Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1       |             that health is not only a cost for Society, but may largely
  2    I,     2. 10.  4   |          efficient way and at a lower cost than manual identification
  3    I,     2. 10.  4   |           safety incidents, which may cost around £2 billion/year in
  4    I,     2. 10.  4   |               Italy resulted in a 30% cost reduction in the drug supply
  5    I,     2. 10.  4   |         recognised by another and the cost burden to the stakeholders
  6   II,     5.  1.  3   |            contribute to reducing the cost of long-term care for patients
  7   II,     5.  2.  4   |             to obtain due to the high cost of health examination surveys.
  8   II,     5.  3.  2   |              life, hospitalisation or cost per case have to be collected
  9   II,     5.  3.  2   |               activity in the EU. The cost of human and capital resources
 10   II,     5.  3.  7   |                The rapidly increasing cost of anticancer drugs and
 11   II,     5.  3.  7   |        metastatic cancer and thus the cost of treatment is rapidly
 12   II,     5.  3.  7   |               at a minimal additional cost.~ ~The 2007 Portuguese Presidency
 13   II,     5.  4.  1   |           lack of sanitation, and low cost food constitute a threatening
 14   II,     5.  4.  1   |               2000) observed that the cost profile during the natural
 15   II,     5.  4.  2   |            the outcome and reduce the cost of this chronic disease.~
 16   II,     5.  4.  8   |         Advisory Board, Revealing the cost of Type II diabetes in Europe.
 17   II,     5.  4.  8   |           sheet no 236. Diabetes: the cost of diabetes. Revised September
 18   II,     5.  5.  1   |       Kennelly B (2007). The economic cost of suicide in Ireland. Crisis
 19   II,     5.  5.  1   |              and Huber.~ ~S C (2006). Cost of depression in Europe.
 20   II,     5.  5.  2   |        analysis of the socio-economic cost of Alzheimer’s disease.~ ~
 21   II,     5.  5.  3   |            with respect to morbidity, cost, suffering, and function.
 22   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Wittchen HU, Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain
 23   II,     5.  5.  3   |  Andlin-Sobocki P, & Rössler W (2005):Cost of psychotic disorders in
 24   II,     5.  5.  3   |             that children with autism cost £2.7 billion (Euros 3.8
 25   II,     5.  5.  3   |               of the overall economic cost of autism in the UK.~Since
 26   II,     5.  5.  3   |             MS social costs are high. Cost data were extrapolated for
 27   II,     5.  5.  3   |             presented as total annual cost per patient in 2005, total
 28   II,     5.  5.  3   |           additional8 billion. The cost per MS case in Europe ranges
 29   II,     5.  5.  3   |            amount to 56% of the total cost, and within these, drug
 30   II,     5.  5.  3   |            only represent 7% of total cost, explaining the intense
 31   II,     5.  5.  3   |              1. Distribution of total cost of MS in Europe (year 2005)
 32   II,     5.  5.  3   |            represent 22% of the total cost. No reliable estimates of
 33   II,     5.  5.  3   |             reliable estimates of the cost of premature death were
 34   II,     5.  5.  3   |              environment in which the cost of the disease of MS on
 35   II,     5.  5.  3   |            the economics of (i.e. the cost of illness of) MS.~This
 36   II,     5.  5.  3   |              2007): Estimation of the cost of MS in Europe: Extrapolations
 37   II,     5.  5.  3   |   Extrapolations from a multinational cost study. Mult Scler 13(8):
 38   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Goetz and Stebbins, 1993).~ ~Cost of illness~A recent study,
 39   II,     5.  5.  3   |      Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005). The cost per case differed significantly
 40   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Switzerland) with an average cost per patient of €7,600.~ ~
 41   II,     5.  5.  3   |              600.~ ~Figure 5.5.3.6.2. Cost per case in PD in selected
 42   II,     5.  5.  3   |                PPP, 2004)~ ~The total cost of PD was estimated at €
 43   II,     5.  5.  3   |            and EFTA countries. Direct cost outside the formal healthcare
 44   II,     5.  5.  3   |              the single most dominant cost category totalling €6.1
 45   II,     5.  5.  3   |         constituting 57% of the total cost. Direct healthcare cost
 46   II,     5.  5.  3   |               cost. Direct healthcare cost totalled to €4.6 billion.
 47   II,     5.  5.  3   |        largest part of the healthcare cost, estimated at €1.9 billion.
 48   II,     5.  5.  3   |             of PD.~The prevalence and cost data were stratified according
 49   II,     5.  5.  3   |           stages of PD (HY I) average cost are €3,400 per patient,
 50   II,     5.  5.  3   |              per patient, whereas the cost for severely disabled PD
 51   II,     5.  5.  3   |                     Figure 5.5.3.6.3. Cost of Parkinson’s disease stratified
 52   II,     5.  5.  3   |         services and society, ii) the cost of PD markedly increase
 53   II,     5.  5.  3   |              iii) the majority of the cost of PD can be found outside
 54   II,     5.  5.  3   |               almost 60% of the total cost of PD. These results are
 55   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Spottke et al, 2005). Direct cost only reflect a small portion
 56   II,     5.  5.  3   | single-households” in the future.~The cost per patient was found to
 57   II,     5.  5.  3   |              show the highest average cost for PD in countries with
 58   II,     5.  5.  3   |             included a broad range of cost categories and of similar
 59   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Wittchen HU, Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain
 60   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Dujardin M, Ziegler M (1999): Cost of illness and disease severity
 61   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Siebert U, Dodel R (2005): Cost of Parkinson’s disease in
 62   II,     5.  5.  3   |             DJ (2007): Predicting the cost of Parkinson’s disease.
 63   II,     5.  5.  3   |                Ulm G, Dodel R (2005): Cost of illness and its predictors
 64   II,     5.  6.  3   |               1999).~ ~In the Swedish Cost of Illness Study, musculoskeletal
 65   II,     5.  6.  3   |       representing 22.6% of the total cost of illness (Jacobson and
 66   II,     5.  6.  3   |               second as a health care cost in 1994 (Meerding et al,
 67   II,     5.  6.  3   |          Joint replacement is a major cost. Total hip replacement rates,
 68   II,     5.  6.  3   |               The direct and indirect cost of illness are twice as
 69   II,     5.  6.  3   |            enormous. About 90% of the cost of back pain is indirect
 70   II,     5.  6.  4   |            disability. This has major cost implications and represents
 71   II,     5.  6.  4   |               1998). The total direct cost for health services due
 72   II,     5.  6.  6   |      healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of illness study. BMJ 317:
 73   II,     5.  7.  1   |                ESRD and the resulting cost of renal replacement treatments
 74   II,     5.  7.  1   |              pre ESRD phase entails a cost excess of $26.000 per case
 75   II,     5.  7.  7   |            Keith DS, Brown JB (2004): Cost of medical care for chronic
 76   II,     5.  8.  3   |                  The Northern Ireland Cost and Epidemiology of Chronic
 77   II,     5.  8.  3   |               that the overall annual cost for COPD in Europe (excluding
 78   II,     5.  8.  3   |             the average total medical cost of every COPD patient was
 79   II,     5.  8.  3   |              of the total direct COPD cost was directed to hospitalisations
 80   II,     5.  8.  3   |               FEV1. The total medical cost for COPD patients in France
 81   II,     5.  8.  3   |           that, considering the total cost for treatment of 40+ year
 82   II,     5.  8.  3   |           Bilde et al, 2007). The net cost for COPD patients was 256
 83   II,     5.  8.  3   |           five-year period. The total cost was 544,547 Euro. Average
 84   II,     5.  8.  3   |       hospital was 11.37 days and the cost of treatment per patient
 85   II,     5.  8.  3   |             patients, length of stay, cost of treatment) were higher
 86   II,     5.  8.  5   |              patients at a reasonable cost.~ ~Policies~ ~Different
 87   II,     5.  8.  7   |      Borgeskov H, Lange P (2007): The cost of treating patients with
 88   II,     5.  9. FB   |        present no risk and have a low cost.~ ~All exposure to tobacco smoke
 89   II,     5.  9. FB   |         systems for then reducing the cost of the allergenic care for
 90   II,     5.  9.  3   |         systems but then reducing the cost of the allergenic care to
 91   II,     5.  9.  3   |               as a whole.~ ~The total cost of care for asthma amounts
 92   II,     5.  9.  3   |               more than a half of the cost imposed by the disease on
 93   II,     5.  9.  3   |               37% of the total direct cost of asthma; hospital costs
 94   II,     5.  9.  3   |          costs were 20-25%: inpatient cost were the major component (
 95   II,     5.  9.  3   |               five-year period. Total cost was 90 771 Euro. Average
 96   II,     5.  9.  3   |        hospital was 9.85 days and the cost of treatment per patient
 97   II,     5.  9.  3   |             patients, length of stay, cost of treatment) was higher
 98   II,     5. 10.  4   |            step to calculate the real cost and social burden linked
 99   II,     5. 10.  4   |       intolerance goes far beyond the cost of diagnosis, treatment
100   II,     5. 10.  7   |                2007): The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy
101   II,     5. 11.  4   |           diseases, with much of that cost being borne by patients
102   II,     5. 11.  6   |             prevalence, incidence and cost of skin diseases is required
103   II,     5. 11.  7   |           Roijen L, et al (2002): The cost of atopic dermatitis in
104   II,     5. 12.  5   |         related to a fall in the real cost of alcoholic beverages,
105   II,     5. 13       |               a compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including
106   II,     5. 14.  3   |  decision-making and would reduce the cost of care for periodontal
107   II,     5. 15.  1   |             threshold under which the cost of developing a drug will
108   II,     5. 15.  3   |              available to date.~ ~The cost of treating RD and caring
109   II,     6.  3.  1(3)|      incidence, morbidity, mortality, cost, burden, etc., and to suggest
110   II,     6.  3.  1   |               16 million) in 2004 the cost attributable to norovirus
111   II,     6.  3.  1   |                The 2003 SARS outbreak cost some countries about 1%
112   II,     6.  3.  1   |             sectors; and~· health and cost consequences of recent high
113   II,     7.  5       |      substantial proportion of direct cost related to injury is absorbed
114   II,     8.  2.  1   |              of unmet dental need and cost barriers to care for developmentally
115   II,     9.  1.  2   |      provision, quality and financial cost of medical, social and educational
116   II,     9.  1.  2   |      provision, quality and financial cost of prenatal screening in
117   II,     9.  1.  2   |      population and its psychological cost to pregnant women.~ ~Congenital (“
118   II,     9.  2.  2   |               minor inconvenience and cost of producing an additional
119   II,     9.  3.  1   |            accidents are estimated to cost the EU about 20 billion
120   II,     9.  4.  5   |             on quality, standards and cost control - often centrally
121   II,     9.  4.  5   |            interest of efficiency and cost effectiveness and of ensuring
122   II,     9.  4.  5   |  professionals and patients integrate cost considerations into their
123   II,     9.  4.  6   |            For example, the financial cost of placing people with dementia
124   II,     9.  5.  3   |             Women’s Aid, 2004).~ ~The cost of domestic violence to
125   II,     9.  5.  3   |          England & Wales in 2004, the cost of intimate partner violence
126   II,     9.  5.  3   |              violence in a family may cost society 185 000 Finnish
127  III,    10.  1.  1   |   non-alcoholic drinks as well as the cost of alcohol are examples
128  III,    10.  2.  1   |     interventions are the second most cost effective way to spend health
129  III,    10.  2.  1   |        Lapsley HM (200): Counting the cost: Estimate of the social
130  III,    10.  2.  1   |              harm also has its social cost, which has been estimated
131  III,    10.  2.  1   |              10.2.1.2.5. The tangible cost of alcohol in Europe per
132  III,    10.  2.  1   |              of alcohol in Europe per cost element (year 2003)~ ~
133  III,    10.  2.  1   |             place, this occurs at the cost of an overall increase in
134  III,    10.  2.  1   |           Review of effectiveness and cost effectiveness - Main report (
135  III,    10.  2.  1   |               physical inactivity can cost a country about €150-300
136  III,    10.  2.  1   |               a compilation of direct cost studies worldwide including
137  III,    10.  2.  4   |               high-throughput and low cost sequencing, are already
138  III,    10.  3.  1   |              estimate that the social cost of road noise pollution
139  III,    10.  3.  1   |      completed by 2018, at an overall cost of around EUR 4 billion (
140  III,    10.  3.  2   |            than the GDP. The economic cost of late action — both in
141  III,    10.  4.  1   |                web site).~ ~The total cost of air pollution related
142  III,    10.  4.  1   |           lost (VOLY).~This estimated cost of non-action has to be
143  III,    10.  4.  1   |               has to be compared with cost of action focused on different
144  III,    10.  4.  1   |               and national level. The cost of action has been calculated
145  III,    10.  4.  1   |             to over 20%. The societal cost is estimated at 3 billion
146  III,    10.  4.  5   |          build consensus.~ ~Since the cost of hazardous waste disposal
147  III,    10.  5.  1   |            Miller DM, Meek F, (2004): Cost and efficacy comparison
148  III,    10.  5.  3   |      mortality. This was estimated to cost about €24.4 billion. Additionally,
149  III,    10.  5.  3   |             per 1000 population) at a cost of € 10.8 billion. Thus,
150  III,    10.  5.  3   |                in order to reduce the cost of implementing the relative
151  III,    10.  5.  3   |                       EUROGIP (2004): Cost and funding of occupational
152  III,    10.  6.  1   |           McLeod J, Wethington E. The cost of caring: a perspective
153   IV,    11.  1.  3   |       concerns towards efficiency and cost containment (OECD 2007).
154   IV,    11.  1.  3   |               more complicated as the cost of health care continues
155   IV,    11.  1.  3   |            this context of increasing cost pressure on European health
156   IV,    11.  1.  3   |                             11.1.3.1. Cost pressures and performance
157   IV,    11.  1.  3   |               equality of coverage to cost containment and increasing
158   IV,    11.  1.  3   |       efficiency; and only short-term cost savings (Cutler, 2002).
159   IV,    11.  1.  3   |             largely by: a) increasing cost sharing; b) introducing
160   IV,    11.  1.  4   |        factors, such as the degree of cost sharing in the system. In
161   IV,    11.  1.  4   |             countries that do rely on cost sharing arrangements, extensive
162   IV,    11.  1.  5   |              care~ ~After a period of cost containment and efforts
163   IV,    11.  1.  5   |        Further challenges include the cost of acquiring information
164   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               service at a reasonable cost to maintain the confidence
165   IV,    11.  1.  6   |            services provided, and the cost of services do not affect
166   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             1980s, leading to initial cost savings and efficiency improvements.
167   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             dumping’ of complex, high cost patients (Busse et al, 2006).
168   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               reimbursement. Finally, cost shifting and quality skimping
169   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             hospitals with predefined cost accounting standards (including
170   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               directly by the average cost per DRG, while in other
171   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               in other countries, DRG cost weights are used. Whether
172   IV,    11.  1.  6   |           other factors affecting the cost of service delivery. These
173   IV,    11.  1.  6   |        Austria, hospitals became more cost conscious, hospital activities
174   IV,    11.  2.  1   |         because of the perceived high cost of hospital care, the challenges
175   IV,    11.  2.  2   |            public health intervention cost effectiveness evaluation
176   IV,    11.  2.  2   |           base on the availability of cost effective pharmaceutical
177   IV,    11.  3.  2   |           2007). This could be due to cost containment efforts throughout
178   IV,    11.  3.  2   |              must bare the additional cost of a more expensive product.
179   IV,    11.  3.  2   |         suggests, however, that where cost savings through reference
180   IV,    11.  3.  2   |           what level to reimburse the cost of drugs to the insurance
181   IV,    11.  3.  2   |           products (2005)~ ~The total cost of pharmaceuticals to society
182   IV,    11.  3.  2   |              Hungary, have the lowest cost.~ ~Research and development
183   IV,    11.  6       |         levels of coverage (including cost sharing), and how benefits
184   IV,    11.  6.  2   |        purchasing, defining benefits, cost sharing. The implications
185   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          covered) and depth (level of cost sharing) of coverage varies
186   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         protection. In some countries cost sharing has been introduced
187   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         reductions. Careful design of cost sharing policies is needed
188   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             European health systems), cost sharing for services in
189   IV,    11.  6.  2   |    out-of-pocket payment include both cost sharing and direct payments) (
190   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           taxes can be used to reduce cost sharing or finance care
191   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             98% of those eligible for cost sharing) (Thomson, Foubister
192   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             form of tax relief on the cost of premiums (Colombo and
193   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              pure privatepayments), cost sharing (individuals who
194   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         funded by the public system). Cost sharing exists to some extent
195   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             The three forms of direct cost sharing consist of: co-payment,
196   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               proportion of the total cost; and deductible, wherein
197   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               benefit to them. Hence, cost sharing is expected to improve
198   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           budgets are under pressure, cost sharing has also been argued
199   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               by supply side factors, cost containment in the long-term
200   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             unlikely to result from a cost sharing arrangement. Finally,
201   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               of the literature shows cost sharing for prescription
202   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           out-of-pocket payments into cost sharing, direct payments
203   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              be due to an increase in cost sharing but may also reflect
204   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             States have in place some cost sharing for services covered
205   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            package. In all countries, cost sharing is applied to pharmaceuticals
206   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             EU countries also require cost sharing for ambulatory physician
207   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               at the point of use but cost sharing is applied to inpatient
208   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          Austria. For inpatient care, cost sharing tends to be in the
209   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           Prescription drugs may have cost sharing in the form of a
210   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         individuals must pay the full cost of prescription drugs up
211   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              the newer Member States, cost sharing for ambulatory physicians
212   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              been introduced to limit cost sharing, e.g. in Estonia
213   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              sharing, e.g. in Estonia cost sharing for primary care
214   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            European countries require cost sharing for at least some
215   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               Also in some countries, cost sharing arrangements were
216   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             Table 11.13. Examples for cost sharing exemptions~ ~ ~Clinical
217   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               cannot afford the extra cost are unable to obtain treatment,
218   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               is needed to enable the cost of each plan or insurance
219   IV,    11.  6.  4   |             socioeconomic status (and cost variation)~Estonia~Taxation
220   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            low birthweight (and rural cost adjustment)~Norway~Norwegian
221   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           based)~Age, sex, mortality (cost adjustment for sparse population)~
222   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              package and the level of cost sharing in the system; where
223   IV,    11.  6.  5   |                A literature review of cost sharing for prescription
224   IV,    11.  6.  5   |                 2004): An overview of cost sharing for health services
225   IV,    11.  6.  5   |          appropriate role for patient cost sharing. Critical challenges
226   IV,    11.  6.  5   |                1999): Health care and cost containment in the European
227   IV,    11.  6.  5   |      Scitovsky AA (1984): " 'The high cost of dying': what do the data
228   IV,    11.  6.  5   |             Understanding health care cost drivers and escalators.
229   IV,    11.  6.  5   |            Mossialos E et al. (2003): Cost sharing for health services
230   IV,    12.  2       |              place, it does so at the cost of an overall increase in
231   IV,    13.Acr       |               recent inclusion of the cost effectiveness evaluation
232   IV,    13.  5       |        concerns about the quality and cost of institutional care are
233   IV,    13.  6.  1   |           earning of the parent(s);~· Cost to society of health care
234   IV,    13.  9       |         Wittchen HU, Olesen J (2005): Cost of disorders of the brain