Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|          because of the loss of immune oral tolerance that occurs in
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|     periodontal disease relate to poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive
  3   II,     5.  3.  2|               asbestos;~- lymphoma and oral cancer rates are higher
  4   II,     5.  4.  6|            with AMI. The importance of oral glucose tolerance testing
  5   II,     5.  4.  8|             2008)~Jes . (2007); Should oral glucose tolerance testing
  6   II,     5.  6.  3|              in nulliparous women. The oral contraceptive pill, or some
  7   II,     5. 14    |                        5.14 Dental and oral diseases~ ~
  8   II,     5. 14.Acr|           Teeth~EGOHID~European Global Oral health Indicators Project~
  9   II,     5. 14.  1|                  5.14.1 Introduction~ ~Oral disease such as dental caries,
 10   II,     5. 14.  1|       periodontal disease, tooth loss, oral mucosal lesions, oropharyngeal
 11   II,     5. 14.  1|          groups and will contribute to oral health policy development.~ ~
 12   II,     5. 14.  1|                in Europe, the roles of oral health professionals are
 13   II,     5. 14.  1|              workforce planning in the oral health sector may be considered
 14   II,     5. 14.  1|             the potential for improved oral health status, the level
 15   II,     5. 14.  2|            national, regional or local oral health surveys or in specific
 16   II,     5. 14.  2|         information are the WHO Global Oral Data Bank (WHO, 2008), the
 17   II,     5. 14.  2|             from population studies on oral health carried out in various
 18   II,     5. 14.  2|          somewhat limits their impact. Oral health surveys were based
 19   II,     5. 14.  2|                 2004). In Scandinavia, oral health information’s systems
 20   II,     5. 14.  2|            whereas surveillance of the oral health of the adult population
 21   II,     5. 14.  2|                  e. Dentists and Other Oral Care Clinical Providers~
 22   II,     5. 14.  2|           dentists, dental hygienists, oral health therapists and clinical
 23   II,     5. 14.  2|              active dentists and other oral care clinical providers
 24   II,     5. 14.  2|          epidemiological monitoring of oral health is a relatively recent
 25   II,     5. 14.  2|               improving the quality of oral health care and systems
 26   II,     5. 14.  2|                that are recommended in oral health epidemiology, themselves
 27   II,     5. 14.  2|        criteria used published for the oral health period 1986-1996
 28   II,     5. 14.  2|        weaknesses in the evaluation of oral health trends: weaknesses
 29   II,     5. 14.  2|              and conclusions in public oral health are therefore limited.
 30   II,     5. 14.  2|          higher quality information in oral health epidemiology.~ ~The
 31   II,     5. 14.  2|       epidemiology.~ ~The expansion of oral epidemiology during the
 32   II,     5. 14.  2|           terms of knowledge about the oral health status of populations
 33   II,     5. 14.  3|         countries with advanced public oral health care programmes for
 34   II,     5. 14.  3|        European countries where school oral health programmes were established
 35   II,     5. 14.  3|             global amelioration of the oral health status in the last
 36   II,     5. 14.  3|              action to further improve oral health or sustain achievements.
 37   II,     5. 14.  3|              the great achievements of oral health in European countries
 38   II,     5. 14.  3|           level of untreated diseases. Oral health is characterized
 39   II,     5. 14.  3|               a great deal about their oral health. Almost a third were
 40   II,     5. 14.  3|              with some aspect of their oral health status. Adults in
 41   II,     5. 14.  3|               one of the dimensions of oral health related quality of
 42   II,     5. 14.  3|                of dissatisfaction with oral functioning measure. Studies
 43   II,     5. 14.  3|                population. Measures of oral pain and oral functional
 44   II,     5. 14.  3|              Measures of oral pain and oral functional limitation were
 45   II,     5. 14.  3|            more strongly predictive of oral disadvantage than disease
 46   II,     5. 14.  3|           antecedents. Surveillance of oral disadvantage due to functional
 47   II,     5. 14.  3|      implications regarding the use of oral disadvantage to assess the
 48   II,     5. 14.  3|              from the point of view of oral health planning, the percentage
 49   II,     5. 14.  3|             changes in Eastern Europe, oral health systems are now in
 50   II,     5. 14.  3|             transition. Prior to 1989, oral health care for children
 51   II,     5. 14.  3|                and decentralization of oral health services has been
 52   II,     5. 14.  3|               impact on utilization of oral health services. Figure
 53   II,     5. 14.  3|     disparities exist in the access to oral health care across Europe,
 54   II,     5. 14.  3|            coverage or qualify for the oral health insurance program.
 55   II,     5. 14.  3|               and family income.~ ~The oral health care system in Europe,
 56   II,     5. 14.  3|        proportionally the most for its oral health: 0.8% of the GDP.
 57   II,     5. 14.  4|               cancer, osteoporosis and oral diseases. Oral health is
 58   II,     5. 14.  4|        osteoporosis and oral diseases. Oral health is an integral part
 59   II,     5. 14.  4|                and nutritional health. Oral health and nutrition have
 60   II,     5. 14.  4|                factors associated with oral disease. The effects of
 61   II,     5. 14.  4|               public health, including oral hygiene. The public health
 62   II,     5. 14.  4|                community involved with oral health should gain an understanding
 63   II,     5. 14.  4|            order to prevent or control oral diseases~ ~Currently available
 64   II,     5. 14.  4|     periodontal disease relate to poor oral hygiene, tobacco use, excessive
 65   II,     5. 14.  5|                Even if the most common oral diseases are preventable,
 66   II,     5. 14.  5|               benefit from appropriate oral health promoting actions.
 67   II,     5. 14.  5|               appropriate promoting of oral health behaviours can significantly
 68   II,     5. 14.  5|             confidence in managing the oral health of their children.
 69   II,     5. 14.  5|            ideal setting for promoting oral health. The school years
 70   II,     5. 14.  5|              development of a lifelong oral health related behaviour
 71   II,     5. 14.  5|                are at risk, can access oral health services. Although
 72   II,     5. 14.  5|          services. Although meticulous oral hygiene and appropriate
 73   II,     5. 14.  5|              systematic integration of oral health indicators in any
 74   II,     5. 14.  5|               behaviour in relation to oral health can be monitored
 75   II,     5. 14.  5|                of care programmes. The oral health sector is no exception.~
 76   II,     5. 14.  5|           necessary integration of the oral health sector within the
 77   II,     5. 14.  5|               a set of European Global Oral Health Indicators (www.
 78   II,     5. 14.  5|              to help to identify basic oral health indicators for a
 79   II,     5. 14.  5|             reference. A core group of oral health indicators is being
 80   II,     5. 14.  5|           health status, morbidity and oral function, behavioural determinants,
 81   II,     5. 14.  5|              behavioural determinants, oral health delivery models and
 82   II,     5. 14.  5|               models and outcomes, and oral health related quality of
 83   II,     5. 14.  5|             related quality of life.~ ~Oral health systems play an important
 84   II,     5. 14.  5|                in establishing optimum oral health by integrating oral
 85   II,     5. 14.  5|             oral health by integrating oral health promotion and oral
 86   II,     5. 14.  5|              oral health promotion and oral disease prevention into
 87   II,     5. 14.  5|                disease prevention into oral health services. Interdisciplinary
 88   II,     5. 14.  5|         approaches to the promotion of oral health have the potential
 89   II,     5. 14.  5|              potential for reorienting oral health services towards
 90   II,     5. 14.  5|               services towards primary oral health care and services
 91   II,     5. 14.  5|               that may better diminish oral disease burdens (Petersen
 92   II,     5. 14.  5|             ageing population. For the oral health sector, this evolution
 93   II,     5. 14.  5|         broader concept of the role of oral health professions and their
 94   II,     5. 14.  5|             the potential for improved oral health status, the level
 95   II,     5. 14.  5|                 and will contribute to oral health policy development.
 96   II,     5. 14.  5|             people enrolled in primary oral care services, expanding
 97   II,     5. 14.  5|                practices for expanding oral health service care services
 98   II,     5. 14.  5|                and restorative primary oral health care.~ ~The burden
 99   II,     5. 14.  5|           health care.~ ~The burden of oral disease is particularly
100   II,     5. 14.  5|             and Yamamoto, 2005). An EU oral health strategy must take
101   II,     5. 14.  5|             The strategy is to promote oral health among older people,
102   II,     5. 14.  5|            people, aiming at improving oral health, general health and
103   II,     5. 14.  6|             adopted an action plan for oral health (WHO, 2007). The
104   II,     5. 14.  6|    international health community that oral health shall no longer be
105   II,     5. 14.  6|                global level to improve oral health worldwide. The action
106   II,     5. 14.  6|              Union (EU). It recognises oral health as a significant
107   II,     5. 14.  6|       highlights the need to integrate oral health into public health
108   II,     5. 14.  6|               integrated approaches to oral health promotion.~ ~Although
109   II,     5. 14.  6|                20 years with improving oral health in some parts of
110   II,     5. 14.  7|               developments~ ~Access to oral health services is limited
111   II,     5. 14.  7|              needed to assure adequate oral health care for indigent,
112   II,     5. 14.  7|                can be enhanced through oral diseases prevention and
113   II,     5. 14.  7|               and health promotion. In oral health, an important cornerstone
114   II,     5. 14.  8|                Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators Development
115   II,     5. 14.  8|                 2004): European Global Oral Health Indicators Development.
116   II,     5. 14.  8|                Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators Development
117   II,     5. 14.  8|            Bratthal D, Ogawa H (2005): Oral health information systems -
118   II,     5. 14.  8|           toward measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease
119   II,     5. 14.  8|            2005): The global burden of oral diseases and risk to oral
120   II,     5. 14.  8|              oral diseases and risk to oral heath. Bull World Health
121   II,     5. 14.  8|                T (2005): Improving the oral health of older people:
122   II,     5. 14.  8|             approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community
123   II,     5. 14.  8|              Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2005; 33: 8192.~
124   II,     5. 14.  8|              369: 5159.~Wid A (2004): Oral healthcare systems in the
125   II,     5. 14.  8|               extended European Union. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;
126   II,     5. 14.  8|            2007): Resolution WHA60.17Oral health: action plan for
127   II,     5. 14.  8|         Organization (WHO) (2008): WHO Oral Country/Area Profile. WHO,
128   II,     6.  3.  7|          vaccination of cats and dogs. Oral vaccinations to wild animals
129   II,     8.  2.  1|          Pezzementi and Fisher (2006). Oral health status of people
130   II,     9.  3.  1|              as an intranasal spray.~ ~Oral bone loss. Oral bone, like
131   II,     9.  3.  1|               spray.~ ~Oral bone loss. Oral bone, like the rest of the
132   II,     9.  3.  1|          throughout the lifespan. When oral bone loss exceeds gain,
133   II,     9.  3.  1|                loss. The prevalence of oral bone loss is significant
134   II,     9.  3.  1|               with age for both sexes. Oral bone loss and attendant
135   II,     9.  3.  1|       Furthermore, it is possible that oral examination and radiographic
136   II,     9.  3.  1|               approaches to preserving oral bone include smoking cessation
137   II,     9.  3.  1|          include smoking cessation and oral hygiene self-care behaviours,
138   II,     9.  3.  1|             dental services, including oral examination, tooth scaling
139   II,     9.  3.  1|        osteoporosis may yield positive oral bone effects.~ ~Uterine
140   II,     9.  5.  3|        interaction between smoking and oral contraceptives is thought
141  III,    10.  2.  1|               Lung~- Mouth and throat: oral cavity, pharynx, larynx~-
142  III,    10.  2.  1|           cheek and gum. Nicotine from oral tobacco is absorbed more
143  III,    10.  2.  1|                snus.~Health effects of oral tobacco use include an increased
144  III,    10.  2.  1|              Especially cancers of the oral cavity and pancreas are
145  III,    10.  2.  1|         although an increased risk for oral cancer development could
146  III,    10.  2.  1|          future patterns of smoking or oral tobacco prevalence if oral
147  III,    10.  2.  1|             oral tobacco prevalence if oral tobacco were made available
148  III,    10.  2.  1|             use from one country where oral tobacco is available to
149  III,    10.  2.  1|                2003): Status Report on Oral Tobacco. Available at: htt ~ ~
150  III,    10.  2.  1|             Bofetta P, Nyrén O (2007): Oral use of Swedish moist snuff (
151  III,    10.  2.  1|       Fagerström K (2007): Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm
152  III,    10.  2.  1|             for example, cancer of the oral cavity, haemorrhagic stroke,
153  III,    10.  2.  1|                   10.2.1.5. Inadequate oral hygiene~ ~
154  III,    10.  2.  1|                 EGOHID European Global Oral Health Indicators Development
155  III,    10.  2.  1|             The major risk factors for oral diseases are the same as
156  III,    10.  2.  1|               a greater integration of oral health into general health promotion,
157  III,    10.  2.  1|              more necessary given that oral health itself is a determinant
158  III,    10.  2.  1|         broader concept of the role of oral health professionals, also
159  III,    10.  2.  1|               diagnosis of diseases.~ ~Oral health, particularly for
160  III,    10.  2.  1|             lack of care in childhood. Oral diseases, mainly caries
161  III,    10.  2.  1|          costly diseases. Promotion of oral health requires self-care
162  III,    10.  2.  1|                century of an important oral hygiene-based economic sector.
163  III,    10.  2.  1|             and controlled by personal oral hygiene in adults and children
164  III,    10.  2.  1|              The high relative risk of oral disease relates to socio-cultural
165  III,    10.  2.  1|              and culture in support of oral health. Communities and
166  III,    10.  2.  1|          environmental risk factors to oral health as well as for general
167  III,    10.  2.  1|                In addition, control of oral disease depends on availability
168  III,    10.  2.  1|      availability and accessibility of oral health systems but a reduced
169  III,    10.  2.  1|       modifiable risk behaviours, i.e. oral hygiene practices, sugar
170  III,    10.  2.  1|         behaviours may not only affect oral health status negatively
171  III,    10.  2.  1|             development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies
172  III,    10.  2.  1|        strategies is needed to improve oral health behaviour and attitudes
173  III,    10.  2.  1|      International recommendations for oral health prevention and prophylaxis
174  III,    10.  2.  1|            national, regional or local oral health surveys or in specific
175  III,    10.  2.  1|               project, exist to assess oral hygiene, but unfortunately
176  III,    10.  2.  1|       kindergartens where a preventive oral health program in which
177  III,    10.  2.  1|       Proportion of schools with based oral health promotion programmes
178  III,    10.  2.  1|               analysis~ ~The Burden of oral hygiene~ ~As it might be
179  III,    10.  2.  1|       increased consumption and use of oral hygiene products has been
180  III,    10.  2.  1|            been associated to improved oral hygiene. International publications
181  III,    10.  2.  1|             programmes to promote good oral hygiene practice.(Petersen,
182  III,    10.  2.  1|              disparities in children’s oral hygiene in various countries;
183  III,    10.  2.  1|               of behaviours related to oral hygiene or linked to socio-economic
184  III,    10.  2.  1|              at the age of 12 had poor oral hygiene (de Almeidia et
185  III,    10.  2.  1|            exist.~ ~Economic impact of oral hygiene~ ~The oral hygiene
186  III,    10.  2.  1|           impact of oral hygiene~ ~The oral hygiene market consists
187  III,    10.  2.  1|             largest area of the global oral hygiene market. The sale
188  III,    10.  2.  1|              for 18.5% of the European oral hygiene market. Total revenues
189  III,    10.  2.  1|           Total revenues of the German oral hygiene market amounted
190  III,    10.  2.  1|              In volume terms, sales of oral hygiene products decreased
191  III,    10.  2.  1|               press).~ ~Behaviours and Oral Hygiene Data~ ~The large
192  III,    10.  2.  1|          Although general awareness of oral hygiene and oral healthcare
193  III,    10.  2.  1|          awareness of oral hygiene and oral healthcare products appears
194  III,    10.  2.  1|             removal of plaque and good oral hygiene. Good hygiene should
195  III,    10.  2.  1|           effective in preventing most oral diseases. However, optimal
196  III,    10.  2.  1|            intervention in relation to oral disease is not universally
197  III,    10.  2.  1|               on primary prevention of oral diseases, poses a considerable
198  III,    10.  2.  1|             prevented by good personal oral hygiene practices, including
199  III,    10.  2.  1|               to water fluoridation.~ ~Oral Hygiene Products~ ~While
200  III,    10.  2.  1|              the various subsectors of oral care with multi-functional
201  III,    10.  2.  1|                conscious consumer with oral hygiene solutions that fight
202  III,    10.  2.  1|                Health Assembly (2007) “Oral health: action plan for
203  III,    10.  2.  1|                measures to ensure that oral health is incorporated as
204  III,    10.  2.  1|             implement the promotion of oral health and prevention of
205  III,    10.  2.  1|               health and prevention of oral disease for preschool and
206  III,    10.  2.  1|             the major risk factors for oral diseases are the same as
207  III,    10.  2.  1|               a greater integration of oral health into general health promotion,
208  III,    10.  2.  1|              more necessary given that oral health itself is a determinant
209  III,    10.  2.  1|         broader concept of the role of oral health professionals, also
210  III,    10.  2.  1|            stages and life conditions. Oral health inequalities are
211  III,    10.  2.  1|          health policies which broaden oral health goals from simply
212  III,    10.  2.  1|          coordinated action to promote oral health as an integral part
213  III,    10.  2.  1|              influence the delivery of oral health services in countries
214  III,    10.  2.  1|               at high risk of specific oral diseases and involves improving
215  III,    10.  2.  1|        challenge is to offer essential oral health care within the context
216  III,    10.  2.  1|          factors. Thus, in relation to oral health, risk analysis focuses
217  III,    10.  2.  1|             the protective benefits of oral hygiene practices and consumption
218  III,    10.  2.  1|          environmental determinants of oral health is needed. For this
219  III,    10.  2.  1|       achieving sustainable changes in oral health, multi-sectoral working
220  III,    10.  2.  1|          preschool health programs for oral health education and services
221  III,    10.  2.  1|            establishment of preventive oral health programs, which mainly
222  III,    10.  2.  1|             the potential to close the oral health gap in early childhood
223  III,    10.  2.  1|           minimize the inequalities in oral health within the schools.
224  III,    10.  2.  1|             primary prevention of many oral, dental and craniofacial
225  III,    10.  2.  1|         dietary choices also influence oral and craniofacial health.
226  III,    10.  2.  1|            craniofacial birth defects, oral and pharyngeal cancers,
227  III,    10.  2.  1|                disease, dental caries, oral candidiasis and other oral
228  III,    10.  2.  1|             oral candidiasis and other oral conditions.~ ~In Europe,
229  III,    10.  2.  1|                increasing awareness of oral health is observed among
230  III,    10.  2.  1|               by the use of a range of oral hygiene products. Currently,
231  III,    10.  2.  1|                opportunities to expand oral disease prevention and health promotion
232  III,    10.  2.  1|           within health care settings. Oral health care providers can
233  III,    10.  2.  1|            However, there are profound oral health disparities across
234  III,    10.  2.  1|               benefit from appropriate oral health-promoting measures.
235  III,    10.  2.  1|              many countries, moreover, oral health care is not fully
236  III,    10.  2.  1|              countries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004; 32: 69-73.~ ~
237  III,    10.  2.  1|                Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators Development
238  III,    10.  2.  1|         recommended by European Global Oral Health Indicators Development
239  III,    10.  2.  1|             access to OTC products for oral health in Europe: A Delphi
240  III,    10.  2.  1|                        2003): Changing oral health status of 6- and
241  III,    10.  2.  1|         toiletries in the Netherlands. Oral hygiene in Netherlands.
242  III,    10.  2.  1|                project. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2004; 32: 74-76.~ ~ ~
243  III,    10.  2.  1|          Petersen PE (2003): The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous
244  III,    10.  2.  1|              continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century –
245  III,    10.  2.  1|             approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community
246  III,    10.  2.  1|              Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003; 31 Suppl
247  III,    10.  2.  1|                C. The global burden of oral diseases and risk to oral
248  III,    10.  2.  1|              oral diseases and risk to oral heath. Bull World Health
249  III,    10.  2.  1|            Chestnutt IG and Steele JG. Oral health habits amongst children
250  III,    10.  2.  1|            2007). Resolution WHA60.17Oral health: action plan for
251  III,    10.  2.  1|               Health (document eleven) Oral health promotion: an essential
252  III,    10.  2.  1|            Organization. Fluorides and Oral Health. WHO Technical Report
253  III,    10.  4.  2|            PAHs~in preparation~Current oral exposure in~ the Netherlands
254   IV,    12. 10    |           service and expert advice in oral health for children until
255   IV,    12. 10    |             hygiene~low~ ~Campaign for oral hygiene in particular for
256  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0| ophthalmologists~opiate~opioid~opioids~oral~organochlorine~organophosphates~