Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2. 10.  4    |               around £2 billion/year in hospital stay alone. About 400 people
  2    I,     2. 10.  4    |            Study indicated that 9.3% of hospital stays incurred a serious
  3    I,     2. 10.  4    |                May 2003. A study in the hospital pharmacy found that dispensing
  4    I,     2. 10.  4    |                between 17% and 35% of a hospital’s total budget, it is evident
  5    I,     2. 10.  4    |               can significantly improve hospital budgets18.~ ~Automatic identification
  6    I,     2. 10.  4(18)|               2005). Differatiating the Hospital Supply Chain for Enhanced
  7    I,     2. 10.  4    |                 this is necessary for a hospital to reap all possible benefits.~ ~
  8    I,     2. 10.  4(20)|             Sanna, Scientific Institute Hospital San Raffaele at the GS1
  9   II,     5.  1.  2    |          dimensions; lab tests, x-rays, hospital care, financial coverage
 10   II,     5.  1.  3    |             prescribed treatment, care, hospital and other health care settings,
 11   II,     5.  2.  2    |              both reported.~ ~Morbidity~Hospital discharge diagnoses from
 12   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  were used to calculate hospital discharge rates for all
 13   II,     5.  2.  2    |              I21-I22) were used as main hospital discharge diagnosis.~Hospital
 14   II,     5.  2.  2    |           hospital discharge diagnosis.~Hospital discharges from revascularization
 15   II,     5.  2.  2    |              both reported.~ ~Morbidity~Hospital discharge diagnoses from
 16   II,     5.  2.  2    |          I60-I69,G45) were used as main hospital discharge diagnosis.~Data
 17   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 5.2.2 shows IHD and AMI hospital discharge diagnoses for
 18   II,     5.  2.  3    |              factors, such as different hospital admission policies, different
 19   II,     5.  2.  3    |            coding practice and multiple hospital admissions for the same
 20   II,     5.  2.  3    |             data on IHD, AMI and stroke hospital discharges are reported
 21   II,     5.  2.  3    |                with the data on all CVD hospital discharges. There are great
 22   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 availability of data on hospital discharges for these conditions
 23   II,     5.  2.  3    |              care.~ ~Table 5.2.2. Crude hospital discharge rates (x100.000)
 24   II,     5.  2.  3    |           thrombolytic therapy use from hospital in-patient database, coronary
 25   II,     5.  2.  3    |                he/she is re-admitted in hospital for surgery, the data refer
 26   II,     5.  2.  3    |                he/she is re-admitted in hospital for surgery and distinguish
 27   II,     5.  2.  3    |                non-fatal, in and out of hospital, first and recurrent coronary
 28   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 non fatal in and out of hospital first and recurrent events)
 29   II,     5.  2.  3    |          patients dying before reaching hospital); annual change in coronary
 30   II,     5.  2.  3    |               factors such as different hospital admission policies, different
 31   II,     5.  2.  3    |            coding practice and multiple hospital admissions for the same
 32   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 5.2.2 also shows stroke hospital discharge rates for men
 33   II,     5.  2.  3    |                factors such as multiple hospital admissions for the same
 34   II,     5.  2.  3    |               original event, different hospital admission policies and coding
 35   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 type of lesion. Data on hospital discharges separated for
 36   II,     5.  3.  7    |              the health care system and hospital budgets are made on a proactive
 37   II,     5.  4.  2    |           administrative data including hospital discharges, pharmaceuticals,
 38   II,     5.  4.  2    |             clinical measurements (e.g. hospital discharges), frequently
 39   II,     5.  4.  2    |                                5.4.2.6. Hospital discharge records~ ~Hospital
 40   II,     5.  4.  2    |            Hospital discharge records~ ~Hospital Discharge Records (HDRs)
 41   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 administered during the hospital stay, and other main aspects
 42   II,     5.  4.  2    |         discharge (admission from other hospital, discharge at home, death,
 43   II,     5.  4.  2    |                  death, etc.). The main hospital discharge diagnosis usually
 44   II,     5.  4.  2    |               the reimbursement for the hospital, and data are generally
 45   II,     5.  4.  2    |           Furthermore, harmonisation of hospital data is still to be realised
 46   II,     5.  4.  2    |              unbiased event rates after hospital interventions is necessary
 47   II,     5.  4.  2    |              Surveillance network; HDR: Hospital Discharge Records.~Definitions~
 48   II,     5.  5.  1    |        incidence data when derived from hospital discharge registers, not
 49   II,     5.  5.  1    |                or on morbidity based on hospital discharge rates do not reflect
 50   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 derived nationally from hospital discharge registers and
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |               are mostly available from hospital registers and practitioners.
 52   II,     5.  5.  3    |            registers and practitioners. Hospital registers and information
 53   II,     5.  5.  3    |                associated with repeated hospital stays and accounts for a
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |                relatively long stays in hospital during the acute episode
 55   II,     5.  5.  3    |               morbidity rates (European Hospital Morbidity Database HMDB)
 56   II,     5.  5.  3    |          Database HMDB) with respect to hospital admissions due to ICD-10/
 57   II,     5.  5.  3    |             International shortlist for hospital morbidity tabulation). The
 58   II,     5.  5.  3    |          admission rates and lengths of hospital stays show deviations from
 59   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the broad range of days in hospital for example may in part
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Statistics based only on hospital morbidity data yet underestimate
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 in settings outside the hospital.~ ~Data on the outpatient
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |               medication applied during hospital stays.~ ~WHO-data on the
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |              the diagnosis of interest, hospital admission rates as indicators
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |            information on the length of hospital stays and on disability
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Inter-country comparison of hospital age standardized in-patient
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |            inter-country comparisons of hospital in-patient admission rates,
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |              systems.~Not even accurate hospital morbidity data alone provide
 68   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  In 2004, the costs for hospital stays due to mental disorders
 69   II,     5.  5.  3    |             great part of the costs for hospital stays is related to schizophrenia,
 70   II,     5.  5.  3    |              disease which affords long hospital stays and frequent readmissions.
 71   II,     5.  5.  3    |                Disability~HMDB~European Hospital Morbidity Database~ ~ ~
 72   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Centre, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, aimed at collecting
 73   II,     5.  6.  6    |             recovery one year following hospital discharge for hip fracture:
 74   II,     5.  7.  5    |         outcomes, referral patterns and hospital administration.~· In Greece
 75   II,     5.  7.  5    |           methods of data transfer from hospital based clinical renal IT
 76   II,     5.  8.  3    |                patients discharged from hospital in Scandinavia, and highlighted
 77   II,     5.  8.  3    |          patients (446) were treated in hospital for 5073 days during a five-year
 78   II,     5.  8.  3    |               Average length of stay in hospital was 11.37 days and the cost
 79   II,     5.  8.  6    |             independent at home, reduce hospital admissions and improve the
 80   II,     5.  8.  6    |              receive palliative care in hospital (47.6% vs 5.1%, p<0.001)
 81   II,     5.  8.  7    |                patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and
 82   II,     5.  8.  7    |            programme can reduce days in hospital for patients with chronic
 83   II,     5.  8.  7    |        comparison of the utilization of hospital resources in Dubrovnik county.
 84   II,     5.  9.  3    |            total direct cost of asthma; hospital costs were 20-25%: inpatient
 85   II,     5.  9.  3    |         patients (4121) were treated in hospital for 1 192 days during a
 86   II,     5.  9.  3    |               Average length of stay in hospital was 9.85 days and the cost
 87   II,     5.  9.  7    |        comparison of the utilization of hospital resources in Dubrovnik county.
 88   II,     5. 10.  2    | cross-comparisons, and usually refer to hospital populations of sensitive
 89   II,     5. 10.  7    |           Anderson H (2003): Increasing hospital admissions for systemic
 90   II,     5. 15.  3    |                estimate, which utilises hospital discharge records (HDRs),
 91   II,     6.  3.  1    |               from GP consultations and hospital admissions, the costs related
 92   II,     6.  3.  2    |         investment at both national and hospital levels in order to set up
 93   II,     7.Acr        |                Falls in Pedestrians~HDD~Hospital Discharge Data~HFA-DB~Health
 94   II,     7.  2.  2    |                          7.2.2. Data on Hospital discharges~ ~Most health
 95   II,     7.  2.  2    |          completely comparable. Data on hospital discharges by diagnosis (
 96   II,     7.  2.  2    |              reliability and quality of hospital discharge data for injuries
 97   II,     7.  2.  2    |            project a database analysing hospital discharge data (Hospital
 98   II,     7.  2.  2    |                hospital discharge data (Hospital Discharge Database HDD)
 99   II,     7.  2.  2    |          indicators on the basis of the hospital discharge data. Access to
100   II,     7.  3.  1    |                data model that combines hospital data of the European Injury
101   II,     7.  3.  1    |             Database (IDB) with routine hospital discharge and cause of death
102   II,     7.  3.  1    |                health care consumption (hospital bed days) and long term
103   II,     7.  3.  1    |               28 people are admitted to hospital and another 136 people are
104   II,     7.  3.  1    |              Fatal Injuries~- 7 000 000 Hospital Admissions~- 34 200 000
105   II,     7.  3.  1    |                 Admissions~- 34 200 000 Hospital Outpatients~- 18 300 000
106   II,     7.  3.  1    |               corresponds to 50 million hospital days annually and a prevalence
107   II,     7.  3.  3    |                      7.3.3. Morbidity~ ~Hospital admissions due to accidents
108   II,     7.  3.  3    |              nearly nine percent of all hospital admissions in the EU, causing
109   II,     7.  3.  3    |              Figure 7.5).~ ~Figure 7.5. Hospital discharges due to injuries,
110   II,     7.  3.  3    |                  On average about 1 500 hospital discharges due to injuries
111   II,     7.  3.  3    |                 differences in national hospital admission policies and healthcare
112   II,     7.  3.  3    |         healthcare systems. The average hospital stay after an injury is
113   II,     7.  3.  3    |                   1.5 billion alone for hospital inpatients treated for injuries (
114   II,     7.  3.  3    |                Table 7.3).~ ~Table 7.3. Hospital discharge due to injuries,
115   II,     7.  3.  4    |            people need to be treated in hospital (Figure 7.13).~ ~Figure
116   II,     7.  3.  4    |                 Figure 7.14. Non fatal (hospital treated patients) home and
117   II,     7.  3.  4    |                variety of indicators on hospital treated injuries, on both
118   II,     7.  3.  5    |              not adequately documented. Hospital discharge data only deliver
119   II,     7.  3.  5    |               self-harm.~ ~Figure 7.16. Hospital deaths and discharges due
120   II,     7.  3.  5    |                on self harm injuries of hospital treated patients.~ ~For
121   II,     7.  3.  5    |         developed (WHO, 2002).~ ~Again, hospital discharge data only give
122   II,     7.  3.  5    |             injuries due to violence of hospital treated patients.~ ~The
123   II,     7.  4        |             account for about 8% of all hospital admissions. In addition
124   II,     7.  4.  1    |              and youths are admitted to hospital with a traumatic injury.
125   II,     7.  4.  4    |             about 18% of injury related hospital admissions are due to sports
126   II,     7.  4.  4    |                 estimate of 1.2 million hospital admissions and 15 million
127   II,     7.  7        |                7. References~ ~APOLLOHospital discharge database (2008):
128   II,     9.  1.  1    |               section rates in Italy by hospital payment mode: an analysis
129   II,     9.  1.  2    |               baby is not viable. ~ ~b) Hospital Episode or Discharge Data.
130   II,     9.  1.  2    |           accuracy and accessibility of hospital episode data d) electronic
131   II,     9.  2.  2    |                perceptions of safety of hospital services is one such example.
132   II,     9.  2.  2    |             Cities. Their Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative to promote breastfeeding
133   II,     9.  2.  3    |          developed for presentations to hospital trauma units, and/or hospital
134   II,     9.  2.  3    |           hospital trauma units, and/or hospital admissions. However, these
135   II,     9.  2.  5    |           accommodated in general adult hospital beds. Similarly, a hospital
136   II,     9.  2.  5    |             hospital beds. Similarly, a hospital setting requires other support
137   II,     9.  2.  7    |             Association for Children in Hospital (EACH) (1988): EACH Charter.
138   II,     9.  2.  7    |                1991): The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, UNICEF. Available
139   II,     9.  3.  1    |                general practitioners or hospital records. These methods are
140   II,     9.  3.  2    |                 can be identified using hospital discharge data. This indicator
141   II,     9.  3.  2    |              and more costly lengths of hospital stay.~ ~F ~ ~Length of Hospital
142   II,     9.  3.  2    |         hospital stay.~ ~F ~ ~Length of Hospital Stay~The length of hospital
143   II,     9.  3.  2    |             Hospital Stay~The length of hospital stay has been decreasing
144   II,     9.  3.  2    |            these trends towards shorter hospital stays it is therefore necessary
145   II,     9.  3.  2    |          Evolution of length of stay in hospital after spontaneous singleton
146   II,     9.  3.  2    |               routine databases such as hospital discharge data and medical
147   II,     9.  3.  2    |               section rates in Italy by hospital payment mode: an analysis
148   II,     9.  4.  3    |        genito-urinary medical care at a hospital in the United Kingdom showed
149   II,     9.  4.  5    |              reduce the length of acute hospital stay (European Geriatric
150   II,     9.  5.  3    |            surgery, more doctor visits, hospital stays, visits to pharmacies
151  III,    10.  2.  1    |               the risk of attendance at hospital emergency rooms in a dose
152  III,    10.  2.  1    |             Medicine and the University Hospital of Zurich and the Network
153  III,    10.  2.  1    |                when subject to frequent hospital stays. Various illnesses
154  III,    10.  2.  1    |                from a Glasgow Maternity Hospital. British Journal of Obstetrics
155  III,    10.  4.  1    |                 mortality and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular
156  III,    10.  4.  1    |                 bronchitis, respiratory hospital admissions and days with
157  III,    10.  4.  1    |              traffic emissions and less hospital admissions of children with
158  III,    10.  4.  1    |         variations)~o Mortality (O3 )~o Hospital admissions~ ~· Respiratory (
159  III,    10.  4.  1    |            Acute effects on respiratory hospital admissions~ ~· Intervention
160  III,    10.  5.  1    |                million of these lead to hospital admissions, and around 83
161  III,    10.  5.  2    |            medical care facilities (GP, hospital or medical centre) still
162  III,    10.  5.  3    |             well as fewer days spent in hospital etc. The results show an
163  III,    10.  6.  3    |             being developed. Obviously, hospital discharge data only give
164   IV,    11.Acr        |          Medicines Agency~HOPE~European Hospital and Healthcare Federation~
165   IV,    11.  1.  3    |             2003). For instance, in the hospital sector, countries that relied
166   IV,    11.  1.  3    |               the practice of comparing hospital outcomes data in order to
167   IV,    11.  1.  4    |          inequity in the probability of hospital inpatient care among the
168   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 of pharmaceutical care. Hospital pharmaciesfunctions have
169   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 budgetary requirements. Hospital pharmacies increasingly
170   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         increased collaboration between hospital pharmacists, prescribers,
171   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              services are needed in the hospital to service outpatient care.
172   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            outpatient care. The role of hospital pharmacists has also expanded
173   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                contract, while a French hospital contract set that within
174   IV,    11.  1.  5    |   intensive-care units at Johns Hopkins Hospital implemented a safety scheme
175   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 arrests for the 489-bed hospital and a 3.95% decline in the
176   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              and a 3.95% decline in the hospital’s mortality rate (McCarthy
177   IV,    11.  1.  5    |               improving teamwork across hospital staff and the implementation
178   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                year in the US (American Hospital Association, 1999). In Australia
179   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 in an American teaching hospital, reported four errors per
180   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                them to remain longer in hospital, are more likely to suffer
181   IV,    11.  1.  5    |      psychological effects of prolonged hospital stays and/or disability
182   IV,    11.  1.  5    |              suffering a medical error. Hospital incidents are perceived
183   IV,    11.  1.  6    |        specialists~Physicians in public hospital~Physicians in private hospital~
184   IV,    11.  1.  6    |          hospital~Physicians in private hospital~Austria~60% by fee-for-service
185   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              training and distance from hospital.~Fee-for-service with maximum (
186   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              insured patients in public hospital.~ ~Latvia~“Mixed capitation”~
187   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 systems have in place a hospital payment system based on
188   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               from a full retrospective hospital payment system towards one
189   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                set part or the whole of hospital budgets in Austria, Belgium,
190   IV,    11.  1.  6    |  Hanvoravongchai, 2003; HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare Federation,
191   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           transparency (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare Federation
192   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 system (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare Federation,
193   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              payment system for funding hospital services. Many countries
194   IV,    11.  1.  6    |            prioritized within the local hospital environment. For example,
195   IV,    11.  1.  6    |              account for differences in hospital structure, region and other
196   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                   The impact of the DRG hospital financing systems introduced
197   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             became more cost conscious, hospital activities more transparent,
198   IV,    11.  1.  6    |           insurance funds improved, and hospital costs increased more slowly,
199   IV,    11.  1.  6    |          administration costs), and the hospital budget was better controlled.
200   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 controlled. In Denmark, hospital activity increased, and
201   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             financial transparency, and hospital budgets were better controlled (
202   IV,    11.  1.  6    |             controlled (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare Federation,
203   IV,    11.  2.  1    |              the perceived high cost of hospital care, the challenges of
204   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                 number of hospitals and hospital beds in many countries (
205   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                patterns can be seen for hospital utilization, as discussed
206   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                to a decreasing trend in hospital bed numbers, the average
207   IV,    11.  2.  1    |               to consider the number of hospital beds available to the population,
208   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                to the population, since hospital sizes vary across the European
209   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                 examining the number of hospital beds per capita, countries
210   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                and Portugal (345). Most hospital beds are allocated to medical
211   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                   Figure 11.2.Number of hospital beds per 100,000 population,
212   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                relatively high rates of hospital utilization, with over 25
213   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                as a proportion of total hospital beds can be seen in Malta (
214   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                and in some cases reduce hospital admission rates (Mattke
215   IV,    11.  3        |            resources e.g. hospitals and hospital beds, have been discussed
216   IV,    11.  5.  4    |        involvement of the local actors (hospital transplant teams and transplant
217   IV,    11.  6.  2    |           applied to GP, specialist and hospital care only Austria, Belgium,
218   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                be granted for very long hospital stays, for example inpatient
219   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                in Slovakia who paid for hospital admissions grew by approximately
220   IV,    11.  6.  4    |              According to many studies, hospital discharge records are a
221   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               with other archives (e.g. hospital discharges, mortality records),
222   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               the type of data sources. Hospital discharge records are available
223   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 al. (2006): "Editorial: Hospital case payment systems in
224   IV,    11.  6.  5    |              2006): Health care outside hospital: accessing generalist and
225   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Policies.~ ~HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare Federation (
226   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 in the probability of a hospital admission in Europe, Ecuity
227   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  Shaw C (2003): How can hospital performance be measured
228   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Network synthesis report on hospital performance. Available at:
229   IV,    12.Acr        |             Association for Children in Hospital~EBD~Environmental burden
230   IV,    12.  1        |              changes in organisation of hospital staff time schedules~ ~Internal
231   IV,    12.  4        |       strategies for health services;~· hospital performances (waiting time
232   IV,    12. 10        |                for the delivery of some hospital based services to Irish
233   IV,    12. 10        |         provision of safe, high quality hospital services that deliver the
234   IV,    12. 10        |               practice. The delivery of hospital services needs to be rebalanced
235   IV,    12. 10        |              acute hospitals include:~· Hospital networks that provide quality
236   IV,    12. 10        |           hotline in the Andreas Sigros Hospital (a big dermatological and
237   IV,    12. 10        |     dermatological and venereal disease hospital, in Athens) that offers
238   IV,    12. 10        |        Especially for the management of Hospital Waste it has been approved
239   IV,    12. 10        |                few years, more and more hospital managers are trying to implement
240   IV,    12. 10        |          employees~- Improvement of the hospital’s physical and organizational
241   IV,    12. 10        |        obligation to join one of the 20 hospital districts.~ ~The Framework
242   IV,    13.Acr        |             Association for Children in Hospital~EBD~Environmental burden
243   IV,    13.  5        |                can only be required for hospital treatment abroad and must
244   IV,    13.  5        |       strategies for health services;~· hospital performances (waiting time
245   IV,    13.  6.  2    |            Children do not occupy adult hospital beds – nor do adults occupy
246   IV,    13.  6.  2    |                adults occupy children’s hospital cots. Yet measures of hospital
247   IV,    13.  6.  2    |          hospital cots. Yet measures of hospital bed availability generally
248   IV,    13.  6.  2    |           routine data on the levels of hospital provision for children.
249   IV,    13.  6.  2    |             Association for Children in Hospital (EACH) seeks to promote
250   IV,    13.  6.  2    |              facilities for children in hospital, as enshrined in their Charter
251   IV,    13.  6.  2    |               the issues of appropriate hospital services for children, let
252   IV,    13.  6.  2    |            Children’s Health Services~ ~Hospital services for children