Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |          Century, resulting in major changes of the context in which
  2    I,     2.  2    |        markets. As a result of these changes, intensified global competition
  3    I,     2.  2    |        on-line travel which not only changes consumer habits, but also
  4    I,     2.  2    |               ecological and climate changes contribute to the emergence,
  5    I,     2.  4    |             clearly shows that these changes in mortality have not been
  6    I,     2.  5    |           service sector) as well as changes in employment patterns (
  7    I,     2.  5    |           also remain on the agenda. Changes in management structures
  8    I,     2.  5    |        markets. As a result of these changes, intensified global competition
  9    I,     2.  5    |              patterns. Some of these changes have been introduced from
 10    I,     2.  5    |             in the Euro area.~ ~F ~ ~Changes in the workforce. The European
 11    I,     2.  5    |              of the labour force and changes in the family structure
 12    I,     2.  5    |        methods’. The result of these changes has been a reduction in
 13    I,     2.  5    |             Consequences of on-going changes in the future. The world
 14    I,     2.  5    |              need to deal with these changes which can have a positive
 15    I,     2.  7    |              exhibition analysed the changes that have taken place in
 16    I,     2.  9    |                          2.9 Climate Changes~ ~Climate changes and their
 17    I,     2.  9    |            Climate Changes~ ~Climate changes and their consequences on
 18    I,     2.  9    |              continue. These various changes will cause natural hazards
 19    I,     2.  9    |         damage to infrastructure and changes in river flows and seasonality,
 20    I,     2.  9    |              and aquatic ecosystems. Changes include movement of freshwater
 21    I,     2.  9    |             and to higher altitudes, changes in life-cycle events (phenology),
 22    I,     2.  9    |             vegetation distribution. Changes in distribution and the
 23    I,     2.  9    |       localised dengue to re-appear. Changes in the geographic distribution
 24    I,     2. 10.  1|              to analyse how genomics changes the concept of public health.
 25    I,     3.  1    |              than period TFRs due to changes in fertility timing. If
 26    I,     3.  3    |         population pyramid. In turn, changes in the absolute numbers
 27    I,     3.  3    |             population pyramid. Such changes may result from changing
 28    I,     3.  3    |      declines, or if life expectancy changes.~ ~Figure 3.4. Age composition
 29    I,     3.  3    |              countries witness large changes in the relative number of ‘
 30    I,     3.  3    |         while others only have minor changes (Luxembourg, Sweden, Belgium,
 31    I,     3.  3    |           and Austria had only minor changes over time, while those in
 32    I,     3.  3    |             Croatia have the lowest. Changes over time are most substantial
 33    I,     3.  3    |        somewhat, with the most heavy changes reported in Turkey, Cyprus,
 34    I,     3.  3    |             Romania have the largest changes, while Luxembourg, Sweden,
 35    I,     3.  3    |     significantly lower. The largest changes are in Italy, Germany, Spain,
 36   II,     4.  1    |     limitations (Riley, 1990). These changes led to the development of
 37   II,     4.  2    |          database to examine whether changes in life expectancy at birth
 38   II,     4.  2    |            be attributed to the same changes in age patterns and in causes
 39   II,     4.  2    |        calculate the contribution of changes in mortality rates at different
 40   II,     4.  2    |           Pattern of life expectancy changes by age groups. Based on
 41   II,     4.  2    |             Arriaga decomposition of changes in life expectancy, EU 15
 42   II,     4.  2    |           slightly more variation in changes in mortality across age
 43   II,     4.  2    |           Pattern of life expectancy changes by causes of death. Table
 44   II,     4.  2    |             Arriaga decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth
 45   II,     4.  2    |             Arriaga decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth
 46   II,     4.  2    |          heart diseases and strokes. Changes in mortality by the other
 47   II,     4.  2    |            patterns in the effect of changes in the cause of death on
 48   II,     4.  2    |              circulatory diseases to changes in life expectancy at birth
 49   II,     4.  3    |               Le Roy, et al. (2005): Changes in life expectancy in the
 50   II,     5.  1.  1|        ground level ozone), damp and changes in dietary habitudes.~Chronic
 51   II,     5.  1.  1|              largely attributable to changes in the two major recognized
 52   II,     5.  2.  2|              studied since 1950; the changes in cardiovascular and all-cause
 53   II,     5.  2.  2|             of available evidence on changes in environmental risk factors (
 54   II,     5.  2.  3|              IHD are associated with changes in the environment exposures,
 55   II,     5.  2.  3|    populations could be explained by changes in the average level of
 56   II,     5.  2.  3|            in Italy. A comparison of changes in attack and case fatality
 57   II,     5.  2.  3|             case fatality rates with changes in mortality rates revealed
 58   II,     5.  2.  3|             case fatality was due to changes in the management of stroke
 59   II,     5.  2.  3|              management of stroke or changes in disease severity (Sarti
 60   II,     5.  2.  4|         According to MONICA results, changes in classic risk factors
 61   II,     5.  2.  5|           CVD and sought appropriate changes, such as increased availability
 62   II,     5.  2.  6|         while nosological and coding changes in international disease
 63   II,     5.  2.  7|        Estimation of contribution of changes in classical risk factors
 64   II,     5.  2.  7|         Salomaa V, Nissinn A (1998): Changes in premature deaths in Finland:
 65   II,     5.  2.  7|           MONICA Project (2003): Are changes in mortality from stroke
 66   II,     5.  2.  7|      mortality from stroke caused by changes in stroke event rates or
 67   II,     5.  2.  7|              coronary-event rates to changes in coronary heart disease
 68   II,     5.  2.  7|       Estimation of contributions of changes in coronary care to improving
 69   II,     5.  2.  7|           and Population Risk Factor Changes in England and Wales, 1981-
 70   II,     5.  4.  1|          hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. Environmental
 71   II,     5.  4.  1|      development leads to very rapid changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity
 72   II,     5.  4.  1|              factor for blood vessel changes. Near normalisation of blood
 73   II,     5.  4.  6|          they should be sensitive to changes over time and place); and
 74   II,     5.  5.  1|            100 000) in Europe.~ ~The changes in age-adjusted mortality
 75   II,     5.  5.  2|              strategy or cure and no changes in mortality.~ ~The data
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|             identify time trends and changes over time. Several measurement
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|           allowing conclusions about changes in incidence, prevalence
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|             identify time trends and changes over time. Longitudinal
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|            life as well as lifestyle changes. It is well-known that primary
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|       children about the normal body changes expected at puberty; inoculate
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|        already suffering from mental changes, including sub-psychotic
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|          Möller HJ, Gaebel W (2007): Changes in the public's social distance
 83   II,     5.  5.  3|           Antipsychotic drug-induced changes in metabolism. Wien Klin
 84   II,     5.  5.  3|              past decade. One of the changes has been the appreciation
 85   II,     5.  5.  3|            elaborate kind”. Frequent changes since Kanner’s first clinical
 86   II,     5.  5.  3|        changed over the years, these changes are not so great as to prevent
 87   II,     5.  5.  3|        changed over the years, these changes do not prevent some comparative
 88   II,     5.  5.  3|                even with significant changes across studies. This is
 89   II,     5.  5.  3|           International patterns and changes over time. Neuroepidemiology
 90   II,     5.  5.  3|        contributing to social policy changes.~The EMSP has recently embarked
 91   II,     5.  5.  3|          last thirty years, no major changes in employment trends have
 92   II,     5.  5.  3|              In addition, due to the changes in family structure, the
 93   II,     5.  6.  1|     osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Changes in lifestyle factors such
 94   II,     5.  6.  3|              results in radiological changes (loss of joint space, sclerosis
 95   II,     5.  6.  3|             be based on pathological changes seen on x-rays, by the presence
 96   II,     5.  6.  3|        progressive with radiographic changes slowly deteriorating in
 97   II,     5.  6.  3|              disease as radiological changes are not always accompanied
 98   II,     5.  6.  3|             show that osteoarthritis changes are uncommon in those under
 99   II,     5.  6.  3|               Future trends~ ~Future changes in the incidence and prevalence
100   II,     5.  6.  3|               Future trends~ ~Future changes in the incidence and prevalence
101   II,     5.  6.  3|              represent developmental changes rather than fractures. The
102   II,     5.  6.  3|         ageing of the population and changes in risk factors (Report
103   II,     5.  6.  3|           report them. Such cultural changes could lead to an enormous
104   II,     5.  6.  4|     osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Changes in lifestyle factors such
105   II,     5.  7.  2|        follow-up of the patients the changes in treatment and the date
106   II,     5.  7.  3|              are the data concerning changes in CKD over time, whilst
107   II,     5.  7.  3|          whilst the correlation with changes in the incidence of ESRD
108   II,     5.  7.  5|    under-diagnosed condition, recent changes in the measurements of the
109   II,     5.  7.  7|              Gerson A, et al (2006): Changes in physical and psychosocial
110   II,     5.  9. FB|          Eastern European countries. Changes in lifestyle after the fall
111   II,     5.  9.  1|      increase (Holgate et al, 2006). Changes in diagnostic sensitivity
112   II,     5.  9.  1|            been attributed mainly to changes in exposure to environmental
113   II,     5.  9.  3|              increases, and 45 mixed changes (one centre actually reported
114   II,     5.  9.  3|          centre actually reported no changes); for the 1314 years of
115   II,     5.  9.  3|       increases, and 74 showed mixed changes. For both age-groups, more
116   II,     5.  9.  3|           but most centres had mixed changes; on the contrary, asthma
117   II,     5.  9.  4|       difference in sex distribution changes between older and younger
118   II,     5.  9.  4|            and outdoor pollution;~4. changes in dietary habits.~ ~Asthmatic
119   II,     5.  9.  5|             outdoor pollution; and~· changes in dietary habits.~ ~For
120   II,     5. 11.  3|            1994b). Even allowing for changes in the diagnostic fashion,
121   II,     5. 11.  4|            as well as society. Small changes in the way this balance
122   II,     5. 12.  1|              2002,and quantified the changes in trends since 1970 (Kim
123   II,     5. 12.  1|         cirrhosis are largely due to changes in the major recognized
124   II,     5. 12.  2|     joinpoint(s)) at which the trend changes significantly. The analysis
125   II,     5. 12.  2|             in trend (including both changes in direction or in the rate
126   II,     5. 12.  3|               plus the corresponding changes in percentage.~ ~Table 5.
127   II,     5. 12.  3|            high cirrhosis mortality.~Changes in trends over time cannot
128   II,     5. 12.  3|              cannot be attributed to changes in the ICD, since no meaningful
129   II,     5. 12.  3|             ICD, since no meaningful changes were observed around the
130   II,     5. 12.  3|               At least part of these changes may be due to the classification
131   II,     5. 12.  4|         cirrhosis are largely due to changes in the two major recognized
132   II,     5. 12.  4|         mainly related to short-term changes in the patterns of alcohol
133   II,     5. 12.  4|        countries. In most countries, changes in alcohol consumption were
134   II,     5. 12.  4|              few years by comparable changes in cirrhosis mortality.
135   II,     5. 12.  4|           mortality following sudden changes in alcohol consumption have
136   II,     5. 12.  4|          Investigations on potential changes in alcohol consumption in
137   II,     5. 12.  4|           there are suggestions that changes in the type of alcoholic
138   II,     5. 12.  6|             most European countries, changes in alcohol drinking appear
139   II,     5. 12.  6|              well explain short-term changes in cirrhosis mortality at
140   II,     5. 12.  6|            are real and follow rapid changes in alcohol consumption in
141   II,     5. 12.  7|        method for identifying abrupt changes in U.S. cancer mortality
142   II,     5. 14.  1|              is prepared to meet the changes that must take place in
143   II,     5. 14.  3|           the economic and political changes in Eastern Europe, oral
144   II,     5. 14.  4|           The effects of nutritional changes demonstrate how common risks
145   II,     5. 14.  5|            system so that trends and changes in life-style and quality
146   II,     6.  3.  4|          political and socioeconomic changes in Europe, such as the increased
147   II,     6.  3.  5|          Political and socioeconomic changes that followed the collapse
148   II,     6.  3.  6|           disease agents can spread. Changes in consumer behaviour (and,
149   II,     6.  3.  7|               ecological and climate changes contribute to the emergence,
150   II,     8.  2.  1|             age 18’ (AAMR 2002, p8). Changes in definition reflect the
151   II,     8.  2.  1|             population, nor to track changes in health status or use
152   II,     9.  1.  2|              systems in place to put changes in the health services into
153   II,     9.  2.  3|                    Physical pubertal changes, triggering teasing about
154   II,     9.  3.  1|           retrospectively. Endocrine changes will have begun years earlier.
155   II,     9.  3.  1|            have begun years earlier. Changes in serum concentrations
156   II,     9.  3.  1|             elevation. The endocrine changes of menopause do not include
157   II,     9.  3.  1|              consensus as to whether changes in health occurring during
158   II,     9.  3.  1|           post-partum and menopausal changes can also affect the vulnerability
159   II,     9.  3.  1|              of causing the cellular changes that can lead to cervical
160   II,     9.  3.  1|           decrease reflects hormonal changes of the menopausal transition
161   II,     9.  3.  1|             failure heralds dramatic changes in skeletal homeostasis.
162   II,     9.  3.  1|           deficiency causes atrophic changes of the urethral epithelium
163   II,     9.  3.  1|              be affected by hormonal changes around the time of menopause.
164   II,     9.  3.  1|              time during adult life. Changes that represent usual or
165   II,     9.  3.  1|     conditions in which pathological changes requiring replacement therapy
166   II,     9.  3.  1|             bone mineral density and changes in carbohydrate and lipid
167   II,     9.  3.  1|             accompanied by “centralchanges, such as a reduction in
168   II,     9.  3.  1|            are several strata to the changes which need to occur: in
169   II,     9.  3.  1|            making the administrative changes which add value to their
170   II,     9.  3.  1|    Finkelstein JS & Smith MR (2005): Changes in bone mineral density
171   II,     9.  3.  3|            stage.~ ~Sexual behaviour changes in response to both secular
172   II,     9.  3.  3|             seen large socioeconomic changes in poverty, education and
173   II,     9.  3.  3|              employment. Demographic changes have taken place, in the
174   II,     9.  3.  3|         conducted. In the North, the changes started in the ‘60s, whereas
175   II,     9.  3.  3|              use without other major changes in sexual behaviour among
176   II,     9.  4.  1|              2028. These demographic changes will challenge healthcare
177   II,     9.  4.  5|              that, partly due to the changes in family structures, older
178   II,     9.  5.  1|             all of which may undergo changes in a given context.~ ~Differences
179   II,     9.  5.  3|         rates rise with both age and changes in living arrangements.
180   II,     9.  5.  3|   incontinence and walking, dressing changes, assistance with medical
181  III,    10.  1    |              Industrial~Age~Climatic Changes and extreme weather conditions~
182  III,    10.  1    |         factors, and through related changes in our behaviour in response
183  III,    10.  1    | contamination~climate change-related changes in pathogen life cycle~ ~
184  III,    10.  1.  1|           protein) may be altered by changes in energy expenditure. The
185  III,    10.  1.  1|              indirectly to lifestyle changes. Concerning alcohol consumption,
186  III,    10.  2.  1|          Wjst M and Burney P (2006): Changes in active and passive smoking
187  III,    10.  2.  1|              also possible for large changes to occur in a short time
188  III,    10.  2.  1|             and compensate for price changes is complex, because of the
189  III,    10.  2.  1|            very strong evidence that changes in minimum drinking age
190  III,    10.  2.  1|             in achieving sustainable changes in oral health, multi-sectoral
191  III,    10.  2.  1|          help make other behavioural changes (UK Department of Health,
192  III,    10.  2.  1|     Paffenbarger RS JR et al (1994): Changes in physical activity and
193  III,    10.  2.  1|    self-reporting biases can lead to changes in the distribution of BMI
194  III,    10.  2.  1|           Risk factors~ ~The dietary changes that characterize the ‘‘
195  III,    10.  2.  1|         quantitative and qualitative changes in the diet (WHO, 2003).
196  III,    10.  2.  1|           2003). The adverse dietary changes include shifts in the structure
197  III,    10.  2.  1|     vegetable intakes. These dietary changes are compounded by lifestyle
198  III,    10.  2.  1|              compounded by lifestyle changes that reflect reduced physical activity
199  III,    10.  2.  1|            age-related physiological changes such as impairment of taste
200  III,    10.  2.  1|             nutrients than others.~ ~Changes in lifestyles, family structure
201  III,    10.  2.  1|  industrialisation, will bring about changes in the food supply (Gurr,
202  III,    10.  2.  1|             and suggested that small changes might be possible and interventions
203  III,    10.  2.  1|          through small but important changes in food choices made by
204  III,    10.  2.  1|           Future research and policy changes should moreover address
205  III,    10.  2.  1|           Greer IA, Sattar N (2005): Changes in booking body mass index
206  III,    10.  2.  4|            molecular and cytogenetic changes associated with these malignancies,
207  III,    10.  2.  4|              may require fundamental changes and a new infrastructure.
208  III,    10.  2.  4|           rapid linking of molecular changes to clinical endpoints. Am
209  III,    10.  2.  5|            instability. Typical body changes of the elderly include an
210  III,    10.  2.  5|            content of the body; such changes lead to a reduction of body
211  III,    10.  3.  1|              0-14) per year. Whether changes of recommended exposure
212  III,    10.  3.  1|        provide a basis for proposing changes in the exposure limits.”~ ~
213  III,    10.  3.  2| contamination~climate change-related changes in pathogen life cycle~ ~
214  III,    10.  3.  4|                     10.3.4. Climatic changes and extreme weather conditions~ ~
215  III,    10.  3.  4|              and analysis~ ~Climatic changes~ ~There is growing evidence
216  III,    10.  3.  4|   relationship between human-induced changes in the global environment
217  III,    10.  3.  4|            evidence that most of the changes observed today result from
218  III,    10.  3.  4|           are indications that these changes have accelerated. The 10
219  III,    10.  3.  4|      adaptation by tourists to these changes in weather conditions.~ ~
220  III,    10.  3.  4|    population to extreme temperature changes over decadal time-scales .
221  III,    10.  4.  1|            and continuing structural changes in the energy system. The
222  III,    10.  4.  1|            Figure 10.4.1.2 shows the changes in exposure occurred in
223  III,    10.  4.  1|           USA in which the impact of changes in transportation and community
224  III,    10.  4.  2|           now decide on any possible changes to the IESTI calculation
225  III,    10.  4.  3|             2003.~ ~Figure 10.4.3.4. Changes over time in the population
226  III,    10.  4.  5|              and possibly by climate changes, not only reduce the water’
227  III,    10.  4.  5|             within a country, due to changes in wastes generated in the
228  III,    10.  4.  5|              EECCA countries and the changes of ownership means that
229  III,    10.  5.  1|            sprawl as well as climate changes may add to this concern,
230  III,    10.  5.  3|           demographic and structural changes in the world of work, regional
231  III,    10.  5.  3|             However, given the rapid changes of the world of work, these
232  III,    10.  5.  3|           demographic and structural changes in the world of work; regional
233  III,    10.  5.  3|           service sector) as well as changes in employment patterns (
234  III,    10.  5.  3|           also remain on the agenda. Changes in management structures
235  III,    10.  5.  3|        markets. As a result of these changes, intensified global competition
236  III,    10.  5.  3|              patterns.~Some of these changes have been introduced from
237  III,    10.  5.  3|             only a limited impact.~ ~Changes in the workforce~The European
238  III,    10.  5.  3|        methods’. The result of these changes has been a reduction in
239  III,    10.  5.  3|                Consequences of these changes in the future~The world
240  III,    10.  5.  3|              need to deal with these changes which can have a positive
241  III,    10.  5.  3|           demographic and structural changes in the world of work~- regional
242  III,    10.  6.  2|             clearly shows that these changes in mortality have not been
243   IV,    11.  1.  3|     treatment from broader lifestyle changes is an especial challenge.
244   IV,    11.  1.  5|      performance. Outcomes represent changes in health status due to
245   IV,    11.  1.  5|      attributing complex behavioural changes to particular interventions
246   IV,    11.  3.  2|             being authorized to make changes to a physician’s prescription,
247   IV,    11.  6.  1|              factors (e.g. political changes), structural changes (e.g.
248   IV,    11.  6.  1|       political changes), structural changes (e.g. economic and demographic
249   IV,    11.  6.  1|              demographic structure), changes in the labour market, the
250   IV,    11.  6.  1|          environmental factors (e.g. changes in regulation, developments
251   IV,    11.  6.  2|        financing functions – such as changes in contribution mechanisms,
252   IV,    11.  6.  2|             contribution mechanisms, changes in pooling, purchasing,
253   IV,    11.  6.  2|              necessary but unpopular changes; Thomson, Foubister and
254   IV,    11.  6.  2|          also introduced significant changes to the Dutch financing system.
255   IV,    11.  6.  4|               in most cases, benefit changes occurred incrementally or
256   IV,    11.  6.  4|              research on measures of changes in patient outcomes, that
257   IV,    11.  6.  4|           interventions. Attributing changes in outcomes to medical care
258   IV,    11.  6.  4|           that exists and to measure changes or trends over a period
259   IV,    11.  6.  5|           analysis of distributional changes in health care financing
260   IV,    12.  1    |        States into their market. The changes will ensure greater transparency
261   IV,    12.  1    |              and voluntary behaviour changes on the one hand and regulatory
262   IV,    12.  1    |            of~Working Time~Requiring changes in organisation of hospital
263   IV,    12.  2    |           CVD and sought appropriate changes, such as increased availability
264   IV,    12.  2    |             and compensate for price changes is complex, because of the
265   IV,    12.  2    |            very strong evidence that changes in minimum drinking age
266   IV,    12. 10    |              been deeply affected by changes at European level, also
267   IV,    12. 10    |              there were considerably changes in the legal context so
268   IV,    12. 10    |           plan of action for climate changes~Media campaign~Socio-economic
269   IV,    12. 10    |  municipalities tend to minimize the changes to their current structures.
270   IV,    13.  3    |       Demographic and socio-economic changes~ ~The ageing of European
271   IV,    13.  3    |        demographic and socioeconomic changes, highlighted in this Report,
272   IV,    13.  5    |            finance. Measures include changes in the financing mechanisms,
273   IV,    13.  7.  3|             states as to demographic changes and chronic illness, health promotion