Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2        |             limitations on the relevant surveillance data. Of particular concern
  2    I,     2. 10.  1    |                 Public Health services, surveillance, the education of the professions
  3    I,     2. 10.  1    |                the existing concepts of surveillance and health statistics. So
  4    I,     2. 10.  1    |           Current health statistics and surveillance systems do not cover underlying
  5    I,     2. 10.  1    |           prevalence of diseases if the surveillance is purely based on phenotypic
  6   II,     5.  2.Acr    |               Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set~EUROSTAT~Statistical
  7   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set - (h p, 2007) IHD data
  8   II,     5.  2.  2    |              rates derived from 10-year surveillance (from mid 1980s to mid 90s).
  9   II,     5.  2.  2    |               Cardiovascular Indicators Surveillance Set - (h p, 2007) EUROSTAT
 10   II,     5.  2.  2    |                from the last 3 years of surveillance. Annual change in stroke
 11   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 attack rates of 10-year surveillance for coronary events and
 12   II,     5.  2.  3    |            rates of the last 3 years of surveillance for stroke events and 28-
 13   II,     5.  2.  3    |                 3 years of the 10- year surveillance in men and women aged 35-
 14   II,     5.  3.  2    |                 up a Europe-wide cancer surveillance system to describe differences,
 15   II,     5.  3.  7    |                knowledge from research, surveillance, and outcome monitoring,
 16   II,     5.  4.Acr    |        Structure~SPSN~Sentinel Practice Surveillance Network~T1DM~Type 1 diabetes
 17   II,     5.  4.  2    |                       5.4.2.5. Sentinel Surveillance Network~ ~Another possibility
 18   II,     5.  4.  2    |           through the Sentinel Practice Surveillance Network (SPSN). In several
 19   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 based sentinel practice surveillance networks have been established,
 20   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 and implementation of a surveillance system on diabetes and its
 21   II,     5.  4.  2    |                 SPSN: Sentinel Practice Surveillance network; HDR: Hospital Discharge
 22   II,     5.  4.  2    |                from the lack of uniform surveillance in the EU, emphasize the
 23   II,     5.  4.  6    |                                5.4.6.1. Surveillance~The development of reliable,
 24   II,     5.  4.  6    |                in order to ensure close surveillance of the epidemiology of this
 25   II,     5.  4.  6    |            progressive development of a surveillance system at continental level.
 26   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 outputs for monitoring, surveillance and reporting of diabetes
 27   II,     5.  4.  7    |              directly expand or improve surveillance at local level. As a matter
 28   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 The European Network of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism
 29   II,     5.  5.  3    |              ENSACP~European Network of Surveillance on Risk Factors for Autism
 30   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 J 13:66-71.~Buehler JW. Surveillance (1998): In: Rothman KJ,
 31   II,     5. 11.  3    |     socio-economic impact. The European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (
 32   II,     5. 11.  3    |             Writing Group. The European Surveillance System of Contact Allergies (
 33   II,     5. 12.  2    |            Joinpointsoftware from the Surveillance Research Program of the
 34   II,     5. 14.  2    |            sample registration systems, surveillance systems, national survey
 35   II,     5. 14.  2    |               information’s systems for surveillance of chronic disease and risk
 36   II,     5. 14.  2    |        established for children whereas surveillance of the oral health of the
 37   II,     5. 14.  2    |               elderly. The tradition of surveillance is less developed in southern
 38   II,     5. 14.  2    |                address this deficiency. Surveillance of periodontal diseases
 39   II,     5. 14.  3    |              tissue damage antecedents. Surveillance of oral disadvantage due
 40   II,     5. 14.  5    |                indicators in any health surveillance system so that trends and
 41   II,     5. 14.  5    |         Programme in the area of health surveillance. The European Commission
 42   II,     5. 14.  5    |                and international health surveillance systems has resulted in
 43   II,     5. 14.  5    |               charge of epidemiological surveillance and evaluation of care programmes.
 44   II,     5. 14.  5    |               indicators for a European surveillance system and to make recommendations
 45   II,     5. 14.  5    |          sensory or mental impairments. Surveillance to evaluate best practices
 46   II,     5. 14.  6    |            policies, ensure information surveillance and knowledge transfer across
 47   II,     5. 14.  6    |        inequalities in health. However, surveillance programmes are somewhat
 48   II,     5. 14.  7    |             desires and expectations. A surveillance system based on a sociodental
 49   II,     5. 14.  8    |                Bourgeois DM, Baehni PC. Surveillance, epidemiology and periodontal
 50   II,     5. 14.  8    |           Llodra JC (2004): eds. Health Surveillance in Europe. European Global
 51   II,     5. 14.  8    |               The Challenge. In: Health Surveillance in Europe. European Global
 52   II,     6.Acr        |       Haemorrhagic Fever~DSNs~Dedicated Surveillance Networks~ECDC~European Centre
 53   II,     6.  1        |     communicable diseases under EU-wide surveillance as well as the results and
 54   II,     6.  2        |           including EU-funded dedicated surveillance networks (DSNs), and relevant
 55   II,     6.  2        |        important lesson to draw is that surveillance of communicable diseases
 56   II,     6.  3.  1    |            beingpolio free’. However, surveillance and prevention would remain
 57   II,     6.  3.  1    |               for the 49 diseases under surveillance (Table 6.1). Of the 49 diseases,
 58   II,     6.  3.  1    |                 part be due to improved surveillance. In 22 diseases the age
 59   II,     6.  3.  1    |          control are managed and in the surveillance systems (with a consequential
 60   II,     6.  3.  1    |               rely on data from routine surveillance in the Member States. In
 61   II,     6.  3.  1    |           original function of national surveillance systems was the detection
 62   II,     6.  3.  1    |               Furthermore, most routine surveillance systems are built on the
 63   II,     6.  3.  1    |               of diseases under EU-wide surveillance, this ‘classicalview does
 64   II,     6.  3.  1    |                 to a ‘laboratory-based’ surveillance has important implications.
 65   II,     6.  3.  1    |            urgency to effective disease surveillance, prevention and control:
 66   II,     6.  3.  2    |             bacteria and virus under EU surveillance the overall trend is also
 67   II,     6.  3.  2    |         currently collected via several surveillance networks, whilst coverage
 68   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 other bacteria under EU surveillance, such as the intestinal
 69   II,     6.  3.  2    |           participation of countries in surveillance of drug resistance is needed
 70   II,     6.  3.  2    |                   Control tools include surveillance, and other specific measures
 71   II,     6.  3.  2    |               for primary prevention.~ ~Surveillance~ ~AMR is a phenomenon that
 72   II,     6.  3.  2    |                the demands on effective surveillance systems are immense. The
 73   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 immense. The current EU surveillance networks are focused on
 74   II,     6.  3.  2    |              within countries. Ideally, surveillance of AMR should work on three
 75   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 EU-level (and national) surveillance only covers the first of
 76   II,     6.  3.  2    |              levels. Further developing surveillance of AMR is therefore a priority.~ ~
 77   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 programme that includes surveillance. National or regional surveillance
 78   II,     6.  3.  2    |      surveillance. National or regional surveillance is mostly performed in the
 79   II,     6.  3.  2    |           performed in the context of a surveillance network of hospitals, whereby
 80   II,     6.  3.  2    |               and microbiologists, HCAI surveillance is labour-intensive and
 81   II,     6.  3.  2    |            still do not have a national surveillance network for nosocomial infections,
 82   II,     6.  3.  2    |                 control programmes with surveillance.~ ~
 83   II,     6.  3.  3    |           Europe. Even though available surveillance data have to be interpreted
 84   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 cause for concern. AIDS surveillance is therefore no longer relevant
 85   II,     6.  3.  3    |                 epidemic in Europe.~ ~ ~Surveillance data on HIV/AIDS are collected
 86   II,     6.  3.  3    |                collected by the EuroHIV surveillance network in the 53 countries
 87   II,     6.  3.  3    |                000). However, different surveillance systems operate in these
 88   II,     6.  3.  3    |              increase may possibly be a surveillance artefact. In 2005, more
 89   II,     6.  3.  3    |              the list of diseases under surveillance at national level, the currently
 90   II,     6.  3.  4    |              there is a need to improve surveillance on risk groups and drug
 91   II,     6.  3.  4    |            results with epidemiological surveillance data. The overall decline
 92   II,     6.  3.  4    |                reported to the EWGLINET surveillance scheme by 15 Member States,
 93   II,     6.  3.  5    |               of the diseases for which surveillance figures are most reliable:
 94   II,     6.  3.  5    |            there is a need for enhanced surveillance both of the occurrence of
 95   II,     6.  3.  6    |          prevent and control. Effective surveillance of this group of diseases
 96   II,     6.  3.  6    |               several of these diseases surveillance has improved considerably
 97   II,     6.  3.  6    |               should be included in the surveillance. The available vaccine for
 98   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  even the best national surveillance systems miss the majority
 99   II,     6.  3.  6    |            symptoms of gastroenteritis. Surveillance of these diseases remains
100   II,     6.  3.  6    |                 the future. An enhanced surveillance for all food-borne diseases (
101   II,     6.  3.  6    |                diseases currently under surveillance needs to be reviewed with
102   II,     6.  3.  6    |                could be due to improved surveillance systems (particularly in
103   II,     6.  3.  6    |               large differences between surveillance systems make comparisons
104   II,     6.  3.  6    |               due to differences in the surveillance systems.~ ~Echinococcosis~ ~
105   II,     6.  3.  7    |              certain animal reservoirs. Surveillance has not been established
106   II,     6.  3.  7    |          tailored monitoring, establish surveillance of outbreaks, monitor risk
107   II,     6.  3.  7    |             only tularaemia is under EU surveillance. This is a disease mainly
108   II,     6.  3.  7    |           imported. The main reason for surveillance of malaria is not to discover
109   II,     6.  3.  7    |                 health. More systematic surveillance data are needed in order
110   II,     6.  3.  7    |                premises. European-level surveillance data are incomplete, but
111   II,     6.  3.  7    |                cases in Europe, malaria surveillance is focused on travellers’
112   II,     6.  4.  1    |                                  6.4.1. Surveillance~ ~Commission Decision 2000/
113   II,     6.  4.  1    |             progressively under EU-wide surveillance and the criteria for their
114   II,     6.  4.  1    |         facilitated by well-functioning surveillance systems. Surveillance systems
115   II,     6.  4.  1    |  well-functioning surveillance systems. Surveillance systems provide information
116   II,     6.  4.  1    |                 for the epidemiological surveillance and control of communicable
117   II,     6.  4.  1    |                 through epidemiological surveillance and investigation.~ ~
118   II,     6.  4.  3    |            coordination of responses;~· surveillance and networking;~· reference
119   II,     6.  4.  3    |              health (European Influenza Surveillance Scheme) and research projects
120   II,     6.  4.  4    |                ECDC~ ~The activities on surveillance, scientific advice and risk
121   II,     6.  4.  4    |      transmitting information under the surveillance schemes and networks that
122   II,     6.  4.  4    |          develop continent-wide disease surveillance and early warning systems.
123   II,     6.  4.  4    |                 for the Epidemiological Surveillance and Control. The ECDC assists
124   II,     6.  4.  5    |              but also through:~ ~· food surveillance with the aim of monitoring
125   II,     6.  4.  5    |                European network for the surveillance of the occurrence of resistant
126   II,     6.  4.  5    |            agents in all sectors. These surveillance systems must co-operate
127   II,     6.  4.  5    |              Network on epidemiological surveillance and control of communicable
128   II,     7.  1        |               actions to enhance injury surveillance, injury prevention and safety
129   II,     7.  2        |              collectively called injury surveillance systems. Several data sources
130   II,     7.  3.  1    |            important setting for injury surveillance.~ ~Table 7.1. Comprehensive
131   II,     7.  3.  4    |                 time of injury~ ~Injury surveillance in the home and leisure
132   II,     7.  3.  4    |        prevention-oriented „all injurysurveillance system such as the EU Injury
133   II,     7.  3.  4    |               specially designed injury surveillance systems is widely advocated
134   II,     7.  3.  5    |            result in serious injuriessurveillance systems for reporting and
135   II,     7.  4        |         indicators.~(See: htt ~ ~Injury surveillance systems in the different
136   II,     7.  5        |                   ii) to develop injury surveillance instruments; (iii) to strengthen
137   II,     7.  5        |            Implement appropriate injury surveillance and reporting systems as
138   II,     7.  5        |           develop representative injury surveillance instruments to obtain EU-wide
139   II,     7.  5        |              specific actions regarding surveillance, national action plans,
140   II,     7.  5        |                For what concerns injury surveillance, the following guideline
141   II,     7.  5        |                to be mentioned: “Injury Surveillance Guidelines” which discusses
142   II,     7.  5        | hospitalizations (discharge registers), surveillance of external causes like
143   II,     7.  6        |                for: establishing injury surveillance and information; formulating
144   II,     7.  7        |                 E (Eds.) (2001): Injury Surveillance guidelines. Geneva, World
145   II,     7.  7        |       Organization (WHO) (2001): Injury surveillance guidelines. Geneva, World
146   II,     9            |      Pharmacovigilance or postmarketing surveillance of drugs taken during pregnancy
147   II,     9.  1.  1    |            surveys and registers, SCPE (Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe),
148   II,     9.  1.  1    |               and future priorities for surveillance~ ~While greatly reduced,
149   II,     9.  1.  1    |      childbearing remain a priority for surveillance in Europe, there are compelling
150   II,     9.  1.  1    |               of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Jama 2000;284(7):
151   II,     9.  1.  1    |               of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Jama 284(7):843-
152   II,     9.  1.  1    |                 Schlaeder G (1997) : La surveillance prenatale de routine en
153   II,     9.  1.  1    |               2006;195(3):764-70.~SCPE (Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe) (
154   II,     9.  1.  1    |                Palsy in Europe) (2000): Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe:
155   II,     9.  1.  1    |            Ischemic Encephalopathy~SCPE~Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe~
156   II,     9.  1.  2    |                focus of epidemiological surveillance through congenital anomaly
157   II,     9.  1.  2    |             sources~ ~EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies)
158   II,     9.  1.  2    |          Clearinghouse for Birth Defect Surveillance and Research (www ). Many
159   II,     9.  1.  2    |      Pharmacovigilance or postmarketing surveillance of drugs taken during pregnancy
160   II,     9.  1.  2    |          Linzalone N, Madeddu A (2004): Surveillance of congenital malformations
161   II,     9.  1.  2    |                   Towards the Effective Surveillance of Hypospadias", Environmental
162   II,     9.  1.  2    |              2002a): “EUROCAT Report 8: Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies
163   II,     9.  3.  1    |             countries routinely collect surveillance data on infection with genital
164   II,     9.  3.  1    |               EuroHIV (2006) : HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. Mid-year report
165   II,     9.  3.  2    |            induced abortions, antenatal surveillance program data), a pregnancy
166   II,     9.  3.  2    |              deaths. A priority for the surveillance of the health of pregnant
167   II,     9.  3.  2    |               of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Jama 2000;284(7):
168   II,     9.  3.  2    |                 Schlaeder G (1997) : La surveillance prenatale de routine en
169   II,     9.  3.  2    |              1986;46(4):545-66.~ ~SCPE (Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe) (
170   II,     9.  3.  2    |                Palsy in Europe) (2000): Surveillance of cerebral palsy in Europe:
171   II,     9.  4.  3    |                reserve of infection, as surveillance and epidemiological studies
172   II,     9.  4.  7    |                 G. (2007): Tuberculosis surveillance in aged people: a neglected
173  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|           Drugs-related infections. HIV surveillance among IDUs in Europe consists
174  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|        countries have varying levels of surveillance implementation and investment.
175  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|        monitored through seroprevalence surveillance and through notification
176  III,    10.  2.  1(11)|                       EuroHIV. HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. End-year report
177  III,    10.  2.  1    |             will be the epidemiological surveillance of the misuse of prescribed
178  III,    10.  2.  1    |                EURO-HIV (2005) HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe. Available at: htt ~ ~
179  III,    10.  2.  1    |            sample registration systems, surveillance systems, national survey
180  III,    10.  2.  1    |         Bourgeois DM, Baehni PC (2003): Surveillance, epidemiology and periodontal
181  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Llodra JC, eds. Health Surveillance in Europe. European Global
182  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Norblad A (2005): Health surveillance in Europe. A selection of
183  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 2.1.6.2. Data sources~ ~Surveillance of physical activity can
184  III,    10.  2.  1    |             fact that physical activity surveillance is still a young field,
185  III,    10.  2.  1    |               WHO, 2006c): Based on the Surveillance of Risk Factors (SuRF) programme,
186  III,    10.  2.  1    |        measurable goals and indicators. Surveillance of levels of physical activity
187  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Global Physical activity Surveillance [web site]. World Health
188  III,    10.  2.  1    |              are central in nutritional surveillance; when they are repeated
189  III,    10.  2.  1    |         nutrition and physical activity surveillance system for the EU27 as one
190  III,    10.  2.  1    |              European childhood obesity surveillance initiative aimed at measuring
191  III,    10.  2.  1    |              national and international surveillance systems on nutritional status,
192  III,    10.  2.  1    |             2003): National nutritional surveillance programme, 1993-2002. Bucharest, "
193  III,    10.  2.  4    |                the existing concepts of surveillance and health statistics. As
194  III,    10.  2.  4    |           Current health statistics and surveillance systems do not cover underlying
195  III,    10.  2.  4    |           prevalence of diseases if the surveillance is purely based on phenotypic
196  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 tools of monitoring and surveillance do not reflect the needs
197  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 not have monitoring and surveillance systems at present which
198  III,    10.  2.  4    |       indicators, health statistics and surveillance, the upcoming genomic knowledge
199  III,    10.  2.  4    |           setting up new biobanking and surveillance projects which are designed
200  III,    10.  3.  2    |               from environmental health surveillance and epidemiology, the causal
201  III,    10.  3.  2    |         associated risks. Environmental surveillance and epidemiology have to
202  III,    10.  3.  3    |                Of the 49 diseases under surveillance by the European Centre for
203  III,    10.  3.  3    |                 part be due to improved surveillance represents a great concern.
204  III,    10.  3.  3    |    participating in the EU-funded EARSS surveillance program, including countries
205  III,    10.  3.  3    |                 other bacteria under EU surveillance the overall trend is also
206  III,    10.  3.  4    |                control, epidemiological surveillance and basic health care, chemical
207  III,    10.  3.  4    |                  A communicable disease surveillance system was in place and
208  III,    10.  3.  4    |                measures such as disease surveillance, water analysis and treatment,
209  III,    10.  3.  4    |                impact was ‘unforeseen’, surveillance for heat wave deaths was
210  III,    10.  3.  4    |                health and environmental surveillance, re-evaluation of care for
211  III,    10.  4.  2    |              across Member States. Such surveillance is often targeted to problem
212  III,    10.  4.  2(33)|                 for the epidemiological surveillance and control of communicable
213  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 years later when active surveillance proved the presence of BSE
214  III,    10.  4.  2    |           pesticides were sought in the surveillance samples of fruit and vegetables.
215  III,    10.  4.  2    |             generally have a nationwide surveillance programme to monitor pesticide
216  III,    10.  4.  2    |             bread and milk), the annual surveillance programme includes a rolling
217  III,    10.  4.  2    |                is the lowest level that surveillance laboratories can achieve
218  III,    10.  4.  2    |            residue data. In the mid-90s surveillance methods used gas liquid
219  III,    10.  4.  2    |               the analytical results of surveillance laboratories over the last
220  III,    10.  4.  2    |              risk, food and feed safety surveillance and other monitoring activities
221  III,    10.  4.  2    |              purpose, including routine surveillance checks and more intensive
222  III,    10.  4.  3    |               reflect the efficiency of surveillance and reporting systems rather
223  III,    10.  4.  5    |                to adopt epidemiological surveillance programs in areas impacted
224  III,    10.  4.  5    |                in which epidemiological surveillance appears to be appropriate,
225  III,    10.  6.  3    |            result in serious injuriessurveillance systems for reporting and
226   IV,    12.  5        |              this respect have been the surveillance of infectious diseases which
227   IV,    12.  5        |               of national public health surveillance for a long time.~ ~Typically
228   IV,    12.  5        |            diseases not under mandatory surveillance)~- Active Surveillance Measures(
229   IV,    12.  5        |        mandatory surveillance)~- Active Surveillance Measures(e. g. Notifiable
230   IV,    12.  8        |                 for the epidemiological surveillance and control of communicable
231   IV,    12. 10        |                 closely controlled: its surveillance is part of the responsibilities
232   IV,    12. 10        |               charge of epidemiological surveillance and especially the European
233   IV,    12. 10        |             Institute for public Health Surveillance and at regional level theses
234   IV,    12. 10        |            transpose.~ - Development of surveillance system of swimming-pools
235   IV,    12. 10        |                waters;~- Development of surveillance system of drinking water.~ ~