Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    -,     1           |             the health status of each individual at a given time in his/her
  2    -,     1           |               stressors on public and individual health.~ ~It is important
  3    I,     2.  5       |              high but there is little individual control over the work.~ ~
  4    I,     2.  5       |            stressful experience at an individual level for some workers.
  5    I,     2.  7       |            transferred from motorized individual traffic to other means of
  6    I,     2.  8       |       district heating systems and in individual houses. The increased use
  7    I,     2. 10.  1   |             the description of groups individual prevention programmes based
  8    I,     2. 10.  1   |               programmes based on the individual genomic profile.~So far
  9    I,     2. 10.  4   |               tracking and tracing of individual instruments through decontamination,
 10    I,     2. 10.  4   |            are rarely the fault of an individual Healthcare professional,
 11    I,     3.  1.  0(1)|             successive birth cohorts. Individual women may not be aware themselves
 12   II,     4.  1       |             crucial question both for individual EU Member States (MS) and
 13   II,     4.  1       |              time trends in health in individual countries than between different
 14   II,     5.  1.  1   |             States (Figure 5.1.1). At individual level, the control of behavioural
 15   II,     5.  1.  1   |               environment in which an individual is living and though lifestyles. ~ ~
 16   II,     5.  2.  5   |             population strategy’ and ‘individual strategy’ should be performed
 17   II,     5.  2.  5   |             in CVD prevention is that individual risk factors (such as hypertension
 18   II,     5.  2.  5   |         acting both at population and individual level, notably by identifying
 19   II,     5.  2.  6   |         mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults
 20   II,     5.  2.  6   |          pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective
 21   II,     5.  3.  4   |               environment in which an individual is living and his/her lifestyle.
 22   II,     5.  3.  6   |        Survival improved also for all individual childhood cancers considered.
 23   II,     5.  4.  1   |           2007; Diaz, 2007). Specific individual characteristics have been
 24   II,     5.  4.  2   |           information systems linking individual clinical items to other
 25   II,     5.  4.  2   |           different by directly using individual records, or at least sub-national
 26   II,     5.  4.  2   |              a master index including individual characteristics at baseline,
 27   II,     5.  4.  2   |    measurement problems on a range of individual due to recall bias and imprecise
 28   II,     5.  4.  2   |          involves the registration of individual characteristics, plus a
 29   II,     5.  4.  2   |             complete both in terms of individual measurements and coverage
 30   II,     5.  4.  3   |              indicator: the older the individual, the higher the incidence.~
 31   II,     5.  4.  7   |         available at www. ). Although individual data will never be exchanged
 32   II,     5.  4.  7   |          accuracy of data residing in individual regions/states cannot be
 33   II,     5.  5.Int   |  environmental and social factors. An individual with a family history of
 34   II,     5.  5.  1   |          factors interact to place an individual at higher risk of suicide
 35   II,     5.  5.  1   |       conditions, social exclusion at individual (e.g. Blakely et al 2003)
 36   II,     5.  5.  2   |              to the next and from one individual to the next. However, people
 37   II,     5.  5.  3   |             fat.~The likelihood of an individual eating disorder depends
 38   II,     5.  5.  3   |            risk factors as well as on individual resources (Berkman et al,
 39   II,     5.  5.  3   |               and their impact on the individual and on society. It is indispensable
 40   II,     5.  5.  3   |     interventions to be applied on an individual basis. Yet the expansion
 41   II,     5.  5.  3   |               to no information about individual variability and its effect
 42   II,     5.  5.  3   |    schizophrenia receive some kind of individual counselling, it is doubtful
 43   II,     5.  5.  3   |              optimal strategy for the individual patient.~Lack and misallocation
 44   II,     5.  5.  3   |         statistically significant. In individual studies, the dominance in
 45   II,     5.  5.  3   |     discriminatory unless based on an individual assessment (Employment Committee
 46   II,     5.  5.  3   |      therapeutic capabilities of each individual centre (Osservatorio Regionale
 47   II,     5.  5.  3   |         discuss the problems posed by individual patients and exchange information
 48   II,     5.  5.  3   |     determining the risk, either with individual main effect, or primed by
 49   II,     5.  5.  3   |         advocacy tool and for seeking individual redress.~A new study on
 50   II,     5.  5.  3   |               a way that promotes the individual’s ability and desire to
 51   II,     5.  5.  3   |              economic security of the individual. Currently, there are no
 52   II,     5.  5.  3   |               only reports from a few individual countries, with varying
 53   II,     5.  5.  3   |              the disease of MS on the individual and society are some of
 54   II,     5.  5.  3   |      represents a major burden on the individual, family, health services
 55   II,     5.  5.  3   |              society, family, and the individual. J Am Geriatr Soc 45(7):
 56   II,     5.  6.  3   |             rheumatoid arthritis from individual studies across Europe.~ ~
 57   II,     5.  6.  3   |             the absolute risk for the individual patient over a time period
 58   II,     5.  6.  3   |               of the job.~ ~Impact on individual (morbidity, mortality) and
 59   II,     5.  6.  3   |            has a marked effect on the individual and also on society due
 60   II,     5.  6.  4   |        consequence of disease for the individual. A chronic pain condition
 61   II,     5.  6.  4   |            short term absence for the individual in terms of consequences
 62   II,     5.  6.  4   |            trends~ ~The impact on the individual and society is predicted
 63   II,     5.  7.  2   |         provide complete and reliable individual patient data on the incidence
 64   II,     5.  7.  2   |               not yet able to provide individual patient data covering their
 65   II,     5.  7.  2   |             hand, the availability of individual patient data within one
 66   II,     5.  7.  2   |            era-edta-reg.org) collects individual and aggregated data from
 67   II,     5.  7.  2   |            the Mediterranean Sea. The individual patient data are used for
 68   II,     5.  7.  2   |            renal registries including individual patient data collect at
 69   II,     5.  7.  2   |              able to provide complete individual patient data for the whole
 70   II,     5.  7.  2   |                Spain and UK) provided individual or aggregated data either
 71   II,     5.  8.  1   |         contribute to the severity in individual patients. Its pulmonary
 72   II,     5.  9.  3   |             to the improvement of the individual quality of life and long-term
 73   II,     5.  9.  4   |            exposure and maybe also an individual, genetic susceptibility.
 74   II,     5.  9.  6   |             symptoms deeply influence individual lifestyle: acute asthma
 75   II,     5. 10.  1   |                the sensitivity of the individual or other modifying factors.~ ~
 76   II,     5. 10.  2   |              coverage of allergens by individual databases. (Brusic et al,
 77   II,     5. 10.  2   |               FA prevalence come from individual studies conducted in single
 78   II,     5. 10.  3   |            with the addition of other individual studies showed that heterogeneity
 79   II,     5. 10.  3   |      prevalence of IgE-mediated FA to individual food items in single European
 80   II,     5. 11.  3   |              organ of the body. Every individual is affected by skin problems
 81   II,     5. 11.  3   |               and there is hardly any individual over 50 years of age who
 82   II,     5. 11.  3   |          generally lasts for life. An individual who has become sensitized
 83   II,     5. 14.  3   |      expenditures for dental care per individual increased by 1.5 between
 84   II,     5. 14.  7   |        overall quality of life of any individual particularly an older one,
 85   II,     5. 15.  4   |           empower patients with RD at individual and collective level; coordination
 86   II,     6.  3.  2   |         network of hospitals, whereby individual rates are compared to those
 87   II,     6.  3.  6   |    hand-washing is the most effective individual way to prevent the spreading
 88   II,     6.  3.  7   |           hospitalised cases may die. Individual short papers in Eurosurveillance
 89   II,     7.  2.  3   |            comprises detailed data on individual accidents as collected by
 90   II,     7.  4.  2   |             footpaths) as well as the individual risk factors (e.g. training
 91   II,     7.  4.  7   |              the complex interplay of individual, relationship, social, cultural
 92   II,     7.  4.  7   |      following issues:~ ~· Addressing individual risk factors and taking
 93   II,     7.  4.  7   |            and taking steps to modify individual risk behaviours;~· Influencing
 94   II,     8.  1.  1   |               medical” (the result of individual pathology or deficit) or “
 95   II,     8.  1.  1   |        interactive and focuses on the individual’s expression of limitations
 96   II,     8.  1.  3   |            simultaneously in the same individual, altogether restrictions
 97   II,     8.  1.  5   |               which provide access to individual rights; (2) eliminating
 98   II,     8.  2.  1   |      emphasized the importance of the individual’s health as an essential
 99   II,     8.  2.  1   |        Further, it is uncommon for an individual to be identified specifically
100   II,     8.  2.  1   |              that are required by the individual to enhance this interaction (
101   II,     8.  2.  2   |               economic burden for the individual, the family and society.
102   II,     9           |        anomalies~ ~In the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly,
103   II,     9           |              a major handicap for the individual.~ ~References cited in this
104   II,     9           |         cardiac function can leave an individual with lower functional capacity
105   II,     9           |             Social factors, which the individual can usually do little to
106   II,     9.  1.  2   |            health agenda due to their individual rarity. Thus, there are
107   II,     9.  1.  2   |         several episodes for the same individual together, particularly across
108   II,     9.  1.  2   |               births (Table 9.1.2.1). Individual registries report prevalence
109   II,     9.  1.  2   |          anomalies~In the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly,
110   II,     9.  1.  2   |               time tends to come from individual specialized clinics, rather
111   II,     9.  1.  2   |      differences underlying policy or individual uptake, from different interpretations
112   II,     9.  2.  2   |             have as much relevance as individual behaviour when reporting
113   II,     9.  2.  3   |               decades, as reported by individual countriespractitioners,
114   II,     9.  2.  3   |            diagnostic of asthma in an individual. Wheezing is not a symptom
115   II,     9.  2.  3   |           balanced with concern about individual disabled or hospitalised
116   II,     9.  2.  3(2)|        presentation to a doctor by an individual with recurrent wheezing
117   II,     9.  2.  3   |            available. However, by any individual measure under most European
118   II,     9.  2.  3   |         educational factors, where an individual may not be certain of their
119   II,     9.  2.  3   |            strong and underline their individual and societal significance (
120   II,     9.  2.  4   |              a major handicap for the individual.~ ~References cited in this
121   II,     9.  3.  1   |    conclusions about the timing of an individual woman’s menopause on the
122   II,     9.  3.  1   |                 There is considerable individual and radical/ethnic variation
123   II,     9.  3.  1   |              and not the fault of the individual, with the main causes being:~
124   II,     9.  3.  1   |        presented as complaints by the individual woman. Conflicting findings
125   II,     9.  3.  1   |       undergone surgical menopause.~ ~Individual women may view menopause
126   II,     9.  3.  3   |           studies (1995- May 2005) on individual level factors associated
127   II,     9.  3.  3   |              belongs to the sphere of individual choice and responsibility.~ ~
128   II,     9.  3.  3   |               interventions to change individual behaviour and show increased
129   II,     9.  4.  1   |        society itself.~ ~Ageing is an individual experience mediated by the
130   II,     9.  4.  1   |        healthcare policy must address individual needs, preferences, social
131   II,     9.  4.  2   |          heart attack, can affect the individual’s ability to live independently.
132   II,     9.  4.  2   |              condition impacts on the individual. This cultural sensitivity
133   II,     9.  4.  3   |             violence and suicide. The individual approach should include
134   II,     9.  4.  4   |         cardiac function can leave an individual with lower functional capacity
135   II,     9.  4.  4   |             Social factors, which the individual can usually do little to
136   II,     9.  4.  6   |        diverse and growing group with individual rather than homogenous needs
137   II,     9.  5.  3   |            potential to embarrass the individual (Probyn, 2000).~ ~Caring
138  III,    10.  1       |             addressed, taking account individual and generational exposure
139  III,    10.  1       |               2004). Genetic factors, individual physical and psychological
140  III,    10.  1       |       influence health, from those at individual level to those of societal
141  III,    10.  1       |       settlements and settings, human individual characteristics and social
142  III,    10.  1       |             WORKING ENVIRONMENT~HUMAN INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS~Physical~
143  III,    10.  1       |               against society~ ~ ~ ~ ~Individual health status can be regarded
144  III,    10.  1       |        attributes, either part of the individual genetic make-up or acquired
145  III,    10.  1       |         social environment, where the individual interacts with his peers,
146  III,    10.  1       |         working environment where the individual lives, works and finds access
147  III,    10.  1       |               and health care system. Individual health determinants such
148  III,    10.  1.  1   |           subgroup mainly consists of individual factors which are influenced
149  III,    10.  1.  1   |               is necessary to improve individual and societal health management (
150  III,    10.  1.  1   |               potentially reverse the individual’s intention to exercise.
151  III,    10.  1.  1   |             to biological factors and individual knowledge and beliefs, social
152  III,    10.  1.  1   |             social networks influence individual development of identities
153  III,    10.  1.  1   |                  The likelihood of an individual engaging in alcohol use
154  III,    10.  2       |                                 10.2. Individual characteristics~ ~
155  III,    10.  2.  1   |            effects of smoking, induce individual cessation efforts and prevent
156  III,    10.  2.  1   |               from taking up smoking. Individual interventions, such as pharmacological
157  III,    10.  2.  1   |       Consequences of smoking for the individual and the society~ ~Smoking
158  III,    10.  2.  1   |              Tobacco harm reduction~ ~Individual interventions~ ~An individual
159  III,    10.  2.  1   |         Individual interventions~ ~An individual approach to smoking cessation
160  III,    10.  2.  1   |             and telephone, as well as individual and group counselling.~ ~
161  III,    10.  2.  1   |       surrounding the drinker at both individual and societal levels, in
162  III,    10.  2.  1   |              harm has occurred to the individual as a result of his or her
163  III,    10.  2.  1   |             is clear that many of the individual conditions that contribute
164  III,    10.  2.  1   |             collective as well as the individual level. Areas with the most
165  III,    10.  2.  1   |              after accounting for the individual relationship of occupation
166  III,    10.  2.  1   |   characteristics of drug problems at individual and population levels.~ ~
167  III,    10.  2.  1   |            has shown that a number of individual, professional and community
168  III,    10.  2.  1   |          programmes. Professional and individual measures, including the
169  III,    10.  2.  1   |            craniofacial health. These individual behaviours are associated
170  III,    10.  2.  1   |        activities. It underlines that individual attempts for a healthy lifestyle
171  III,    10.  2.  1   | physical activity carried out by each individual is an absolute requirement
172  III,    10.  2.  1   |              food consumption data at individual level. However, national
173  III,    10.  2.  1   |      available~ ~ ~ ~ ~Czech Republic~Individual food consumption study~SISP04~
174  III,    10.  2.  1   |                2000-2005~6500~4 - >75~Individual dietary record~7~General
175  III,    10.  2.  1   |             INCA~1998-1999~1642~15-92~Individual dietary record~7~Volatier
176  III,    10.  2.  1   |             HNDS~2003-2004~1179~18-96~Individual dietary record~3~General
177  III,    10.  2.  1   |           NSIFCS~1997-1999~1379~18-64~Individual dietary record~7~Refer to
178  III,    10.  2.  1   |           INN-CA~1994-1996~1544~19-60~Individual dietary record~7~Turrini
179  III,    10.  2.  1   |        RIKSMATEN~1997-1998~1210~17-79~Individual dietary record~7~Becker
180  III,    10.  2.  1   |            DNFCS~1997-1998~4285~19-64~Individual dietary record~2~General
181  III,    10.  2.  1   |             NDNS~2000-2001~1724~19-64~Individual dietary record~7~General
182  III,    10.  2.  1   |           studies in which comparable individual dietary intake data were
183  III,    10.  2.  1   |           habitual food intake at the individual level in as much detail
184  III,    10.  2.  1   |          amino acids (Gurr, 1998). An individual’s requirements for different
185  III,    10.  2.  1   |       conditions, such as whether the individual is growing or not and whether,
186  III,    10.  2.  1   |               of the population.~ ~No individual food contains all nutrients
187  III,    10.  2.  1   |          household surveys, data from individual surveys provide information
188  III,    10.  2.  1   |           State populations depend on individual choices (cultural influences,
189  III,    10.  2.  1   |             base for interventions at individual, school, workplace and community
190  III,    10.  2.  1   |            targeted and tailored onto individual needs. Another review looking
191  III,    10.  2.  1   |               thirdly, in relation to individual projects and programmes
192  III,    10.  2.  1   |             foods intended for use by individual members of the general public;
193  III,    10.  2.  1   |            foods that are consumed by individual consumers are to a large
194  III,    10.  2.  1   |            and bioavailability of the individual substance by the EFSA.~ ~
195  III,    10.  2.  1   |            and bioavailability of the individual substance by EFSA.~ ~The
196  III,    10.  2.  4   | infrastructures for the management of individual genome-based health information.~ ~
197  III,    10.  2.  4   |             of “personal genomes” and individual genome-based health information.
198  III,    10.  2.  4   |         outcomes”;~· the potential of individual genomic profiling: i.e.,
199  III,    10.  2.  4   |            condition as the basis for individual health information management.
200  III,    10.  2.  4   |     information management. Here, the individual genotype status on all genomic
201  III,    10.  2.  4   |               to a screening based on individual genomic profiling;~· the
202  III,    10.  2.  4   |            problems;~· correlation of individual pathways in systems biology
203  III,    10.  2.  4   |         research, the family history, individual genomic variants and the
204  III,    10.  2.  4   |              genomic variants and the individual exposure to exogenous risks.
205  III,    10.  2.  4   |               tasks by looking at the individual first, identify individual
206  III,    10.  2.  4   |            individual first, identify individual risks based on individual
207  III,    10.  2.  4   |             individual risks based on individual genomic profiling and may
208  III,    10.  2.  4   | infrastructures for the management of individual genome-based health information.
209  III,    10.  2.  4   |              infrastructure. The more individual prevention and therapy develop
210  III,    10.  2.  5   |        gradual processes depending on individual characteristics. Such consideration
211  III,    10.  2.  5   |            inadequate to evaluate the individual health status,~ ~For a detailed
212  III,    10.  3.  1   |             collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control
213  III,    10.  3.  2   |               our economic wealth and individual comfort. Europe has a 59%
214  III,    10.  4.  2   |       required at both aggregated and individual food level. This concerns
215  III,    10.  4.  2   |      estimation about 7.5 millions of individual data points were generated
216  III,    10.  4.  2   |              has produced a number of individual pesticide/food combinations
217  III,    10.  4.  2   |               to assess the safety of individual consumers exposed to maximum
218  III,    10.  4.  2   |               food chain.~ ~Thus, the individual Member States have the central
219  III,    10.  4.  3   |             households have access to individual sources of safe drinking-water.~ ~
220  III,    10.  4.  3   |              reduce the threat to the individual consumer. However, in the
221  III,    10.  4.  5   |             large differences between individual countries, and significant
222  III,    10.  5.  1   |            more focused evaluation of individual conditions, such as air
223  III,    10.  5.  1   |           This is especially true for individual homes or dwellings, which
224  III,    10.  5.  1   |             being more focused on the individual settlement (home or dwelling)
225  III,    10.  5.  1   |           needs. It usually considers individual transport by motorized vehicles (
226  III,    10.  5.  1   |         transport (bus and train) and individual transport without motorized
227  III,    10.  5.  1   |               are related to specific individual circumstances. The following
228  III,    10.  5.  2   |       striking gender differences for individual countries. For example,
229  III,    10.  5.  2   |           with parental education and individual living conditions in East
230  III,    10.  5.  3   |            work is the source of most individual, corporate and community
231  III,    10.  5.  3   |          unemployed. In the long run, individual unemployment is associated
232  III,    10.  5.  3   |              high but there is little individual control over the work.~A
233  III,    10.  5.  3   |             that the likelihood of an individual returning to work is influenced
234  III,    10.  5.  3   |               or assign OSH duties to individual employees. Consultation
235  III,    10.  5.  3   |        working and living conditions, individual characteristics and socio-economic
236  III,    10.  5.  3   |               been supplemented by 19 individual directives.~In order to
237  III,    10.  5.  3   |        working and living conditions, individual characteristics and socio-economic
238  III,    10.  6.  1   |           found to be linked to one’s individual social networks. Females
239  III,    10.  6.  2   |           lifestyles through which an individual can influence him/herself,
240  III,    10.  6.  2   |               dental care. Rebuilding individual self-confidence is a key
241  III,    10.  6.  3   |              the complex interplay of individual, relationship, social, cultural
242  III,    10.  6.  3   |      following issues:~ ~· Addressing individual risk factors and taking
243  III,    10.  6.  3   |            and taking steps to modify individual risk behaviours, including
244   IV,    11.  1.  1   |              of citizens – both at an individual and population basis. Even
245   IV,    11.  1.  3   |              systems, the role of the individual or patient is another factor
246   IV,    11.  1.  4   |             factors that influence an individual’s propensity to seek health
247   IV,    11.  1.  4   |           consider the capacity of an individual to benefit from health care (
248   IV,    11.  1.  5   |          provide products to meet the individual patient’s need, thus require
249   IV,    11.  1.  5   |            050 points, with scores of individual practices made publicly
250   IV,    11.  1.  5   |       incentives and the behaviour of individual doctors, particularly in
251   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             medical professionals and individual hospitals, as well as the
252   IV,    11.  1.  5   |           looking at trust levels for individual professional groups, most
253   IV,    11.  2.  2   |             population and not on the individual, and involves efforts by
254   IV,    11.  3.  1   |             left under the purview of individual institutions as in other
255   IV,    11.  3.  2   |               for physicians, such as individual, practice or collective
256   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            collection of resources by individual insurance funds. Some countries
257   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             levied on all elements of individual and corporate income, unlike
258   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         Poland and Romania, or by the individual health insurance funds,
259   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             financial burden onto the individual, and introducing barriers
260   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            collected locally or where individual health insurance funds are
261   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            significant information at individual level to measure: a) the
262   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           benefits are possible on an individual basis) with the exception
263   IV,    12.  1       |          balance to be struck between individual choices and voluntary behaviour
264   IV,    12.  2       |             in CVD prevention is that individual risk factors (such as hypertension
265   IV,    12.  2       |           both at a population and an individual level, notably by identifying
266   IV,    12.  2       |      determinants~ ~1. Tobacco~ ~1.1. Individual interventions~ ~An individual
267   IV,    12.  2       |         Individual interventions~ ~An individual approach to smoking cessation
268   IV,    12.  2       |             and telephone, as well as individual and group counseling.~ ~
269   IV,    12.  8       |      Community law. At the same time, individual Member States can no longer
270   IV,    12. 10       |               risk!) awareness at the individual level is part of most measures
271   IV,    12. 10       |             prerequisite for informed individual decision making. This applies
272   IV,    12. 10       |         obliged to organise either an Individual System or to join a Collective
273   IV,    12. 10       |         nutrition of the contemporary individual".~Finally, the Association
274   IV,    13.Acr       |         population rather than on the individual, and involves efforts by
275   IV,    13.  2.  4   |               in DALY's lost, for the individual countries of the European
276   IV,    13.  6.  1   |              and on the effect on the individual. However, as pointed out
277   IV,    13.  7.  5   |          information systems based on individual level data are required.~ ~
278   IV,    13.  7.  5   |              privacy interests of the individual. Data Protection legislation
279   IV,    13.  7.  5   |             between the rights of the individual and the needs of the society.
280   IV,    13.  7.  5   |              services’ only refers to individual patient care. Thus, only
281   IV,    13.  7.  5   |               health care services at individual level..~ ~In any case, clearness