9.  3   |               provided by the National Asthma Campaign (UK) concerning
121   II,     5.  9.  3   |               Campaign (UK) concerning asthma primary care serving a population
122   II,     5.  9.  3   |              of observation, 44900 had asthma diagnosis, 25100 received
123   II,     5.  9.  3   |              costs related to allergic asthma and rhinitis were included
124   II,     5.  9.  3   |             The total cost of care for asthma amounts to €17.7 billion .
125   II,     5.  9.  3   |            often difficult to control, asthma is responsible for significant
126   II,     5.  9.  3   |               2003 ERJ). The burden of asthma care in Europe is consistent
127   II,     5.  9.  3   |          proportion of direct costs of asthma care. The average physician
128   II,     5.  9.  3   |               the total direct cost of asthma; hospital costs were 20-
129   II,     5.  9.  3   |                of hospitalizations for asthma symptoms seems to have decreased
130   II,     5.  9.  3   |            study on burden of COPD and asthma was performed in the city
131   II,     5.  9.  3   |            Dubrovnik during 2002-2006. Asthma patients (4121) were treated
132   II,     5.  9.  3   |               higher for COPD than for asthma.~ ~
133   II,     5.  9.  4   |        continuously increasing, whilst asthma, after an increment trend,
134   II,     5.  9.  4   |                rhinitis should undergo asthma assessment and vice versa.
135   II,     5.  9.  4   |         children have shown increasing asthma prevalence with a less publicized
136   II,     5.  9.  4   |               34 to 0.98:1 P <0.0002), asthma (1.74 to 1.02:1 P <0.0001),
137   II,     5.  9.  4   |                0001). The diagnosis of asthma in children with wheeze
138   II,     5.  9.  4   |                of the bias to diagnose asthma in symptomatic males but
139   II,     5.  9.  4   |            enhancing the expression of asthma and atopy in females may
140   II,     5.  9.  4   |             correlated to occupational asthma, whose symptoms are determined
141   II,     5.  9.  4   |             derivatives). Occupational asthma is predominant in adulthood
142   II,     5.  9.  4   |       determine about 1 in 10 cases of asthma in the working age. Occupations
143   II,     5.  9.  4   |             the workplace in new-onset asthma. 6837 participants from
144   II,     5.  9.  4   |         enrolled. A significant excess asthma risk was seen after exposure
145   II,     5.  9.  4   |            known to cause occupational asthma (relative risk=1.6, 95%
146   II,     5.  9.  4   |                  Risks were higher for asthma defined by bronchial hyper-reactivity
147   II,     5.  9.  4   |             significant excess risk of asthma was seen for nursing (2.
148   II,     5.  9.  4   |                2.2, 1.3-4.0, P=0.007). Asthma risk was also increased
149   II,     5.  9.  4   | population-attributable risk for adult asthma due to occupational exposures
150   II,     5.  9.  4   |              of new-onset occupational asthma of 250-300 cases per million
151   II,     5.  9.  4   |               areas; the prevalence of asthma (ever) for the whole sample
152   II,     5.  9.  4   |        pollinosis (2.4%) and bronchial asthma (1.6%) than children (n =
153   II,     5.  9.  4   |      prevalence of hay-fever 18.3%, of asthma 9.1%).~ ~These findings
154   II,     5.  9.  4   |               development of childhood asthma. In turn, pet keeping in
155   II,     5.  9.  4   |           current hay fever, 6.8% from asthma, 4.5% from atopic asthma.
156   II,     5.  9.  4   |               asthma, 4.5% from atopic asthma. The prevalence of atopic
157   II,     5.  9.  4   |               the prevalence of atopy, asthma and their association with
158   II,     5.  9.  4   |               physician's diagnosis of asthma - 12.4% of the males and
159   II,     5.  9.  4   |            between physician-diagnosed asthma and female sex (odds ratio,
160   II,     5.  9.  4   |                wheezing (OR = 2.5) and asthma (OR = 3.8); and the child'
161   II,     5.  9.  4   |     restricting the analysis to atopic asthma. In conclusion, atopy and
162   II,     5.  9.  4   |         conclusion, atopy and clinical asthma among 13- to 14-yr-old adolescents
163   II,     5.  9.  4   |        Prevalence of atopy, but not of asthma, is high in this industrialized
164   II,     5.  9.  4   |             between atopy and clinical asthma suggests that atopy may
165   II,     5.  9.  4   |             may play a role in causing asthma in genetically predisposed
166   II,     5.  9.  4   |        collected on allergic diseases (asthma, atopic dermatitis, hay
167   II,     5.  9.  4   |              of both sensitization and asthma (1.3%) and rhinitis (15.
168   II,     5.  9.  4   |          centres, showed that lifetime asthma and current wheeze were
169   II,     5.  9.  4   |                born in Italy (lifetime asthma: 5.4% and 9.7% respectively,
170   II,     5.  9.  4   |               Lower risks for lifetime asthma (prevalence odds ratio,
171   II,     5.  9.  4   |            Moreover, the prevalence of asthma symptoms increased with
172   II,     5.  9.  4   |              but yet the prevalence of asthma and allergy does not correlate
173   II,     5.  9.  4   |               to the disease burden in asthma and allergy, and points
174   II,     5.  9.  5   |           prevention approaches of the asthma and allergenic rhinitis
175   II,     5.  9.  5   |         crucial for the improvement of asthma management. Most asthma
176   II,     5.  9.  5   |                asthma management. Most asthma cases are self-managed by
177   II,     5.  9.  5   |            concerned specifically with asthma and the aetiology of allergies,
178   II,     5.  9.  5   |               in Europe on Allergy and Asthma issues coordinated by the
179   II,     5.  9.  5   |              the burden of allergy and asthma throughout Europe.~ ~Research
180   II,     5.  9.  5   |           influence the development of asthma and allergy and to assess
181   II,     5.  9.  5   |                management approach for asthma patients as well as for
182   II,     5.  9.  5   |                diseases;~3. monitoring asthma related deaths as an indicator
183   II,     5.  9.  6   |               6. Future Developments~ ~Asthma is a significant burden,
184   II,     5.  9.  6   |            individual lifestyle: acute asthma episodes are for many people
185   II,     5.  9.  6   |              for. Feeling that another asthma episode could start at any
186   II,     5.  9.  6   |             anxious. Aspects of having asthma such as using an inhaler
187   II,     5.  9.  6   |               triggers, as well as the asthma symptoms themselves, can
188   II,     5.  9.  6   |                complete description of asthma, focused not only on clinical
189   II,     5.  9.  6   |                objective evaluation of asthma symptoms with the subjective
190   II,     5.  9.  6   |              to evaluate the impact of asthma from the patientspoint
191   II,     5.  9.  6   |           international guidelines for asthma: the Global Initiative for
192   II,     5.  9.  6   |              the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) document (GINA, 2006).
193   II,     5.  9.  6   |             2006). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention
194   II,     5.  9.  6   |                allergic sensitization, asthma development and exacerbations
195   II,     5.  9.  6   |             Rhinitis and its impact on Asthma), an organization, working
196   II,     5.  9.  6   |         standard for the management of asthma. ARIA highlights the impact
197   II,     5.  9.  6   |                of allergic rhinitis on asthma, that are common comorbidities,
198   II,     5.  9.  6   |          between allergic rhinitis and asthma, increase the awareness
199   II,     5.  9.  7   |              prevalence of symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and eczema in
200   II,     5.  9.  7   |           quality of life. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006; 97:419-28~ ~
201   II,     5.  9.  7   |                    1996): The costs of asthma. Eur Respir J. 2006 Apr;
202   II,     5.  9.  7   |             the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood.
203   II,     5.  9.  7   |             753 European children with asthma. Rev Mal Respir. 2002 Oct;
204   II,     5.  9.  7   |             Rhinitis and its impact on Asthma (ARIA). Clin Exp All Rev
205   II,     5.  9.  7   |                  Allergic rhinitis and asthma ad hoc survey: clinical
206   II,     5.  9.  7   |             Incidence and remission of asthma: a retrospective study on
207   II,     5.  9.  7   |              on the natural history of asthma in Italy. J Allergy Clin
208   II,     5.  9.  7   |        prevalence of atopy, but not of asthma, among children in an industrialized
209   II,     5.  9.  7   |                Platts-Mills TA (2005): Asthma and indoor air: contrasts
210   II,     5.  9.  7   |          respiratory symptoms. Ann All Asthma Immunol 2005;94:561-565.~ ~
211   II,     5.  9.  7   |                  Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) (2006): Global strategy
212   II,     5.  9.  7   |             2006): Global strategy for asthma management and prevention.
213   II,     5.  9.  7   |               R, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) (2004): The global
214   II,     5.  9.  7   |            2004): The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the
215   II,     5.  9.  7   |                Factors and Genetics in Asthma (INGA) Study Group. GSF-National
216   II,     5.  9.  7   |           Price D, Valovirta E (2006): Asthma out of control? A structured
217   II,     5.  9.  7   |         European birth cohort study on asthma and atopic diseases : I.
218   II,     5.  9.  7   |         prevalence rates for childhood asthma, eczema, and hay fever.
219   II,     5.  9.  7   |            sensitization. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2005 May; 5(3):212-
220   II,     5.  9.  7   |                 A prospective study of asthma incidence and its predictors:
221   II,     5.  9.  7   |            Ventura MT (2004): Allergy, asthma and markers of infections
222   II,     5.  9.  7   |                the prevalence of adult asthma and allergic rhinitis still
223   II,     5.  9.  7   |              Vrbica  (2007): COPD and Asthma: comparison of the utilization
224   II,     5. 10.  2   |                   AllerPredict~http n/~Asthma and Allergy~http de~Bioinformatics
225   II,     5. 10.  2   |                the prevalence of adult asthma between countries (mostly
226   II,     5. 10.  2   |             international variation in asthma prevalence throughout Europe.~ ~
227   II,     5. 10.  2   |           bronchitis~492~Emphysema~493~Asthma~493.0~Asthma, extrinsic~
228   II,     5. 10.  2   |             Emphysema~493~Asthma~493.0~Asthma, extrinsic~493.1~Asthma,
229   II,     5. 10.  2   |                Asthma, extrinsic~493.1~Asthma, intrinsic~493.9~Asthma,
230   II,     5. 10.  2   |                Asthma, intrinsic~493.9~Asthma, unspecified~495.9~Unspecified
231   II,     5. 11.  3   |           eczema will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis;
232   II,     5. 11.  3   |         dermatitis) suggest that, like asthma and hay fever, is a major
233   II,     5. 11.  3   |              be so severe as to induce asthma (LM Koenig et al, 1999).
234   II,     5. 11.  5   |            many other diseases such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders
235   II,     9.  2.  1   |               overweight, diabetes and asthma in children play out over
236   II,     9.  2.  3   |           EUGLOREH CountriesGirls~ ~Asthma: It is evident that childhood
237   II,     9.  2.  3   |              is evident that childhood asthma has grown significantly
238   II,     9.  2.  3   |             the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (
239   II,     9.  2.  3   |               rates of “ self-reported asthma symptoms” for children aged
240   II,     9.  2.  3   |          wheezing is not diagnostic of asthma in an individual. Wheezing
241   II,     9.  2.  3   |           specific to the diagnosis of asthma and there is no agreed way
242   II,     9.  2.  3   |               identify the presence of asthma. Such a consideration may
243   II,     9.  2.  3   |             may explain why much lower asthma rates are reported for UK
244   II,     9.  2.  3   |                other sources. In fact, Asthma UK gives a figure of 10%
245   II,     9.  2.  3   |            figure of 10% for childhood asthma, whilst the National Institute
246   II,     9.  2.  3   |               corticosteroids statesAsthma is the most common chronic
247   II,     9.  2.  3   |        Moreover, “The Global Burden of asthma” (Masoli et al, 2004?),
248   II,     9.  2.  3   |              the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), gives prevalence
249   II,     9.  2.  3   |           prevalence rates of clinical asthma2 in 13- to 14-year-old children
250   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|                prevalence of "clinical asthma." A number of arguments
251   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|         prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma attacks or asthma
252   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|               doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma attacks or asthma medication
253   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|              asthma, asthma attacks or asthma medication use was avoided
254   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|         prevalence rates for "clinical asthma" represent a conservative
255   II,     9.  2.  5   |             AIDS, arthritis, diabetes, asthma, psychiatry, anaesthetics
256   II,     9.  2.  7   |               2004?): Global Burden of Asthma [on-line publication available
257   II,     9.  2.  8   |           ISAAC~International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood~
258   II,     9.  3.  1   |          Abstract) Correlation between asthma and climate in the European
259   II,     9.  5.  3   |         diseases, infectious diseases, asthma and allergies (European
260  III,    10.  1       |        Respiratory diseases, including asthma~smoking and ETS~sulphur
261  III,    10.  2.  1   |        leukemia~Coronary heart disease~Asthma*~Coronary heart disease~
262  III,    10.  2.  1   |                Kidney and ureter~COPD, asthma and other respiratory effects~
263  III,    10.  2.  1   |         chronic respiratory symptoms*, asthma*, impaired lung function*~
264  III,    10.  2.  1   |    Exacerbation of and poor control of asthma~- Impaired lung growth and
265  III,    10.  2.  1   |                of developing childhood asthma~Passive smoking and children:~-
266  III,    10.  2.  4   |               gene variant in obesity, asthma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) (
267  III,    10.  2.  4   |            alpha-308 gene promoter and asthma: a meta-analysis. Thorax,
268  III,    10.  3.  2   |           childhood respiratory health/asthma, neurodevelopmental and
269  III,    10.  3.  2   |           human health effects such as asthma, allergies, nausea, increased
270  III,    10.  3.  2   |                respiratory disease and asthma, childhood cancer, neurodevelopmental
271  III,    10.  3.  2   |        Respiratory diseases, including asthma~smoking and ETS~sulphur
272  III,    10.  3.  4   |            upper respiratory diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive
273  III,    10.  4.  1   |           ISAAC~International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood~
274  III,    10.  4.  1   |             such as the aggravation of asthma or incidence of respiratory
275  III,    10.  4.  1   |             urban areas. Children with asthma are particularly vulnerable,
276  III,    10.  4.  1   |         trigger the onset of childhood asthma. Intervention studies clearly
277  III,    10.  4.  1   |              air quality and childhood asthma was investigated. Implementation
278  III,    10.  4.  1   |      admissions of children with acute asthma symptoms.~ ~Asthma - indoors
279  III,    10.  4.  1   |               acute asthma symptoms.~ ~Asthma - indoors and outdoors~ ~
280  III,    10.  4.  1   |               especially the case with asthma and allergies.~ ~Prevalence
281  III,    10.  4.  1   |             allergies.~ ~Prevalence of asthma and allergies among children
282  III,    10.  4.  1   |              few decades (ISAAC, 2007) Asthma has become the most common
283  III,    10.  4.  1   |          coming years.~ ~In 19992004, asthma prevalence in children across
284  III,    10.  4.  1   |                well-documented rise in asthma prevalence has coincided
285  III,    10.  4.  1   |              associated with increased asthma occurrence and exacerbations
286  III,    10.  4.  1   |          allergic disorders (including asthma) to be relatively less frequent
287  III,    10.  4.  1   |               Western Europe. Clearly, asthma has a multi-causal background
288  III,    10.  4.  1   |          contribute to the increase in asthma prevalence. Indoor air quality
289  III,    10.  4.  1   |        respiratory problems, including asthma, in children from homes
290  III,    10.  4.  1   |                 International Study of Asthma and Allergies in childhood (
291  III,    10.  5.  1   |             origin and exacerbation of asthma attacks (Richardson et al,
292  III,    10.  5.  1   |          environmental effects include asthma and allergic symptoms, sick
293  III,    10.  5.  1   |                 Ferm M, (2000) Current asthma and respiratory symptoms
294  III,    10.  5.  1   |          indoor environment related to asthma?: literature review. Journal
295  III,    10.  5.  2   |            Gulliford et al, 2004).~For asthma, data from Sweden showed
296  III,    10.  5.  2   |            from other diseases such as asthma (Jones and Bentham, 1997)
297  III,    10.  5.  2   |         Clinically diagnosed childhood asthma and follow-up of symptoms
298   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             femur fracture surgery and asthma mortality rate.~ ~Looking
299   IV,    11.  2.  1   |              and premature deaths from asthma, heart disease, cerebrovascular
300   IV,    12. 10       |               cardiovascular diseases, asthma, diabetes, health of youth,
301  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0   |              asphyxia~assault~assaults~asthma~atheroma~atherosclerosis~