Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4    | evidence-based diagnosis of the main causes of poverty and exclusion
  2    I,     2.  4    |              found for many specific causes of death, including cardiovascular
  3    I,     2.  9    |            but this could have other causes, particularly improved housing
  4    I,     2. 10.  4|            global supply chain, this causes problems. It will be more
  5   II,     4.  2    |             4.2. Life expectancy and causes of death~ ~ ~Since 1970,
  6   II,     4.  2    |            the underlying pattern of causes of death has changed.~When
  7   II,     4.  2    |       changes in age patterns and in causes of death. This method is
  8   II,     4.  2    |      different ages and of different causes of death to the increase
  9   II,     4.  2    |           life expectancy changes by causes of death. Table 4.2.2 shows
 10   II,     4.  2    |          contribution of 13 selected causes of death to the increase
 11   II,     4.  2    |              the categoryremaining causes of deathshows. In the
 12   II,     4.  2    |              availability of data on causes of death for both periods.
 13   II,     4.  2    |             by circulatory diseases (causes 6, 7 and 8 in table 3) has
 14   II,     4.  2    |              cause of death, cancer (causes 2, 3, 4 and 5 in table 3),
 15   II,     4.  2    |    prevalence. Mortality by external causes (causes 10, 11 and 12 in
 16   II,     4.  2    |        Mortality by external causes (causes 10, 11 and 12 in table 3)
 17   II,     4.  2    |              the categoryremaining causes of death’ (cause 14 in table
 18   II,     4.  2    |              the effect of remaining causes was relatively large in
 19   II,     4.  2    |            in the practice of coding causes of death across countries.
 20   II,     5.  1.  1|              poisoning) within total causes of death; 3 years average (
 21   II,     5.  1.  1|              poisoning) within total causes of death; 3 years average (
 22   II,     5.  1.  1|             salt-preserved foods are causes of this cancer. There is
 23   II,     5.  1.  1|             or its consequences, are causes of colorectal cancer is
 24   II,     5.  1.  1|          diabetes. A number of other causes of diabetes exist. Maturity
 25   II,     5.  1.  1|       suicide~The following are main causes of suicide: mental illness (
 26   II,     5.  1.  1|             the two major recognized causes of this disease, i.e., hepatitis
 27   II,     5.  2.  2|             for aggregated groups of causes of deaths and not for single
 28   II,     5.  2.  3|            accounting for 42% of all causes of deaths in EU (Figure
 29   II,     5.  2.  6|            LDL cholesterol reduction causes a reduction of CHD morbidity
 30   II,     5.  2.  6|          reduction of blood pressure causes a reduction of fatal and
 31   II,     5.  3.  2|              investigations into the causes of cancer. For instance,
 32   II,     5.  3.  2|              conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms
 33   II,     5.  3.  4|         salt-preserved foods are the causes of this cancer. There is
 34   II,     5.  3.  4|             or its consequences, are causes of colorectal cancer is
 35   II,     5.  3.  7|      Although all of these avoidable causes have not yet been clearly
 36   II,     5.  3.  7|             research to identify the causes and action to address deficiencies.
 37   II,     5.  4.  2|             and in all countries.~It causes prolonged ill health and
 38   II,     5.  4.  2|          general population from all causes /100,000 general population,
 39   II,     5.  4.  5|           age~ ~There are also other causes of diabetes. Maturity onset
 40   II,     5.  4.  6|        concerns implementation. This causes inequalities in life expectancy,
 41   II,     5.  4.  8|          Special Feature: Nature and causes of trends in male diabetes
 42   II,     5.  5.Int|              Four of the six leading causes of years lived with disability
 43   II,     5.  5.  1|              In addition, depression causes severe interference with
 44   II,     5.  5.  1|      significant as it is common and causes decrease in quality of life
 45   II,     5.  5.  1|        suicide is one of the leading causes of death in the 15-35 age
 46   II,     5.  5.  1|             is derived from national causes–of-death statistics. It
 47   II,     5.  5.  1|       contains annual information on causes of death, grouped according
 48   II,     5.  5.  1|        States. These include data on causes of mortality and potential
 49   II,     5.  5.  3|            Association) (2004): What Causes Eating Disorders? Available
 50   II,     5.  5.  3|           from natural and unnatural causes (premature deaths). About
 51   II,     5.  5.  3|           death rate. The other main causes of mortality are due to
 52   II,     5.  5.  3|           belongs to the ten leading causes of disability adjusted life
 53   II,     5.  5.  3|         third on the list of leading causes of years lived with disability (
 54   II,     5.  5.  3|            on mortality for selected causes of death are not even available
 55   II,     5.  5.  3|         consumption). The underlying causes for this coincidence have
 56   II,     5.  5.  3|             rates are due to several causes, including seizures, accidents
 57   II,     5.  5.  3|      surgical patients, the SMR (all causes) was 4.9 (95% CI 2.7-8.3)
 58   II,     5.  5.  3|          driving fatalities vs other causes of death in patients with
 59   II,     5.  5.  3|             the National Registry of Causes of Death, and the Danish
 60   II,     5.  5.  3|              patients die from other causes or from age-related diseases
 61   II,     5.  5.  3|         sector. Disability due to PD causes a strong need for informal
 62   II,     5.  5.  3|         Gasser, 2007). Environmental causes have been proposed, but
 63   II,     5.  5.  3|         Tanner CM (2006): Nongenetic causes of Parkinson’s disease.
 64   II,     5.  6.  3|        conditions rank in the top 10 causes of DALY in Europe (WHO European
 65   II,     5.  6.  3|             or tumour. Such specific causes account for about 10% of
 66   II,     5.  6.  4|              consistent diagnosis or causes given to such claims.~ ~
 67   II,     5.  6.  4|              the most common medical causes of long term absence, which
 68   II,     5.  6.  4|           complaints are also common causes for disability pensions,
 69   II,     5.  6.  4|          cardiovascular disorders as causes for disability pensions.
 70   II,     5.  7.  3|             or even decrease in some causes of ESRD, have prompted some
 71   II,     5.  7.  3|             or even decrease in some causes of ESRD, have prompted some
 72   II,     5.  7.  4|         across EU Member States, the causes for the considerable differences
 73   II,     5.  7.  4|             prevalence of underlying causes of ESRD, by the access to
 74   II,     5.  8.  1|           factors and air pollution) causes a rapid deterioration in
 75   II,     5.  8.  3|            one of the most important causes of death in most countries.
 76   II,     5.  8.  3|            rates for the six leading causes of death in the United States
 77   II,     5.  8.  3|              the multiple underlying causes (Furhman et al, 2006). In
 78   II,     5.  9. FB|      hygienic and social conditions, causes a significant increase of
 79   II,     5.  9.  3|    understanding of its aetiological causes and its epidemiological
 80   II,     5. 10.  7|           Strannegard IL (2001): The causes of the increasing prevalence
 81   II,     5. 11.  2|      education and research into the causes and distribution of skin
 82   II,     5. 11.  3|              among the most frequent causes of occupational disability,
 83   II,     5. 11.  3|            if stainless steel rarely causes allergic skin reactions
 84   II,     5. 11.  6|              high. Research into the causes of skin disease is still
 85   II,     5. 11.  6|           that seeks to find out the causes of skin diseases which could,
 86   II,     5. 11.  7|       Dermatitis – the epidemiology, causes and prevention of aropic
 87   II,     5. 12.  1|              in the major recognized causes of this disease, i.e., hepatitis
 88   II,     5. 12.  4|             the two major recognized causes of this disease, i.e., hepatitis
 89   II,     5. 15.  3|            the double mutation which causes the disease. The identification
 90   II,     5. 15.  4|              management of important causes of mortality and ill health
 91   II,     6.  3.  5|          Measles is an acute illness causes by morbillivirus. The disease
 92   II,     6.  3.  6|            the EU, but are important causes of gastroenteritis all over
 93   II,     6.  3.  6|              Escherichia coli (VTEC) causes an enteric infection, with
 94   II,     6.  3.  6|          contains the botulism toxin causes food-borne botulism, while
 95   II,     7.Acr    |           Road Accident Database~COD~Causes of Death Statistics~CVI~
 96   II,     7.  1    |    standardized death rates for many causes except for home and leisure
 97   II,     7.  1    |            In contrast to many other causes of illness or premature
 98   II,     7.  1    |              addressing the external causes of injuries such as roads,
 99   II,     7.  2.  1|                       7.2.1. Data on causes of death (COD)~ ~Data on
100   II,     7.  2.  1|             of death (COD)~ ~Data on causes of death (COD) provide information
101   II,     7.  2.  1|             consequences of external causes ~ (S00-T98).~- Chapter XX:
102   II,     7.  2.  1|                 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality (
103   II,     7.  2.  1|           Classification of external causes of injury and poisoning (
104   II,     7.  2.  1|             which the information on causes of death is reported and
105   II,     7.  2.  1|        practices of certain external causes like long term consequences
106   II,     7.  2.  1|           Classification of External Causes of Injuries~ ~ICECI has
107   II,     7.  2.  1|         rather includes the external causes and can be used as a complementary
108   II,     7.  2.  2|              information on external causes on accidents and injuries -
109   II,     7.  2.  6|             on the detailed external causes e.g. activity, type of sports,
110   II,     7.  3.  2|        Figure 7.2. Fatal injuries by causes of death, all ages, EU27~ ~
111   II,     7.  3.  2|                 Figure 7.4. Selected causes of fatal injuries, Standardised
112   II,     7.  3.  3|             data is available on the causes of sick leave and disability
113   II,     7.  3.  4|           circumstances and external causes of road accidents for the
114   II,     7.  3.  5|              are one of are the main causes of injury mortality in the
115   II,     7.  4    |         little data available on the causes of sick leave and disability
116   II,     7.  4.  1|             flames are the top three causes of injury deaths in children (
117   II,     7.  4.  1|         suicides are the most common causes for injury deaths (Figure
118   II,     7.  4.  1|              19.b. Fatal injuries by causes of death, 15-24 years of
119   II,     7.  4.  2|              19.c. Fatal injuries by causes of death, 65+ years of age~ ~
120   II,     7.  4.  6|          suicide are other important causes of premature death and hospitalisation.
121   II,     7.  4.  6|           large number of underlying causes. It is associated with a
122   II,     7.  5    |            In contrast to many other causes of ill health or premature
123   II,     7.  5    |             major health threats and causes of mortality and morbidity;
124   II,     7.  5    |             surveillance of external causes like settings, activities,
125   II,     7.  7    |                New Cronos database - Causes of death by region, Standardised
126   II,     7.  7    |                New Cronos database - Causes of death by region, Standardised
127   II,     8.  2.  1|              8.2.1.4. Risk factors~ ~Causes of intellectual disability~
128   II,     8.  2.  1|            been discovered, but many causes are still unknown. Intellectual
129   II,     8.  2.  1|             brain abnormality. These causes can happen before a child
130   II,     8.  2.  1|             of the most common known causes of intellectual disability
131   II,     8.  2.  1|            occur before birth. Other causes that take place before a
132   II,     8.  2.  1|              during pregnancy. Other causes of intellectual disability
133   II,     8.  2.  1|           and asphyxia). Still other causes of intellectual disability
134   II,     8.  2.  2|            of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision (
135   II,     8.  2.  2|          more.~ ~The analysis of the causes of blindness indicate that
136   II,     8.  2.  2|     retinopathy are also significant causes of blindness in all these
137   II,     8.  2.  2|              countries.~ ~Table 8.3. Causes of blindness as a percentage
138   II,     8.  2.  2|          more.~ ~The analysis of the causes of blindness indicate that
139   II,     8.  2.  2|     retinopathy are also significant causes of blindness in all these
140   II,     8.  2.  2|              countries.~ ~Table 8.3. Causes of blindness as a percentage
141   II,     8.  2.  2|             and preventing avoidable causes of visual impairment, including
142   II,     8.  2.  3|       hearing loss due to congenital causes, infectious diseases, other
143   II,     8.  2.  3|         years and over~ ~The leading causes of adult-onset hearing loss
144   II,     9        |             environmental factors as causes, and these are at present
145   II,     9.  1.  1|            the perinatal period, the causes of infant deaths and on
146   II,     9.  1.  1|          APGAR score at 5 minutes~F: Causes of perinatal death/deaths
147   II,     9.  1.  1|             Infant mortality and its causes~Data on the causes of infant
148   II,     9.  1.  1|           and its causes~Data on the causes of infant deaths are available
149   II,     9.  1.  1|            Unfortunately, all of the causes associated to conditions
150   II,     9.  1.  1|          information on the specific causes of perinatal deaths. Nonetheless,
151   II,     9.  1.  1|         highest rates of these other causes are reported for Bulgaria (
152   II,     9.  1.  1|        mortality declines, perinatal causes are responsible for a greater
153   II,     9.  1.  2|             environmental factors as causes, and these are at present
154   II,     9.  1.  2|        funded into the environmental causes of congenital anomalies.~ ~
155   II,     9.  1.  2|            well as research into the causes of congenital anomalies,
156   II,     9.  2.  1|              is known that the major causes of mortality and morbidity
157   II,     9.  2.  3|         intellectual, or behavioural causes). There is a common public
158   II,     9.  2.  3|            of wellbeing. Whether the causes are population movement,
159   II,     9.  3.  1|        bracket, with the predominant causes of death being cardiovascular
160   II,     9.  3.  1|      Premature mortality by selected causes of deaths in EU, 2005~ ~
161   II,     9.  3.  1|       associated to tobacco smoking, causes 35% of all deaths before
162   II,     9.  3.  1|           has been presumed that the causes of men’s increased risk
163   II,     9.  3.  1|       diseases are the main group of causes of death, causing about
164   II,     9.  3.  1|        highlighted the main reported causes of death in men aged 15-
165   II,     9.  3.  1|            Abdominal aortic aneurism causes approximately 7 000 deaths
166   II,     9.  3.  1|            individual, with the main causes being:~1. An increased abundance
167   II,     9.  3.  1|              are available as to the causes of symptoms in midlife inherent
168   II,     9.  3.  1|        vaginal and urethral atrophy, causes a decreased production of
169   II,     9.  3.  1|          status. Estrogen deficiency causes atrophic changes of the
170   II,     9.  3.  1|               Boyle et al 2003). The causes are mainly due to either
171   II,     9.  3.  1|           388~ ~Haslam, D (2007) The causes of male obesity and associated
172   II,     9.  3.  1|              Niederlaender E (2006): Causes of death in the EU. Statistics
173   II,     9.  3.  2|          Alexander et al, 2003). The causes of maternal death can be
174   II,     9.  3.  2|        complications, and ‘indirectcauses, such as cardiac and other
175   II,     9.  3.  2|            standardise coding of the causes of death. Instituting audits
176   II,     9.  3.  2|               fréquence, facteurs et causes. BEH 2006;50(392-5).~ ~Platt
177   II,     9.  3.  3|           over report and many other causes.~ ~ ~ ~
178   II,     9.  4.  3|               2003). The most common causes of death in women over 65,
179   II,     9.  4.  3|           the very old) and external causes. In men over 65, the most
180   II,     9.  4.  3|             over 65, the most common causes of death, according to prevalence,
181   II,     9.  4.  3|            very old), other external causes, diseases of the circulatory
182   II,     9.  4.  3|            diseases become the major causes of death and disability
183   II,     9.  4.  3|             9.4.2. Fatal injuries by causes of death, 65+~ ~Mental health,
184   II,     9.  4.  3|      represent four of the six major causes of years lived with disability.
185   II,     9.  4.  3|            25-30%. Over 85, the main causes of death are the diseases
186   II,     9.  4.  3|             2005).~ ~Cancer~ ~Cancer causes a large part of all deaths
187   II,     9.  4.  3|             people is poor. Possible causes are that treatment is not
188   II,     9.  4.  3|             Table 9.4.2. Most common causes of blindness and partial
189   II,     9.  4.  7|              mortality risk from all causes and cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular
190   II,     9.  5.  3|            significant factor in the causes of mortality associated
191   II,     9.  5.  3|            significant factor in the causes of mortality associated
192  III               |                      PART III~HEALTH CAUSES, FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS~ ~
193  III,    10.  1    |             characterised by several causes with different strengths
194  III,    10.  2.  1|             six of the eight leading causes of death in the world (WHO,
195  III,    10.  2.  1|            for several world leading causes of death.~ ~Table 10.2.1.
196  III,    10.  2.  1|              3. Deaths from selected causes (%), attributable to smoking,
197  III,    10.  2.  1|    environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) causes adverse health effects,
198  III,    10.  2.  1|              stimulates the body and causes a sudden release of glucose,
199  III,    10.  2.  1|              European Union. Tobacco causes one in seven deaths in the
200  III,    10.  2.  1|            every year. Worldwide, it causes 5,4 million deaths annually.~ ~
201  III,    10.  2.  1|              European Union, alcohol causes:~- 45,000 deaths from liver
202  III,    10.  2.  1|      unintentional injury as primary causes of death in young people,
203  III,    10.  2.  1|          alcohol, including external causes (e.g. violence, accidents),
204  III,    10.  2.  1|           result of a combination of causes. Studies have found that
205  III,    10.  2.  1|              while vigorous activity causes rapid breathing and a substantial
206  III,    10.  2.  1|          decreased work performance. Causes for deficiency can be excessive
207  III,    10.  2.  1|           for iron. Further emerging causes for inadequate micronutrient
208  III,    10.  2.  3|          reduction of blood pressure causes a reduction of fatal and
209  III,    10.  2.  4|             the understanding of the causes of disease, the organisation
210  III,    10.  3.  3|          Measles is an acute illness causes by morbillivirus. Mumps
211  III,    10.  3.  3|               but are both important causes of gastroenteritis all over
212  III,    10.  3.  4|             increase from a range of causes.~ ~Other harmful exposures
213  III,    10.  3.  4|       factors refer to age, specific causes of death and pre-existing
214  III,    10.  3.  4|         falls across a wide range of causes. Heat stroke, although widely
215  III,    10.  3.  4|             primary productivity and causes water scarcity. It affected
216  III,    10.  4.  1|        public transport are the main causes of environmental problems
217  III,    10.  4.  1|              and is one of the major causes of hospitalization among
218  III,    10.  4.  2|       viruses are the most important causes of food-borne outbreaks.
219  III,    10.  4.  2|              are unclear. Acrylamide causes cancer in animals. While
220  III,    10.  4.  5|           land and water) snails and causes dermatitis when it mistakenly
221  III,    10.  4.  5|          disposal is one of the main causes of soil pollution. Large
222  III,    10.  5.  1|              deaths from respiratory causes decreased by 15.5% and deaths
223  III,    10.  5.  1|           deaths from cardiovascular causes decreased by 10.3% (Clancy
224  III,    10.  5.  2|        evident for most of the major causes of death but were greater
225  III,    10.  5.  2|         Statistics Lithuania (2007): Causes of deaths 2006. Vilnius,
226  III,    10.  5.  3|         Diseases often have multiple causes. They are associated with
227  III,    10.  5.  3|            falls are one of the main causes of accidents in all sectors
228  III,    10.  5.  3|             most often have multiple causes. They are associated with
229  III,    10.  6.  1|   connections and mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular
230  III,    10.  6.  2|              found for many specific causes of death, including cardiovascular
231  III,    10.  6.  2| cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of inequalities, accounting
232  III,    10.  6.  2|               are the most important causes of health inequalities in
233  III,    10.  6.  2|          known to be among the worst causes of poor health and inequalities
234  III,    10.  6.  2|           Research - to identify the causes of socio-economic health
235   IV,    11.  1.  3|              detailed studies on the causes of death where there is
236   IV,    11.  1.  5|            attributed to a number of causes, among which: administrative
237   IV,    11.  3.  2|     excellent data on health status, causes of death and healthcare
238   IV,    12.  1    |        promoting research into their causes, their transmission and
239   IV,    12.  2    |              in implementation. This causes inequalities in life expectancy,
240   IV,    12.  5    |          initiatives to identify the causes of, address and reduce health
241   IV,    13.  1    |            selected non-communicable causes in EU 27~ ~These considerable
242   IV,    13.  1    |           understand better the root causes of health (i.e. health determinants)
243   IV,    13.  2.  2|              2-6% of deaths from all causes were attributed to outdoor
244   IV,    13.  2.  2|        conditions rank in the top 10 causes of DALY in Europe and osteoarthritis
245   IV,    13.  2.  3|             2-6 % of deaths from all causes were due to outdoor air