Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1    |      increased travel, especially by air, connecting in hours extremes
  2    I,     2.  2    |      increased travel, especially by air, connecting in hours extremes
  3    I,     2.  2    |             sector that made car and air transport affordable to
  4    I,     2.  8    |             large reductions in some air emissions in parts of Europe,
  5    I,     2.  8    |       remains a major contributor to air pollution and greenhouse
  6    I,     2.  8    |           chronic effects of outdoor air pollution, but magnitude
  7    I,     2.  8    |        health effects primarily from air pollution~ ~Forms greenhouse
  8    I,     2.  8    |           chronic effects of outdoor air pollution, but magnitude
  9    I,     2.  8    |       companies, in order to control air, soil or water pollutants 10    I,     2. 10.  3|          preventative services (e.g. air and water quality on-line
 11   II,     5.  1.  1|              Other risk factors are: air pollution (carbon monoxide,
 12   II,     5.  1.  1|              Other risk factors are: air pollution (inhalable particles,
 13   II,     5.  1.  1|         exposure; indoor and outdoor air pollution (sulphur dioxide,
 14   II,     5.  8.  1|             occupational factors and air pollution) causes a rapid
 15   II,     5.  8.  5|            and on improved workplace air quality. If preventive actions
 16   II,     5.  9.Acr|             Quality of Life~SAPALDIA~Air Pollution and Lung Diseases
 17   II,     5.  9.  4|             Symptoms with respect to Air Pollution and Climate) (Wü h,
 18   II,     5.  9.  4|        countries. The Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases
 19   II,     5.  9.  4|         Respir Rev, 2008).~ ~Outdoor air pollution aggravates respiratory
 20   II,     5.  9.  4|             correlate precisely with air pollution levels in different
 21   II,     5.  9.  4|           differences in particulate air pollution at different locations
 22   II,     5.  9.  4|          notion that traffic-related air pollution contributes to
 23   II,     5.  9.  4|               Contributors to indoor air pollution include ambient
 24   II,     5.  9.  4|            pollution include ambient air pollution, dust, the inefficient
 25   II,     5.  9.  4|               Some health effects of air pollution have been linked
 26   II,     5.  9.  4|             mixtures associated with air pollution. The project is
 27   II,     5.  9.  4|           engine exhaust and ambient air pollution – a European collaborative
 28   II,     5.  9.  4|              pdf/env_health_projects/air_pollution/ap-hepmeap.pdf)
 29   II,     5.  9.  7|             2005): Asthma and indoor air: contrasts in the dose response
 30   II,     5.  9.  7|            cat and dust-mite. Indoor Air. 2005;15 Suppl 10:33-9.~ ~
 31   II,     9        |              higher levels of indoor air pollution and to the risk
 32   II,     9.  2.  5|             clean outdoor and indoor airRPG IV: aim at chemical-free
 33   II,     9.  4.  4|              higher levels of indoor air pollution and to the risk
 34  III,    10.  1    |              multiple sources (food, air and water), the 'cocktail-effect'
 35  III,    10.  1    |              Physical~Inhalation and air pollution~Housing~Genetic
 36  III,    10.  1    |         working environment, ambient air and food; and biological
 37  III,    10.  1    |           Infectious diseases~water, air and food contamination~climate
 38  III,    10.  1    |         pathogen life cycle~ ~Cancer~air pollution (PM), mainly PM2.
 39  III,    10.  1    |              Cardiovascular diseases~air pollution (carbon monoxide,
 40  III,    10.  2.  1|      tobacco smoke, smoke present in air, consists of exhaled mainstream
 41  III,    10.  3.  1|            radon from water, outdoor air and construction materials
 42  III,    10.  3.  1|             the gas into the outside air instead of the building.
 43  III,    10.  3.  1|             traffic, rail traffic or air traffic). However, due to
 44  III,    10.  3.  1|        environmental factors such as air pollution, radon and UV-radiation,
 45  III,    10.  3.  1|     environmental stressors, such as air pollution and chemicals.
 46  III,    10.  3.  1|  Organization (WHO) (1987 and 2000). Air Quality Guidelines for Europe.
 47  III,    10.  3.  2|       human-made toxic substances in air, water, soil and within
 48  III,    10.  3.  2|            industrial emissions into air and water, and gives access
 49  III,    10.  3.  2|           about two-thirds of the 50 air and water industrial pollutants
 50  III,    10.  3.  2|           can be as low as 0.05μg/m3 air for previously sensitised
 51  III,    10.  3.  2|      disorders (see also chapters on air pollution and physical stressors),
 52  III,    10.  3.  2|        factors (many stressors, like air pollution, POPs, dioxins,
 53  III,    10.  3.  2|           Infectious diseases~water, air and food contamination~climate
 54  III,    10.  3.  2|         pathogen life cycle~ ~Cancer~air pollution (PM), mainly PM2.
 55  III,    10.  3.  2|              Cardiovascular diseases~air pollution (carbon monoxide,
 56  III,    10.  3.  2|           Organization (WHO) (2000): Air quality guidelinesSecond
 57  III,    10.  3.  4|         other policy domains such as air quality, energy security,
 58  III,    10.  3.  4|        extreme weather, e.g. outdoor air pollutants (tropospheric
 59  III,    10.  3.  4|              gaseous and particulate air pollutants are released
 60  III,    10.  3.  4|              forest fires can affect air quality for thousands of
 61  III,    10.  4.  1|               10.4.1. Inhalation and air pollution~ ~ ~
 62  III,    10.  4.  1|                       Acronyms~ ~AQG~Air Quality Guidelines~CAFÉ~
 63  III,    10.  4.  1|        Quality Guidelines~CAFÉ~Clean Air for Europe Climate Strategies~
 64  III,    10.  4.  1|          Consortium for Modelling of Air Pollution and~EEA~European
 65  III,    10.  4.  1|              4.1.1. Introduction~ ~ ~Air pollution is the environmental
 66  III,    10.  4.  1|        environment-related diseases. Air pollution, mainly by fine
 67  III,    10.  4.  1|            life quality improve when air quality improves.~ ~In Europe,
 68  III,    10.  4.  1|              In Europe, emissions of air pollutants are projected
 69  III,    10.  4.  1|              The main contributor to air pollution in cities is the
 70  III,    10.  4.  1|             EU thematic strategic on air pollution - setting objectives
 71  III,    10.  4.  1|              significant damage from air pollution will still remain
 72  III,    10.  4.  1|              remain in 2020. Meeting air quality targets will require
 73  III,    10.  4.  1|   agriculture sectors.~ ~Poor indoor air quality is the source of
 74  III,    10.  4.  1|              led to reduced rates of air exchange in homes, schools
 75  III,    10.  4.  1|              buildings. Other indoor air quality problems arise from
 76  III,    10.  4.  1|              common pollutants, poor air quality is still associated
 77  III,    10.  4.  1|         deaths in Europe every year. Air pollution by fine particles
 78  III,    10.  4.  1|          Europe. The health risks of air pollution by fine particles
 79  III,    10.  4.  1|          higher than those for other air pollutants (Clean Air for
 80  III,    10.  4.  1|          other air pollutants (Clean Air for Europe, 2005).~ ~Today,
 81  III,    10.  4.  1|              drivers of the European air pollution problem are different
 82  III,    10.  4.  1|      economic growth, legislation on air quality, together with associated
 83  III,    10.  4.  1|             decrease in emissions of air pollutants since 2000. Emissions
 84  III,    10.  4.  1|             in the emissions of most air pollutants, because of the
 85  III,    10.  4.  1|           risk. Interactions between air pollutants and natural particles
 86  III,    10.  4.  1|        fourth assessment’ (chaptersAir Quality’ and ‘Environment
 87  III,    10.  4.  1|       indicators, proposed a list of air pollution indicators. Not
 88  III,    10.  4.  1|             SCALE process, the Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) process
 89  III,    10.  4.  1|           description and analysis~ ~Air pollution research and monitoring
 90  III,    10.  4.  1|           have been used in European air pollution management. This
 91  III,    10.  4.  1|             levels exceeding the WHO air quality guideline level (
 92  III,    10.  4.  1|          last available year~Figu ~ ~Air pollution management has
 93  III,    10.  4.  1|               CL), in 2020~ ~Ambient air pollution and health~ ~There
 94  III,    10.  4.  1|           that pollutants in outdoor air have an impact on respiratory
 95  III,    10.  4.  1|        association was found between air pollution levels in the
 96  III,    10.  4.  1|              children with increased air pollution levels. Several
 97  III,    10.  4.  1|              lung function at higher air pollution levels.~ ~Much
 98  III,    10.  4.  1|              diseases resulting from air pollutants relates back
 99  III,    10.  4.  1|           relates back to childhood. Air pollutants augment acute
100  III,    10.  4.  1|              it is uncertain whether air pollutants trigger the onset
101  III,    10.  4.  1|          health benefits of improved air quality. Dublin, Ireland,
102  III,    10.  4.  1|        quality of outdoor and indoor air.~ ~Air pollution is responsible
103  III,    10.  4.  1|            outdoor and indoor air.~ ~Air pollution is responsible
104  III,    10.  4.  1|           from respiratory problems. Air pollutants with strongly-indicated
105  III,    10.  4.  1|              recent estimates of the air pollution impact made within
106  III,    10.  4.  1|            European Commission Clean Air For Europe (European Commission,
107  III,    10.  4.  1|   prematurely in 2000 due to outdoor air pollution with fine particulate
108  III,    10.  4.  1|           site).~ ~The total cost of air pollution related health
109  III,    10.  4.  1|              EU Thematic strategy on air pollution. The aim is to
110  III,    10.  4.  1|           life quality improves when air quality improves. This is
111  III,    10.  4.  1|        effects associated to reduced air pollution levels over several
112  III,    10.  4.  1|           and community behaviour on air quality and childhood asthma
113  III,    10.  4.  1|             outdoors~ ~A part of the air pollution-related disease
114  III,    10.  4.  1|        exposed to outdoor and indoor air pollutants in their homes,
115  III,    10.  4.  1|              ozone may be a critical air pollutant. But the issue
116  III,    10.  4.  1|              although levels of many air pollutants were higher than
117  III,    10.  4.  1|           the contribution of indoor air quality to respiratory symptoms
118  III,    10.  4.  1|            asthma prevalence. Indoor air quality is therefore, receiving
119  III,    10.  4.  1|         adults spend indoors. Indoor air pollutants can be classified
120  III,    10.  4.  1|        physical agents. Many outdoor air pollutants are found indoors,
121  III,    10.  4.  1|           specific indoor sources of air pollution, such as building
122  III,    10.  4.  1|          policies has led to reduced air exchange in homes, schools
123  III,    10.  4.  1|              of the increased use of air conditioners - as well as
124  III,    10.  4.  1|            about indoor than outdoor air quality. There are several
125  III,    10.  4.  1|     directives that regulate outdoor air quality but no European
126  III,    10.  4.  1|       European guidelines for indoor air quality. In the US, the
127  III,    10.  4.  1|        Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management
128  III,    10.  4.  1|      European Commission 2005b).~The air quality directives require
129  III,    10.  4.  1|              Member States to assess air quality throughout their
130  III,    10.  4.  1|        Commission launched the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme.
131  III,    10.  4.  1|            of a thematic strategy on air pollution towards the long-term
132  III,    10.  4.  1|             was to achieve levels of air quality that do not give
133  III,    10.  4.  1|      significant negative effects of air pollution on human health
134  III,    10.  4.  1|                 Thematic Strategy on Air PollutionDirective on
135  III,    10.  4.  1|     PollutionDirective on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air
136  III,    10.  4.  1|              Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe (the CAFE Directive,
137  III,    10.  4.  1|           The need to revise current air quality protection legislation
138  III,    10.  4.  1|             its thematic strategy on air pollution by establishing
139  III,    10.  4.  1|          level of ambition regarding air quality in the EU up to
140  III,    10.  4.  1|              significant damage from air pollution will still remain
141  III,    10.  4.  1|           made it clear that meeting air quality targets will require
142  III,    10.  4.  1|       far-reaching reductions in the air pollutants that act as precursors
143  III,    10.  4.  1|          also for primary particles.~Air quality protection policy
144  III,    10.  4.  1|            2007 and harmonised their air quality protection legislations
145  III,    10.  4.  1|             policies for controlling air pollution relate to the
146  III,    10.  4.  1|      strengthened through the use of air quality standards and national
147  III,    10.  4.  1|          also by linking climate and air quality policies.~Most of
148  III,    10.  4.  1|             via reduced emissions of air pollutants.~ ~In particular,
149  III,    10.  4.  1|               Linkage of climate and air quality policiesReduced
150  III,    10.  4.  1|           for polluting activitiesAir quality standardsNational
151  III,    10.  4.  1|          developments~ ~The issue of air pollution and health is
152  III,    10.  4.  1|             the importance of indoor air has increasingly been recognised.~ ~
153  III,    10.  4.  1|            primarily by two types of air pollutants, namely fine
154  III,    10.  4.  1|           risk. Interactions between air pollutants and natural particles
155  III,    10.  4.  1|          considered as low levels of air pollution. This may not
156  III,    10.  4.  1|           not be obvious, given that air pollution is ubiquitous
157  III,    10.  4.  1|            involved in the debate on air quality. Whilst specific
158  III,    10.  4.  1|               AirBase – the European air quality database. Copenhagen,
159  III,    10.  4.  1|              ISSN 1725-9177.~ ~Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) (2005):
160  III,    10.  4.  1|        Proposed Directive on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air
161  III,    10.  4.  1|              Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe. COM(2005) 447. (ht e,
162  III,    10.  4.  1|             the thematic strategy on air pollution and the directive
163  III,    10.  4.  1|            the directive on “Ambient air quality and cleaner air
164  III,    10.  4.  1|              air quality and cleaner air for Europe” ({COM(2005)446
165  III,    10.  4.  1|           European Commission, Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) (2005c): ht m (
166  III,    10.  4.  1|             Hunt A. (2007) improving air quality: the Clean Air for
167  III,    10.  4.  1|     improving air quality: the Clean Air for europe (CAFE) Programme.
168  III,    10.  4.  1|             2004): Health Aspects of Air Pollutionanswers to follow-up
169  III,    10.  4.  1|             2004): Health Aspects of Air Pollution. Results from
170  III,    10.  4.  1|          Review of Health Aspects of Air Pollution in Europe”, June
171  III,    10.  4.  1|            June 2004.~ ~WHO (2005a): Air quality guidelines for particulate
172  III,    10.  4.  1|            2005): Particulate matter air pollution: how it harms
173  III,    10.  4.  1|              2005.~ ~WHO (2005): WHO air quality guidelines global
174  III,    10.  4.  2|         water, degradation kinetics, air, etc.~The PPR Panel has
175  III,    10.  4.  2|            movement of pesticides in air and exposure assessment.~ ~
176  III,    10.  4.  5| Contamination from local sources and air deposition of traffic and
177  III,    10.  4.  5|          resources. Unlike water and air, the protection of soil
178  III,    10.  5.  1|              to transport (noise and air pollutants), household and
179  III,    10.  5.  1|        material and unhealthy indoor air quality, also influenced
180  III,    10.  5.  1|             saving and energy use in air conditioning. The impact
181  III,    10.  5.  1|       individual conditions, such as air quality, traffic, safety,
182  III,    10.  5.  1|               For example, there are air quality problems and noise
183  III,    10.  5.  1|           groups. For example, large air conditioning and water cooling
184  III,    10.  5.  1|          compounds affect the indoor air, from which they are inhaled
185  III,    10.  5.  1|             behaviour are related to air pollution, it is especially
186  III,    10.  5.  1|      pollution, it is especially the air exchange rate that plays
187  III,    10.  5.  1|      conditions are traffic-related (air pollutants, noise), or stem
188  III,    10.  5.  1|        Besides the indoor sources of air pollution, schools in larger
189  III,    10.  5.  1|              are affected by outdoor air pollution from traffic and
190  III,    10.  5.  1|          from traffic and industrial air pollution (Mi et al, 2006;
191  III,    10.  5.  1|             help to reduce noise and air exposure and also have a
192  III,    10.  5.  1|          health determinants: noise, air pollution and modal split
193  III,    10.  5.  1|         noise include road, rail and air traffic; industries; construction
194  III,    10.  5.  1|         problem of transport-related air pollution is one of the
195  III,    10.  5.  1|       combustion produce a number of air pollutants such as hydrocarbons,
196  III,    10.  5.  1|           and waste~ ~In addition to air pollution by transport,
197  III,    10.  5.  1|         spaces. Reducing particulate air pollution from solid fuel
198  III,    10.  5.  1|          plants may add to the urban air pollution (DEFRA, 2004).~ ~
199  III,    10.  5.  1|          urban sprawl. Still, noise, air quality and adequate housing
200  III,    10.  5.  1|           energy performance, noise, air, waste, food, water, regulations
201  III,    10.  5.  1|           and Apte MG (2003): Indoor air quality, ventilation and
202  III,    10.  5.  1|         existing information. Indoor Air, 13:53-64.~ DEFRA (2004):
203  III,    10.  5.  1|             houses against increased air humidity, domestic mite
204  III,    10.  5.  1|          Environment Agency (2006b): Air pollution at street level
205  III,    10.  5.  1|              in buildings In: Indoor Air 2005; 15:246-256~Hulsmann
206  III,    10.  5.  1|   formaldehyde in classrooms. Indoor Air.~Mendell MJ, Heath GA (2005):
207  III,    10.  5.  1|            of the literature. Indoor Air. 2005, 15:27-52. Review.
208  III,    10.  5.  1|           Review. Erratum in: Indoor Air. (2005) 15:67.~Miller DM,
209  III,    10.  5.  1|               The effects of outdoor air supply rate and supply air
210  III,    10.  5.  1|           air supply rate and supply air filter condition in classrooms
211  III,    10.  5.  1|         effects of transport-related air pollution. WHO Regional
212  III,    10.  5.  1|            WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air QualityReport on a Working
213  III,    10.  5.  2|          relates to problems such as air pollution, water quality,
214  III,    10.  5.  2|             5.2.3. Complaints due to air pollution in urban and rural settings~ ~
215  III,    10.  5.  3|             supply as well as in the air transport sector the rate
216   IV,    12.  4    |            Environmental health e.g. air quality, water quality,
217   IV,    12.  4    |            or indirectly (chemicals, air pollution, deteriorated
218   IV,    12. 10    |          High ~National/Regional~Yes~Air pollution~High ~National/
219   IV,    12. 10    |              in the future efforts. ~Air pollution~ High~ ~Drinking
220   IV,    12. 10    |            of Federal law concerning air quality, soil protection,
221   IV,    12. 10    |       environmental health issues.~ ~Air pollution~High priority~
222   IV,    12. 10    |           improve outdoor and indoor air quality have a long tradition
223   IV,    12. 10    |            indoor as well as ambient air quality. Some emissions
224   IV,    12. 10    |           replaced by REACH.~Outdoor air quality is regulated according
225   IV,    12. 10    |              further improve outdoor air quality mainly affect emissions
226   IV,    12. 10    |            determinants and settings~Air pollution~ ~High~ ~ ~ Air
227   IV,    12. 10    |            Air pollution~ ~High~ ~ ~ Air Pollution Act, 1987~- Environmental
228   IV,    12. 10    |              Environment Act, 1993~- Air Quality Standards Regulations
229   IV,    12. 10    |          Solvents Regulations 2002~- Air Pollution Act 1987 (Marketing,
230   IV,    12. 10    |        Amendment) Regulations 2003~- Air Pollution Act 1987 (Environmental
231   IV,    12. 10    |            Plants Regulations 2003~- Air Pollution Act 1987 (Environmental
232   IV,    12. 10    |              2004~- Ozone in Ambient Air Regulations 2004~- European
233   IV,    12. 10    |       Ceilings) Regulations, 2004.~- Air Pollution Act 1987 (Marketing,
234   IV,    12. 10    |      infectious diseases, food/water/air safety, screening and emergency
235   IV,    12. 10    |            determinants and settings~Air pollution~ High~o Law 3010/
236   IV,    12. 10    |           exchange information about air pollution via internet.
237   IV,    12. 10    |              stations for estimating air pollution. The module of
238   IV,    12. 10    |             that reduce emissions to air, land and water from the
239   IV,    12. 10    |             Useful information about air pollution and the measures
240   IV,    12. 10    |       pollution and the measures for air protection is published
241   IV,    12. 10    |        residents with the problem of air pollution and air protection
242   IV,    12. 10    |         problem of air pollution and air protection measures.~o Finally,
243   IV,    12. 10    |            determinants and settings~Air pollution~ high~ “environment
244   IV,    12. 10    |             directive 26/03/02 about air traffic:~htt ~ Noise: special
245   IV,    12. 10    |     settlements~ intermediate~ ~ See air pollution and physical stressors .
246   IV,    12. 10    |             Policy Plan, 2004 - 2008~Air pollution~intermediate~Law
247   IV,    12. 10    |          Environment~ ~Regulation on Air Quality~National Environmental
248   IV,    12. 10    |               High~ National level~ ~Air pollution~ High~ National
249   IV,    12. 10    |            weather conditions, etc.)~Air pollution~ High~Decisions
250   IV,    12. 10    |            with Decision 96/62/EC on air quality.~national plans
251   IV,    12. 10    |      settlements~ intermediate~ ~See air pollution and physical stressors.
252   IV,    12. 10    |           objective and policy areas~Air pollution~ ~Nitrogen dioxide
253   IV,    12. 10    |     Programme of Healthcare Measures~Air pollution~ High~ At national
254   IV,    13.  2.  2|          infectious diseases, indoor air pollution and malnutrition.
255   IV,    13.  2.  2|           were attributed to outdoor air pollution in 2004. Acute
256   IV,    13.  2.  2|    infections attributable to indoor air pollution accounted for
257   IV,    13.  2.  3|           poor sanitation and indoor air pollution still produce
258   IV,    13.  2.  3|              make-up. Finally, urban air pollution and occupational
259   IV,    13.  2.  3|           causes were due to outdoor air pollution. Acute lower respiratory
260   IV,    13.  2.  3|             infections due to indoor air pollution accounted for
261  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|       agriculture~agrochemicals~AIDS~air~airborne~airway~airways~