Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  9    |             These various changes will cause natural hazards and damage
  2    I,     3.  2    |              Member States are a major cause of this. In Slovenia, the
  3   II,     4.  1    |          diseases represented the main cause of death. As they were replaced
  4   II,     4.  2    |               ages has become the main cause of the increase in life
  5   II,     4.  2    |             age still was an important cause of the increase in life
  6   II,     4.  2    |             people became the dominant cause of the rise of life expectancy.
  7   II,     4.  2    |             attributed to one specific cause of death, as the large contribution
  8   II,     4.  2    |               to be the most important cause of the increase in life
  9   II,     4.  2    |            life expectancy at birth by cause of death, EU15 average.~ ~
 10   II,     4.  2    |    decomposition of life expectancy by cause of death for selected EU
 11   II,     4.  2    |            life expectancy at birth by cause of death, selected countries.~ ~
 12   II,     4.  2    |            mortality by the other main cause of death, cancer (causes
 13   II,     4.  2    |                gynaecological cancers (cause 4 in table 3) had a negative
 14   II,     4.  2    |        countries. Infectious diseases (cause 1 in table 3) did not have
 15   II,     4.  2    |               by respiratory diseases (cause 9 in table 3) declined in
 16   II,     4.  2    |             Alcohol related mortality (cause 13 in table 3) had a negative
 17   II,     4.  2    |            remaining causes of death’ (cause 14 in table 3) across European
 18   II,     4.  2    |               effect of changes in the cause of death on life expectancy
 19   II,     4.  2    |                to be similar. The main cause of the increase in life
 20   II,     4.  2    |            elderly has become the main cause of the increase in life
 21   II,     5.  1.  1|           neoplasia represent the main cause of death. In low-income
 22   II,     5.  1.  1|              still remain the dominant cause for short life-expectancy,
 23   II,     5.  1.  1|         alcoholic drinks is probably a cause of this cancer in women.
 24   II,     5.  1.  1|           cancer: smoking is a primary cause of lung cancer, although
 25   II,     5.  1.  1|            that alcoholic drinks are a cause of breast cancer at all
 26   II,     5.  1.  1|                its consequences, are a cause of postmenopausal breast
 27   II,     5.  1.  1|              these are probably also a cause of breast cancer diagnosed
 28   II,     5.  1.  1|                Parkinson’s Disease~The cause of the neurodegenerative
 29   II,     5.  1.  1|        organophosphorus pesticides can cause neuropathies.~ ~Musculoskeletal
 30   II,     5.  1.  1|            mellitus is the most common cause of RRT for ESRD, affecting
 31   II,     5.  2.  1|             2008). CVD is also a major cause of disability and reduced
 32   II,     5.  2.  1|              class.~IHD is the leading cause of mortality in EU, accounting
 33   II,     5.  2.  1|           Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the EU accounting
 34   II,     5.  2.  3|            Mortality~ ~CVD is the main cause of death among old people,
 35   II,     5.  2.  3|              over; it is also the main cause of death in both genders
 36   II,     5.  2.  3|              remains the most frequent cause of death in women, accounting
 37   II,     5.  2.  3|            summarize, IHD, the leading cause of death in the twentieth
 38   II,     5.  2.  3|             remains the largest single cause of death and disability.
 39   II,     5.  2.  3|              second single most common cause of death in EU, accounting
 40   II,     5.  3.  1|               cancer is the underlying cause of death in a year over
 41   II,     5.  3.  1|          effects of non cancer-related cause of death. It is typically
 42   II,     5.  3.  3|            statistics by age, sex, and cause of death as obtained from
 43   II,     5.  3.  3|               systems, with underlying cause of death as coded by the
 44   II,     5.  3.  4|         alcoholic drinks is probably a cause of this cancer in women.
 45   II,     5.  3.  4|           cancer: smoking is a primary cause of lung cancer, although
 46   II,     5.  3.  4|            that alcoholic drinks are a cause of breast cancer at all
 47   II,     5.  3.  4|                its consequences, are a cause of postmenopausal breast
 48   II,     5.  3.  4|              these are probably also a cause of breast cancer diagnosed
 49   II,     5.  4.  1|                blood flow problems can cause nerve damage in the hands
 50   II,     5.  4.  1|                 high blood glucose can cause damage to the small blood
 51   II,     5.  4.  1|           abnormal lipid profiles will cause macrovascular modifications
 52   II,     5.  4.  2|               reporting of the HIS can cause measurement problems on
 53   II,     5.  4.  2|             who have as primary or any cause of death diabetes mellitus/
 54   II,     5.  4.  2|             who have as primary or any cause of death diabetes mellitus/
 55   II,     5.  4.  2|              diabetes not as a primary cause, and often not even as a
 56   II,     5.  4.  2|                not even as a secondary cause.~ ~Table 5.4.4. EUDIP secondary
 57   II,     5.  5.Int|            will be the highest-ranking cause of disease in the developed
 58   II,     5.  5.Int|                in women as the leading cause of disease burden worldwide.~ ~
 59   II,     5.  5.Int|               women. Such violence can cause mental health problems.~ ~
 60   II,     5.  5.  1|             2007).~ ~Anxiety disorders cause substantial impairment in
 61   II,     5.  5.  1|                life lost from external cause, including intentional self-harm.~ ~
 62   II,     5.  5.  2|           identify factors which might cause or protect against dementia (
 63   II,     5.  5.  2|        exposure to factors which might cause dementia with the aim of
 64   II,     5.  5.  3|                unhealthy behaviour may cause diseases such as osteoporosis,
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|              and is the largest single cause contributing to the increased
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|             further clarification. The cause of death assignment does
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|             express differences in the cause of deaths assignment.~Lifetime
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|              data with a more distinct cause of deaths assignment.~In
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|               the second most frequent cause of disability adjusted life
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|              recur when the underlying cause has been removed or the
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|              patients with epilepsy no cause can be found and the diagnosis
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|               with epilepsy in whom no cause of death is detected even
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|        Epilepsy and mortality rate and cause of death. Epilepsia 15:191-
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|            prevalence. It is the major cause of non-traumatic physical
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|                 Trends in survival and cause of death in Damish patients
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|               in advanced stages of PD cause higher healthcare expenditures
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|                6.4. Risk factors~ ~The cause of the neurodegenerative
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|                capacity, mortality and cause of death in Parkinson disease.
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|               Tanner CM (2003): Is the cause of Parkinson’s disease environmental
 80   II,     5.  6.  1|         conditions but often the exact cause is unclear and are described
 81   II,     5.  6.  1|              1996) and the most common cause of health problems limiting
 82   II,     5.  6.  3|             conditions are the leading cause of disability for both men
 83   II,     5.  6.  3|          mainly osteoarthritis, as the cause.~ ~Musculoskeletal conditions
 84   II,     5.  6.  3| Musculoskeletal conditions are a major cause of disability adjusted life
 85   II,     5.  6.  3|     osteoarthritis is the 5th greatest cause of YLDs in high-income countries (
 86   II,     5.  6.  3|           problems are the most common cause of health problems limiting
 87   II,     5.  6.  3|  Osteoarthritis of the knee is a major cause of mobility impairment,
 88   II,     5.  6.  3|        estimated to be the 5th leading cause of non-fatal burden of disease
 89   II,     5.  6.  3|               al, 1993). OA is a major cause of chronic pain and disability
 90   II,     5.  6.  3|                loss of spinal movement cause most limitations. Chronic
 91   II,     5.  6.  3|               defined pathophysiologic cause.~ ~Non-specific low back
 92   II,     5.  6.  4| Musculoskeletal complaints are a major cause of sickness absence. In
 93   II,     5.  6.  4| Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders cause more than half of all sickness
 94   II,     5.  6.  6|         musculoskeletal disorders as a cause of chronic health problems,
 95   II,     5.  6.  6|              1996): Does excess weight cause osteoarthritis and, if so,
 96   II,     5.  7.  2|             treatment and the date and cause of death are registered.
 97   II,     5.  7.  3|              per age group, gender and cause of renal failure.~ ~Table
 98   II,     5.  7.  3|               by age group, gender and cause of renal failure.~ ~Trends
 99   II,     5.  7.  3|              per age group, gender and cause of renal failure.~ ~Trends
100   II,     5.  7.  4|            mellitus is the most common cause of RRT for ESRD, affecting
101   II,     5.  8.  1|           represents the fifth leading cause of mortality in the developed
102   II,     5.  8.  1|                al, 2001) and the third cause of death in the UE-25 (Niederlander
103   II,     5.  8.  1|            estimated to be the seventh cause of loss of disability adjusted
104   II,     5.  8.  1|              rise to the third leading cause of death worldwide in 2020 (
105   II,     5.  8.  1|           would prolong their life but cause great suffering and costs.~ ~
106   II,     5.  8.  3|              COPD, which was the sixth cause of death in 1990, will become
107   II,     5.  8.  3|            1990, will become the third cause of death worldwide and the
108   II,     5.  8.  3|                worldwide and the ninth cause of death in developed countries
109   II,     5.  8.  3|            likely to be the underlying cause of death when COPD was mentioned
110   II,     5.  8.  3|             mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate
111   II,     5.  8.  3|             described as a very common cause of death in patients with
112   II,     5.  8.  7|          France, 1979-2002: a multiple cause analysis. Thorax 2006; 61:
113   II,     5.  8.  7|          patients die from? A multiple cause coding analysis. Eur Respir
114   II,     5.  8.  7|            mortality and disability by cause 19902020: Global Burden
115   II,     5.  9.  2|             477.9Allergic rhinitis, cause unspecified 477.9~ ~An interesting
116   II,     5.  9.  4|        exposure to substances known to cause occupational asthma (relative
117   II,     5.  9.  6|            could start at any time may cause a person to feel constantly
118   II,     5. 10.  5|                or ingredients that may cause adverse reactions to foodstuffs.~ ~
119   II,     5. 11.  1|            minor skin complaints often cause more anguish to people than
120   II,     5. 11.  1|              skin complaints can often cause more distress to the public
121   II,     5. 11.  3|            persistence of allergen can cause prolonged irritation and
122   II,     5. 11.  3|                 1997). Silver may also cause problems such as localized
123   II,     5. 11.  3|               Widstrom, Ear piercing–a cause of nickel allergy in schoolgirls?,
124   II,     5. 11.  4|              on the next day they also cause lack of concentration due
125   II,     5. 11.  7|                1985): Ear piercing – a cause of nickel allergy in schoolgirls.
126   II,     5. 12.  5|                impacts to control this cause of disease and death ( see
127   II,     5. 14.  1|        periodontal diseases is a major cause of tooth loss after the
128   II,     5. 14.  3|           disease and its sequelae can cause significant pain and are
129   II,     6.  3.  2|       infections and a major microbial cause of death in young children,
130   II,     6.  3.  3|               resistant strains remain cause for concern. AIDS surveillance
131   II,     6.  3.  5|                oldest, and is the main cause of bacterial respiratory
132   II,     6.  3.  5|            death rate, and are a major cause of infection-related death
133   II,     6.  3.  5|             when rubella infection can cause miscarriage, foetal death
134   II,     6.  3.  6|              was described linking the cause to sexual contacts between
135   II,     6.  3.  6|               HUS). HUS is the leading cause of acute renal failure in
136   II,     6.  3.  6|       Infections in pregnant women can cause congenital toxoplasmosis,
137   II,     6.  3.  7|           become recognised as a major cause of public health concern
138   II,     6.  3.  7|               DHF has become a leading cause of morbidity and death,
139   II,     6.  4.  1|               people regardless of the cause and manner of transmission.
140   II,     7.  1    |         self-harm) are the most common cause of death in the EU Member
141   II,     7.  1    |               injuries are the leading cause of death (KfV, 2007). There
142   II,     7.  1    |              In addition to intent and cause, injuries can be categorized
143   II,     7.  3.  1|         routine hospital discharge and cause of death data into a “comprehensive
144   II,     7.  3.  2|               1 and 44) than any other cause of death. When you combine
145   II,     7.  3.  2|             represent the fourth major cause of death in the EU. Only
146   II,     7.  3.  2|              lives (Table 7.2. Leading cause of death per age group,
147   II,     7.  3.  2|            EU27).~ ~Table 7.2. Leading cause of death per age group,
148   II,     7.  3.  4|               majority of injuries may cause even more concern. The reality
149   II,     7.  3.  5|               found to be a sufficient cause of suicide (Guo and Harstall,
150   II,     7.  4    |               injuries are the leading cause of death in children, adolescents
151   II,     7.  4    |                and suicides.~• A major cause of disability: Many survivors
152   II,     7.  4    |             are assumed to be the main cause of chronic disability among
153   II,     7.  4    |              in good health.~• A major cause of morbidity and healthcare
154   II,     7.  4.  1|                  Injury is the leading cause of death for children, adolescents
155   II,     7.  4.  1|                19.a. Fatal injuries by cause of death, 1-4 years of age~ ~
156   II,     7.  4.  1|             deaths (Table 7.2. Leading cause of death per age group,
157   II,     7.  4.  2|             with falls being the major cause of these deaths (Figure
158   II,     7.  5    |               have always been a major cause of mortality and morbidity
159   II,     7.  6    |          represents the fourth leading cause of death.~ ~
160   II,     8.  1.  1|             are assumed to be the main cause of chronic disability among
161   II,     8.  1.  2|              with the existence, type, cause and duration of longstanding
162   II,     8.  2.  1|                 For many children, the cause of their intellectual disability
163   II,     8.  2.  1|         congenital hypothyroidism, can cause intellectual disability
164   II,     8.  2.  1|                and totally preventable cause of intellectual disability.
165   II,     8.  2.  2|            family and society. A major cause of low vision and blindness
166   II,     8.  2.  2|              indicate that the leading cause of blindness is age-related
167   II,     8.  2.  2|          degeneration is an increasing cause of blindness, as could be
168   II,     8.  2.  2|              indicate that the leading cause of blindness is age-related
169   II,     8.  2.  2|          degeneration is an increasing cause of blindness, as could be
170   II,     9        |                congenital anomaly, the cause of the condition is unknown,
171   II,     9        |                   Smoking is a primary cause of lung cancer, although
172   II,     9        |             alcohol use is the leading cause of male disability in industrialised
173   II,     9.  1.  1|               R: Maternal mortality by cause of death~R: Prevalence of
174   II,     9.  1.  1|               1.3. Infant mortality by cause in selected EUGLOREH countries
175   II,     9.  1.  2|          problem with recording of the cause of death for stillbirths
176   II,     9.  1.  2|                congenital anomaly, the cause of the condition is unknown,
177   II,     9.  1.  2|         negatives, either of which can cause distress (Green et al, 2004).~ ~
178   II,     9.  1.  2|          registries: a) full coding of cause of death on stillbirth and
179   II,     9.  2.  3|             malformations are the main cause of mortality in neonates (
180   II,     9.  2.  3|                 injury is the greatest cause of childhood death. Of this,
181   II,     9.  2.  3|         Physical injuries are the main cause of death in children aged
182   II,     9.  2.  3|        accidents represent the primary cause of childhood injuries in
183   II,     9.  2.  3|          complacency. Furthermore, the cause of immunisation has not
184   II,     9.  2.  3|                they have been shown to cause sustained reduction of depression,
185   II,     9.  3.  1|              pathologic or physiologic cause. At present, it can be recognized
186   II,     9.  3.  1|                in women as the leading cause of disease burden worldwide.~ ~
187   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Depression is the main cause of suicide. The World Bank
188   II,     9.  3.  1|               to be the fourth leading cause of disease burden in developing
189   II,     9.  3.  1|              cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and
190   II,     9.  3.  1|               is the third most common cause of cancer death and the
191   II,     9.  3.  1|               to being the main single cause of circulatory disease-associated
192   II,     9.  3.  1|          mortality, is the single main cause of death before the age
193   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Stroke is an important cause of disablement in the EU,
194   II,     9.  3.  1|        thromboembolism remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality
195   II,     9.  3.  1|                 Overweight and obesity cause one million deaths a year
196   II,     9.  3.  1|              untreated, gonorrhoea can cause chronic pelvic inflammatory
197   II,     9.  3.  1|               in women and the leading cause of cancer death in women,
198   II,     9.  3.  1|         fatigue disorder for which the cause is still unknown, leads
199   II,     9.  3.  1|                   Smoking is a primary cause of lung cancer, although
200   II,     9.  3.  2|         indicators, maternal deaths by cause and the prevalence of severe
201   II,     9.  3.  2|            indirect (death is due to a cause which preceded but was complicated
202   II,     9.  4.  3|             and represent an important cause of death and institutionalisation.
203   II,     9.  4.  3|                Depression is the major cause of suicide in elderly Europeans.
204   II,     9.  4.  3|             until a later age. This is cause for concern in Europe that
205   II,     9.  4.  3|              cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men,
206   II,     9.  4.  3|              cancer is the most common cause of cancer death for women.~ ~
207   II,     9.  4.  3|                cancers, can be a major cause of disability (Geriatric
208   II,     9.  4.  4|             alcohol use is the leading cause of male disability in industrialised
209   II,     9.  5.  3|     self-esteem and lack of confidence cause anxiety and lack of interest
210  III,    10.  1.  1|               effect on satiation, may cause exercise-induced hyperphagia (
211  III,    10.  1.  1|              heavy drinking may be the cause or the consequence of stress
212  III,    10.  2.  1|          Smoking is the largest single cause of preventable death and
213  III,    10.  2.  1|             CVD) is the largest single cause of death in the EU, accounting
214  III,    10.  2.  1|             from vital statistics, the cause of 62% of all deaths from
215  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Tobacco is the leading cause for disease burden in the
216  III,    10.  2.  1|               to be the largest single cause of death and disease in
217  III,    10.  2.  1|            suggested that alcohol is a cause of child abuse in 16% of
218  III,    10.  2.  1|              Change in death rates, by cause, from a 1 litre increase
219  III,    10.  2.  1|              toxic substance that is a cause of 60 or more different
220  III,    10.  2.  1|         Baumberg 2006).~ ~Alcohol is a cause of health inequalities within
221  III,    10.  2.  1|              is the 2nd most important cause of inequalities in the burden
222  III,    10.  2.  1|                 Occupational Class and Cause Specific Mortality in Middle
223  III,    10.  2.  1|         driving). These behaviours may cause fatal accidents or injuries
224  III,    10.  2.  1|               that are a leading death cause, hyperhomocysteinaemia warrants
225  III,    10.  2.  1|               of ingredients liable to cause allergies or intolerances;
226  III,    10.  2.  4|                determines not only the cause of single-gene disorders,
227  III,    10.  2.  5|            early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much
228  III,    10.  2.  5|             200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects
229  III,    10.  3.  1|       particles and can, when inhaled, cause gene damage, mutations and
230  III,    10.  3.  1|                well known occupational cause of lung cancer, in particular
231  III,    10.  3.  1|                adults is an increasing cause of concern for hearing impairment.~ ~
232  III,    10.  3.  2|         Industrial accidents typically cause acute damage in terms of
233  III,    10.  3.  2|            long-range transport- gives cause for concern.~ ~The EU Environment
234  III,    10.  3.  2|           early foetal development can cause brain injury at doses much
235  III,    10.  3.  2|             200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects
236  III,    10.  3.  3|             when rubella infection can cause miscarriage, foetal death
237  III,    10.  3.  3|           individuals, and is the main cause of bacterial respiratory
238  III,    10.  3.  3|              animals. The parasite can cause profuse and watery diarrhoea;
239  III,    10.  3.  4|                 droughts and wildfires cause thousands of deaths and
240  III,    10.  3.  4|           conditions.~ ~With regard to cause of death, the burden of
241  III,    10.  3.  4|       conditions, cold-waves can still cause substantial increases in
242  III,    10.  3.  4|        evidence are lacking on a clear causeeffect relationship between
243  III,    10.  3.  4|           forest and bush fires. Fires cause burns, damage from smoke
244  III,    10.  4.  2|          Caliciviruses)~Most important cause of food-born outbreaks~Growing~
245  III,    10.  4.  2|              to transmit to humans and cause a new type of TSE, vCJD.
246  III,    10.  4.  2|              2005). This gives special cause for concern as PFOS and
247  III,    10.  4.  2|                not at levels which may cause harm and which should be
248  III,    10.  4.  3|             addition, human activities cause water contamination with
249  III,    10.  4.  3|              chemicals recognised as a cause of cancer. Long term exposure
250  III,    10.  4.  3|              last available year~ ~The cause of water related disease
251  III,    10.  4.  3|           distribution system. Another cause is leaks of untreated waste
252  III,    10.  4.  3|       Legionella pneumophila which may cause of severe pneumonia in humans.
253  III,    10.  4.  5|                attractiveness, but may cause skin dermatitis in association
254  III,    10.  4.  5|               recent decades. The main cause is assumed to be the increasing
255  III,    10.  4.  5|             spices of blue-green algae cause skin dermatitis when swimmers
256  III,    10.  5.  1|             through human skin and can cause allergic reactions, inflammations
257  III,    10.  5.  1|          Moreover, classroom noise can cause physiological and psychological
258  III,    10.  5.  1|           large settlements, which may cause health-relevant problems
259  III,    10.  5.  2|                10.5.2.1. Variations in cause specific mortality in Northern
260  III,    10.  5.  3|            mental illness is a leading cause of short-term absenteeism,
261  III,    10.  6.  2|        selected European Countries per cause~ ~Figure 10.6.2.2. Inequalities
262   IV,    11.  1.  5|             outpacing almost any other cause of death, and also progressing
263   IV,    11.  1.  5|               to be the single leading cause of hospitalization in the
264   IV,    11.  2.  2|               reducing or removing the cause of a disease or illness,
265   IV,    11.  6.  2|       Earmarked taxation may, however, cause increased rigidity in the
266   IV,    13.Acr    |               reducing or removing the cause of a disease or illness,
267   IV,    13.  2.  1|               lost due to a particular cause (disease or risk factor)
268   IV,    13.  2.  2|              infectious diseases still cause most of the disease burden;
269   IV,    13.  2.  2|               the second most frequent cause of disability adjusted life
270   IV,    13.  2.  2| Musculoskeletal conditions are a major cause of loss disability adjusted
271   IV,    13.  2.  2|     osteoarthritis is the 5th greatest cause of YLDs in high-income countries.~·
272   IV,    13.  2.  2|                single most preventable cause of disease burden in the
273   IV,    13.  5    |          considered as one of the main cause for significant differences