Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  3    |               provided to them may be lower than in general. Migrants'
  2    I,     2.  3    |          second generation, have much lower rates, mostly only slightly
  3    I,     2.  4    |               higher among those with lower levels of education, occupational
  4    I,     2.  4    |     socio-economic groups than in the lower. The faster mortality declines
  5    I,     2.  4    |             deteriorated more, in the lower socio-economic groups. Apparently,
  6    I,     2.  4    |             higher among those with a lower educational level, occupational
  7    I,     2.  4    |              higher prevalence in the lower educational groups.~ ~Moreover,
  8    I,     2.  4    |         retired people generally have lower incomes than employed workers,
  9    I,     2.  4    |         Larger numbers of people with lower incomes will in turn lead
 10    I,     2.  4    |        policies and those tailored to lower socio-economic groups is
 11    I,     2.  5    |         retired people generally have lower incomes than employed workers,
 12    I,     2.  5    |         Larger numbers of people with lower incomes will in turn lead
 13    I,     2.  5    |               fees – which can affect lower pensions to a greater extent.
 14    I,     2.  6    |            somewhat and are generally lower than at lower level (European
 15    I,     2.  6    |               generally lower than at lower level (European Commission,
 16    I,     2.  7    |         square meter prices were much lower. However, in recent years,
 17    I,     2.  8    |        greenhouse gases but generally lower than for other fossil fuels~
 18    I,     2. 10.  4|           more efficient way and at a lower cost than manual identification
 19    I,     3.  1    |           first birth would have been lower than what it currently is.
 20    I,     3.  1    |             States, although slightly lower in Eastern Europe. Currently
 21    I,     3.  1    |       particular year (period TFR) is lower, but the ultimate number
 22    I,     3.  1    |                at about 10%) and even lower in France (8%). More recent
 23    I,     3.  1    |              without children, due to lower ever-marriage-rates for
 24    I,     3.  1    |             are much more likely than lower educated women to remain
 25    I,     3.  1    |         easily, ceteris paribus, than lower educated women (Beets et
 26    I,     3.  2    |             2006, only Bulgaria had a lower population size than in
 27    I,     3.  2    |         Slovakia, and a more than 20% lower population size is expected
 28    I,     3.  3    |              both are more related to lower fertility than to higher
 29    I,     3.  3    |          variation over time was much lower than for Children. Sweden,
 30    I,     3.  3    |             figures are significantly lower. The largest changes are
 31   II,     4.  1    |            States countries have much lower life expectancies, showing
 32   II,     4.  1    |               the USA but three years lower than in Japan. Secondly,
 33   II,     4.  2    |             the 1980s (1.9 years) was lower than in the 1970s (2.3 years),
 34   II,     4.  2    |            for women are considerably lower than for men, but in recent
 35   II,     4.  2    |        average annual increase is .02 lower. This implies that it will
 36   II,     5.  1.  1|               developed countries and lower/middle income developing
 37   II,     5.  2.  1|               higher mortality in the lower socio-economic class.~IHD
 38   II,     5.  2.  3|         Eastern Europe countries have lower rates than Northern and
 39   II,     5.  2.  3|            were more than seven times lower than in Eastern Europe countries.
 40   II,     5.  2.  3|             were more than four times lower than in Eastern Europe countries.~ ~
 41   II,     5.  2.  4|     Prevalence of smoking in women is lower except in Sweden, but in
 42   II,     5.  2.  7|             of body mass reduction to lower cardiovascular risk: The
 43   II,     5.  3.  2|               living in poor areas is lower than for those living in
 44   II,     5.  3.  3|              malignancies survival is lower in the elderly patients
 45   II,     5.  3.  5|             per 100,000). Finland had lower male incidence rate compared
 46   II,     5.  3.  5|             women incidence rates are lower.~Figures 5.3.13a and 5.3.
 47   II,     5.  3.  5|            per 100,000). Sweden had a lower male incidence rate compared
 48   II,     5.  3.  5|              latter country should be lower than the incidence rate
 49   II,     5.  3.  5|             countries. Countries with lower GDP may have difficulties
 50   II,     5.  3.  6|               Denmark and England had lower survival than the other
 51   II,     5.  3.  6|               both for men and women. Lower levels of survival were
 52   II,     5.  3.  6|       Netherlands and Spain); but was lower - between 25 and 35% - in
 53   II,     5.  3.  6|               for cervical cancer was lower in Poland (48%) and higher
 54   II,     5.  3.  6|      intermediate in Southern Europe, lower in the UK and Denmark, and
 55   II,     5.  3.  6|         countries. Denmark and UK had lower all-cancer survival than
 56   II,     5.  3.  6|       Northern European countries and lower in Eastern European countries,
 57   II,     5.  3.  7|         target population (especially lower socio-economic groups),
 58   II,     5.  3.  7|             and produce less harm and lower costs than spontaneous (
 59   II,     5.  4.  2|             in the first report (i.e. lower extremity amputations rates,
 60   II,     5.  4.  2|               control~Distal outcomes~Lower extremity amputation rates~
 61   II,     5.  4.  3|               from children that have lower figures, there does not
 62   II,     5.  4.  3|            Finland. The percentage is lower in men than in women. The
 63   II,     5.  4.  3|               5%. The percentages are lower in children and people above
 64   II,     5.  4.  3|          above 80%. These values were lower in young people and in people
 65   II,     5.  5.Int|               EU27. But despite their lower prevalence, the associated
 66   II,     5.  5.Int|               problems are working, a lower number than any other group
 67   II,     5.  5.Int|          older women and in people of lower socio economic status requires
 68   II,     5.  5.Int|            were higher among women of lower education, but that education
 69   II,     5.  5.  1|      distinguished:~ ~1) those with a lower prevalence of psychological
 70   II,     5.  5.  1|               aged 15 to 24 presented lower risks than older adults.
 71   II,     5.  5.  1|            age range (³65 years) have lower risk than younger adults.~ ~
 72   II,     5.  5.  1|               all countries have much lower suicide mortality rates
 73   II,     5.  5.  2|                certain countries have lower percentages of people with
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|         individuals (ratio 1.84), and lower in the least developed countries.
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|          general community and have a lower life expectancy. Despite
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|            the fact that Europe has a lower proportion of psychiatric
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|               syndromes was generally lower. The rate was 15.3 per 100,
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|               4.3). The prevalence is lower in infancy and tends to
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|          general population, which is lower in children, and by the
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|          coastal Vaasa and relatively lower rates in Uusimaa in the
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|           multiple sclerosis in South Lower Saxony, Germany. Neuroepidemiology
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|            parkinsonism”, have a much lower prevalence (MSA:1.86 to
 83   II,     5.  5.  3|               advanced disease have a lower probability of participation
 84   II,     5.  5.  3|             of Parkinson’s disease in lower Aragon, Spain. Mov Disord
 85   II,     5.  6.  3|          having RA at presentation is lower, namely around 10-30%. Clinic-based
 86   II,     5.  7.  1|              one-third to one-quarter lower than those spent on dialysis
 87   II,     5.  7.  3|                Levey et al, 1999), is lower in females than in males.
 88   II,     5.  7.  3|       months-16 years) and applying a lower GFR cut-off for defining
 89   II,     5.  7.  3|     Prevalence of RRT in Europeans is lower than that in US whites (
 90   II,     5.  7.  3|     respectively.~Mortality on RRT is lower in Europe compared to the
 91   II,     5.  7.  3|            and 12% (cohort 1995-1999) lower risk of death. The mortality
 92   II,     5.  7.  3|                Levey et al, 1999), is lower in females than in males.
 93   II,     5.  7.  6|        whereas costs of treatment are lower, it is important to increase
 94   II,     5.  8.  2|          pulmonary disease with acute lower respiratory infection~ ~ ~
 95   II,     5.  8.  2|        exacerbation ( J4 )~with acute lower respiratory infection ( J4 )~
 96   II,     5.  8.  3|                and highlighted that a lower health status (total SGRQ >
 97   II,     5.  8.  4|              bronchitis showed 252 mL lower forced expiratory volume
 98   II,     5.  9.  3|               estimates in ECRHS were lower; however, there was a good
 99   II,     5.  9.  3|       themselves, this figure is much lower than the prevalence estimates
100   II,     5.  9.  4|              respectively, P = 0.04). Lower risks for lifetime asthma (
101   II,     5. 11.  3|           venous insufficiency of the lower limbs, etc. Among all these,
102   II,     5. 11.  3|           industrialized Midlands and lower rates in Wales and Scotland.~ ~
103   II,     5. 11.  3|         matter of hours and at a much lower concentration of nickel
104   II,     5. 11.  3|               in Nordic countries and lower in southern European populations,
105   II,     5. 12.  3|             rates from cirrhosis were lower in women from all countries (
106   II,     5. 14.  3|              Such a positive trend of lower dental caries experience
107   II,     5. 14.  3|         prevalence of deep pockets is lower in populations of OECD countries
108   II,     5. 14.  3|      underrepresented minorities, and lower socioeconomic classes. It
109   II,     5. 15.  3|               1-9. This estimation is lower than the prevalence figures
110   II,     6.  3.  4|               the 200304 season, but lower or equal to the 200304
111   II,     6.  3.  4|           represented 4%. Mean age is lower in western countries like
112   II,     6.  3.  4|          proportion of foreigners was lower in general, suggesting that
113   II,     6.  3.  4|            the co-prevalence was much lower in other countries with
114   II,     6.  3.  5|             around one per million or lower.~ ~All diseases covered
115   II,     6.  3.  5|              strongly correlated with lower vaccination uptake.~High
116   II,     6.  3.  5|             the general incidence was lower. A slight decrease was observed
117   II,     6.  3.  6|               subsequently dropped to lower levels. In the last 10 years,
118   II,     8.  1.  3|     considerable limitations were 22% lower than those of people without
119   II,     8.  1.  3|            strong limitations are 12% lower, while those of women considerably
120   II,     8.  1.  3|          considerably limited are 28% lower, than those of people (both
121   II,     8.  2.  1|          mental health disorders, and lower rates of cardiovascular
122   II,     8.  2.  1|        characterized by significantly lower than average level of general
123   II,     8.  2.  1|                Evidence suggests that lower socio-economic status contributes
124   II,     9        |            countries of the EU15 have lower levels of physical activity
125   II,     9        |              leave an individual with lower functional capacity than
126   II,     9.  1.  1|            recording systems impose a lower limit of 500 grams for registration
127   II,     9.  1.  2|    differences are represented by the lower prevalence experienced by
128   II,     9.  1.  2|              Italy however, rates are lower and an increase in prevalence
129   II,     9.  2.  3|    consideration may explain why much lower asthma rates are reported
130   II,     9.  2.  3|        programmes are associated to a lower rate of suicide attempts
131   II,     9.  3.  1|               problems are working, a lower number than any other group
132   II,     9.  3.  1|            The rates are consistently lower for females across the lifespan,
133   II,     9.  3.  1|              earlier and die earlier (lower survival) from the majority
134   II,     9.  3.  1|              noted that men also have lower survival rates for cancer (
135   II,     9.  3.  1|             socio-economically. Their lower social position in many
136   II,     9.  3.  1|       ophorectomy, and continues at a lower rate for the remainder of
137   II,     9.  3.  1|          common histologic finding.~ ~Lower genital and urinary tract
138   II,     9.  3.  1|               of testosterone towards lower levels. Considering the
139   II,     9.  3.  1|            countries of the EU15 have lower levels of physical activity
140   II,     9.  3.  2|                the percentage is even lower. Legislation, financing (
141   II,     9.  3.  3|               be a consequence of the lower priority given to sexual
142   II,     9.  3.  3|               experience tend to have lower numbers of partners than
143   II,     9.  4.  1|       increasing. This, combined with lower birth rates, gender, the
144   II,     9.  4.  3|          older women and in people of lower socio-economic status deserves
145   II,     9.  4.  3|            were higher among women of lower education, but that education
146   II,     9.  4.  4|              leave an individual with lower functional capacity than
147   II,     9.  4.  5|               age groups, poverty and lower socio-economic status increase
148   II,     9.  5.  1|               adult mortality rate is lower than the male adult mortality
149   II,     9.  5.  1|               In addition, women have lower access to healthcare and
150   II,     9.  5.  1|              women with children have lower employment rates than those
151   II,     9.  5.  3|         advantageous work conditions, lower education and other stresses
152   II,     9.  5.  3|              women with children have lower employment rates than those
153   II,     9.  5.  3|        countries, older people have a lower average standard of education
154   II,     9.  5.  3|            Sweden now register in the lower scale of overall elder poverty
155   II,     9.  5.  3|            elderly invariably receive lower average incomes than the
156   II,     9.  5.  3|             people may be affected by lower income, women are particularly
157   II,     9.  5.  3|               at a higher risk due to lower body weight and their different
158   II,     9.  5.  3|            stop smoking, tend to have lower education and employment
159   II,     9.  5.  3|           countries of the EU-15 have lower levels of physical activity
160   II,     9.  5.  3|         expectancy of women and their lower average age at marriage,
161  III,    10.  1.  1|          energy as carbohydrate and a lower percentage as fat compared
162  III,    10.  1.  1|               rates of depression are lower in families with higher
163  III,    10.  2.  1|            smoking is prevalent among lower socio-economic groups. European
164  III,    10.  2.  1|             other respiratory effects~Lower respiratory illness~COPD*,
165  III,    10.  2.  1|          years and over' may mean the lower age limit is at the ages
166  III,    10.  2.  1|             countries with higher and lower prevalence of smoking in
167  III,    10.  2.  1|        countries reached a plateau at lower levels than male rates,
168  III,    10.  2.  1|     progressively more a habit of the lower socio-economic groups.~ ~
169  III,    10.  2.  1|              more prevalent among the lower educated, whereby the education
170  III,    10.  2.  1|              adult as Malta, and even lower levels visible in non-EU
171  III,    10.  2.  1|          drinking levels are slightly lower in the EU10 and significantly
172  III,    10.  2.  1|            the EU10 and significantly lower in southern Europe, which
173  III,    10.  2.  1|              usually drink alcohol at lower levels, but who engage periodically
174  III,    10.  2.  1|     conditions, which are stronger in lower consuming than higher consuming
175  III,    10.  2.  1|       children pre-natally exposed to lower levels of alcohol can also
176  III,    10.  2.  1|               countries and 0.5g/l or lower in most countries in Europe).
177  III,    10.  2.  1|             and fatalities.~ ~Setting lower BALs (including a zero level)
178  III,    10.  2.  1|      designated drivers are generally lower than those of their passengers
179  III,    10.  2.  1|            server training results in lower BAC levels of customers
180  III,    10.  2.  1|             illicit drug use are much lower than for cannabis among
181  III,    10.  2.  1|               of cocaine use is 2% or lower. Lifetime ecstasy use was
182  III,    10.  2.  1|              starting from a slightly lower level but ending at slightly
183  III,    10.  2.  1|    socioeconomic status to those with lower. In most countries, however,
184  III,    10.  2.  1|             prevalent among people of lower rather than higher socioeconomic
185  III,    10.  2.  1|       increasing area deprivation and lower household income (Jotangia
186  III,    10.  2.  1|          level of 400 µg per day. The lower recommendations for children
187  III,    10.  2.  1|               and growth in children, lower resistance to infections
188  III,    10.  2.  1|          Bioavailability is generally lower from plant food making vegetarians
189  III,    10.  2.  1|                high fibre” and “helps lower cholesterol”) on foodstuffs
190  III,    10.  2.  5|            brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult
191  III,    10.  3.  1|            health impacts occurs at a lower lever than what has been
192  III,    10.  3.  1|            population by establishing lower reference levels for radon
193  III,    10.  3.  1|             based on known hazards at lower frequencies and higher frequencies.
194  III,    10.  3.  2|            brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult
195  III,    10.  3.  4|           important, as are the often lower socioeconomic status of
196  III,    10.  3.  4|              Rome) and in groups with lower educational levels (+43%
197  III,    10.  4.  1|              symptoms in children and lower lung function at higher
198  III,    10.  4.  1|             are able to penetrate the lower respiratory tract (PM2.5 ),
199  III,    10.  4.  1|           considered the costs may be lower.~ ~There are many examples
200  III,    10.  4.  1|        transport strategy resulted in lower traffic emissions and less
201  III,    10.  4.  2|          intrinsically more active at lower doses - together with the
202  III,    10.  4.  2|              of the pyrethroids, with lower rates of application, increased
203  III,    10.  4.  2|       pesticides in more samples with lower limits of detection and
204  III,    10.  4.  2|                these are generally at lower levels. This reflects patterns
205  III,    10.  4.  3|             to safe drinking-water is lower in the eastern part of the
206  III,    10.  4.  3|           safe drinking water remains lower, albeit rising from 58%
207  III,    10.  4.  5|               per se has a relatively lower importance. This may be
208  III,    10.  4.  5|      hazardous waste disposal is much lower out of Europe, there is
209  III,    10.  5.  1|      connected households can be much lower than in urban areas.~ ~It
210  III,    10.  5.  2|              addition, it indicates a lower level or urbanisation in
211  III,    10.  5.  2|           dependency rate is slightly lower in rural than in urban areas (
212  III,    10.  5.  2|   rural settings, while in many cases lower rural disease prevalence
213  III,    10.  5.  3|              the reporting levels are lower, usually ranging between
214  III,    10.  5.  3|              order of tasks, slightly lower proportions report no control
215  III,    10.  5.  3|              studied and turns out in lower health expenditure. Observed
216  III,    10.  6.  1|             Italy, Spain, Greece) and lower in Scandinavian countries (
217  III,    10.  6.  2|        patterned with higher risks in lower status people.~ ~
218  III,    10.  6.  2|       conditions is more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Last
219  III,    10.  6.  2|          these social risk factors in lower status groups across one’
220  III,    10.  6.  2|               higher among those with lower levels of education, occupational
221  III,    10.  6.  2|     socio-economic groups than in the lower. The faster mortality declines
222  III,    10.  6.  2|             deteriorated more, in the lower socio-economic groups. Apparently,
223  III,    10.  6.  2|             higher among those with a lower educational level, occupational
224  III,    10.  6.  2|              higher prevalence in the lower educational groups (Table
225  III,    10.  6.  2|         retired people generally have lower incomes than employed workers,
226  III,    10.  6.  2|         Larger numbers of people with lower incomes will in turn lead
227  III,    10.  6.  2|        policies and those tailored to lower socio-economic groups is
228  III,    10.  6.  2|            countries and regions with lower levels of health so that
229  III,    10.  6.  3|            male respondents were much lower than from females. On average,
230   IV,    11.  1.  5|           cancer screening, rates are lower than for mammography, with
231   IV,    11.  1.  5|           Poland and Sweden, and with lower rates (less than 50%) in
232   IV,    11.  1.  5|         worried. Women, older age and lower education levels tend to
233   IV,    11.  1.  6|         income, patient capitation if lower patient income.~ ~Salary.
234   IV,    11.  1.  6|         patient income,~capitation if lower patient income.~ ~ ~Blended
235   IV,    11.  1.  6|      providers to treat patients with lower expected costs than the
236   IV,    11.  1.  6|          episodes with much higher or lower resource use than average)
237   IV,    11.  1.  6|            beds, patients experienced lower waiting times and increased
238   IV,    11.  1.  6|              Austria being relatively lower and closer to those of tax-funded
239   IV,    11.  1.  6|               tax-funded systems. The lower level of administrative
240   IV,    11.  1.  6|               administration are much lower for the statutory health
241   IV,    11.  2.  1|           duplication of services and lower levels of equity and efficiency (
242   IV,    11.  2.  1|           service coordination. While lower mortality rates are associated
243   IV,    11.  2.  1|              US and Canada) with much lower rates in Portugal, France,
244   IV,    11.  3.  1|              medical schools. But the lower numbers of physicians also
245   IV,    11.  3.  2|       Netherlands) or at a proportion lower than the price of the original
246   IV,    11.  3.  2|              in Belgium, fixed at 26% lower) (Mrazek and Mossialos,
247   IV,    11.  5.  5|              efforts are centred on a lower number of projects but of
248   IV,    11.  6.  2|               Europe, with a trend to lower both scope and depth in
249   IV,    11.  6.  2|           heavier financial burden on lower income groups (Hills, 2000).
250   IV,    11.  6.  2|                a single fund may have lower administrative costs because
251   IV,    11.  6.  2|          France where co-payments are lower if a GP referral for specialist
252   IV,    11.  6.  3| disproportionately more than those on lower income (De Graeve and Van
253   IV,    11.  6.  3|             income from higher to the lower income groups depends on
254   IV,    11.  6.  3|          public spending benefits the lower income groups disproportionately
255   IV,    11.  6.  3|          taxes can be seen in the UK. Lower income households pay a
256   IV,    12.  2    |              countries, and 0.5g/l or lower in most countries in Europe.
257   IV,    12.  2    |             and fatalities.~ ~Setting lower BALs (including a zero level)
258   IV,    12.  2    |      designated drivers are generally lower than those of their passengers
259   IV,    12.  2    |            server training results in lower BAC levels of customers
260   IV,    12. 10    |              are designed for helping lower socioeconomic groups, are
261   IV,    12. 10    |             consequences) and 0,05 % (lower limit for infringement of
262   IV,    12. 10    |         alleviate the problems in the lower socioeconomic groups, such
263   IV,    13.  2.  2|              pollution in 2004. Acute lower respiratory tract infections
264   IV,    13.  2.  3|              be born into families of lower socioeconomic status. Hypertension,
265   IV,    13.  2.  3|          outdoor air pollution. Acute lower respiratory tract infections
266   IV,    13.  2.  3|     contamination, the health loss is lower than that of a number of
267   IV,    13.  5    |        policies and those tailored to lower socio-economic groups is
268   IV,    13.  6.  1|             these children may obtain lower level employment and also