Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  3    |        fertility and extended life expectancy on the age distribution
  2    I,     2.  4    |   substantial inequalities in life expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among
  3    I,     2.  4    |      inequalities in 'healthy life expectancy' (number of years lived
  4    I,     2.  5    |    improved health status and life expectancy, reforms and modernisation
  5    I,     2.  5    |            to the increase in life expectancy. With increased reliance
  6    I,     2.  6    |         the large increase of life expectancy and the rapidly charging
  7    I,     3.Acr    |    International Migration~LE Life Expectancy~NMS New Member States of
  8    I,     3.  2    |        fertility and extended life expectancy on the age distribution
  9    I,     3.  3    |      fertility and increasing life expectancy. Young populations normally
 10    I,     3.  3    |         woman) and mortality (life expectancy) in combination with the
 11    I,     3.  3    |            or declines, or if life expectancy changes.~ ~Figure 3.4. Age
 12    I,     3.  3    |          effect of increasing life expectancy. Migration usually only
 13    I,     3.  3    |           and by an increased life expectancy. In 2004, Italy was the
 14   II,     4.Acr    |          DFLE~Disability Free Life Expectancy (DFLE0 at birth; DFLE65
 15   II,     4.Acr    |        Panel~EHEMU~European Health Expectancy Monitoring Unit~EHIS~European
 16   II,     4.Acr    |         Healthy Life Years~LE~Life Expectancy (LE0 at birth; LE65 at 65
 17   II,     4.  1    |                          4.1. Life expectancy and healthy life years~ ~
 18   II,     4.  1    |         years~ ~In 1980, male life expectancy was around 70 years as compared
 19   II,     4.  1    |             a further rise in life expectancy is expected.~Whether the
 20   II,     4.  1    |            time, increases in life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) were used
 21   II,     4.  1    |            as disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). These indicators
 22   II,     4.  1    |  previously, on the quantity (life expectancy) by dividing life expectancy
 23   II,     4.  1    |       expectancy) by dividing life expectancy into life spent in various
 24   II,     4.  1    |        Life Years” (HLY), a health expectancy indicator among the Structural
 25   II,     4.  1    |        continued inclusion of life expectancy at birth (and at age 50
 26   II,     4.  1    |    measures the proportion of life expectancy lived in good health.~ ~
 27   II,     4.  1    |          review the trends in life expectancy at birth and at 65 in the
 28   II,     4.  1    |    interrelationships between life expectancy and HLY as the preliminary
 29   II,     4.  1    |        through the European Health Expectancy Monitoring Unit (EHEMU)
 30   II,     4.  1    |           the EHEMU website.1 Life expectancy estimates for 2005 were
 31   II,     4.  1    |           see above).~ ~All health expectancy calculations were made following
 32   II,     4.  1    |    estimating disability-free life expectancy from cross-sectional data (
 33   II,     4.  1    |             EU25) per gender: life expectancy (LE), Healthy Life Years (
 34   II,     4.  1    |       LEwSL) and the ratio of life expectancy to the Healthy Life Years
 35   II,     4.  1    |          gaps.~ ~Table 4.1.1. Life expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (
 36   II,     4.  1    |          and 77% of the total life expectancy at birth for men and women,
 37   II,     4.  1    |       Although in 2005 the EU life expectancy at birth ranks amongst the
 38   II,     4.  1    |          62% and 57% of total life expectancy respectively. This provides
 39   II,     4.  1    |          and 49% of the total life expectancy for men and women respectively.
 40   II,     4.  1    |   proportion of their shorter life expectancy free of activity limitations.
 41   II,     4.  1    |            gives estimates of life expectancy (LE65 ) and disability-free
 42   II,     4.  1    |           and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE65 ) at 65 as well
 43   II,     4.  1    |        survey.~ ~Table 4.1.2. Life expectancy and Disability-free life
 44   II,     4.  1    |           and Disability-free life expectancy at the age of 65 in EU15~ ~
 45   II,     4.  1    |      disability than in total life expectancy, resulting in a slight decrease
 46   II,     4.  1    |       shows 10-year trends in life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) in the EU27
 47   II,     4.  1    |          EU27.~ ~Table 4.1.3. Life expectancy at birth (LE0), in the European
 48   II,     4.  1    |        year period 1995-2005, life expectancy at birth steadily increased
 49   II,     4.  1    |         and maximum values of life expectancy (LE) and Healthy Life Years (
 50   II,     4.  1    |           MS level, values of life expectancy at birth in 2005 range from
 51   II,     4.  1    |            Detailed values of life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) and healthy
 52   II,     4.  1    |            2.~ ~Figure 4.1.1. Life Expectancy, broken down as Healthy
 53   II,     4.  1    |           Men~ ~Figure 4.1.2. Life Expectancy, broken down as Healthy
 54   II,     4.  1    |             for women) of the life expectancy at birth is lived with some
 55   II,     4.  1    |          convergence in their life expectancy values in the aftermath
 56   II,     4.  1    |           increasing trend in life expectancy. However, during the 1960s
 57   II,     4.  1    |      countries, the growth in life expectancy hardly slowed down during
 58   II,     4.  1    |        group, where growth in life expectancy slowed down more in the
 59   II,     4.  1    |           included though its life expectancy trend varied from the mid-1970s,
 60   II,     4.  1    |        presents the values of life expectancy at birth in the EU27, USA
 61   II,     4.  1    |                  Table 4.1.5. Life expectancy at birth (LE0) in the European
 62   II,     4.  1    |      largest increase in male life expectancy over the 10-year period
 63   II,     4.  1    |          to Japan) for female life expectancy.~ ~Since its introduction
 64   II,     4.  2    |                          4.2. Life expectancy and causes of death~ ~ ~
 65   II,     4.  2    |            the EU15 countries life expectancy at birth has increased,
 66   II,     4.  2    |           Slovakia) countries life expectancy has developed less favourably,
 67   II,     4.  2    |           but in recent years life expectancy has been increasing in the
 68   II,     4.  2    |           increasing trend in life expectancy at birth there have been
 69   II,     4.  2    |         future development of life expectancy, one important question
 70   II,     4.  2    |        limit to the growth in life expectancy. Since in recent years the
 71   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy, this question comes down
 72   II,     4.  2    |          be near.~Even though life expectancy has risen in most European
 73   II,     4.  2    |       whether inequalities in life expectancy across European countries
 74   II,     4.  2    |            whether changes in life expectancy at birth across EU countries
 75   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth and at other ages.
 76   II,     4.  2    |       decades.~ ~ ~Pattern of life expectancy changes by age groups. Based
 77   II,     4.  2    |      during the last decades, life expectancy at birth has increased by
 78   II,     4.  2    |          has risen over time. Life expectancy increased by 1.8 years in
 79   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth during the last
 80   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth: for men one third
 81   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy and for women one fourth.
 82   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy, but increasingly declines
 83   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy. For men, age groups 65-
 84   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth, and for women
 85   II,     4.  2    |         the total increase in life expectancy. In the 1990s, the contribution
 86   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth was large: one
 87   II,     4.  2    |   decomposition of changes in life expectancy, EU 15 average.~ ~These
 88   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy in the 1970s. In the 1980s
 89   II,     4.  2    |          cause of the rise of life expectancy. In most countries, mortality
 90   II,     4.  2    |            on the increase in life expectancy in the 1980s, even though
 91   II,     4.  2    |            a larger effect on life expectancy than in the other three
 92   II,     4.  2    |            on the increase in life expectancy in all EU countries. In
 93   II,     4.  2    |    countries, the increase in life expectancy was mainly caused by a decline
 94   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy can be attributed to men
 95   II,     4.  2    |         Eastern EU countries, life expectancy had developed less favourably
 96   II,     4.  2    |           1990s.~ ~Pattern of life expectancy changes by causes of death.
 97   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy at birth in the EU15 since
 98   II,     4.  2    |         fourth of the rise in life expectancy at birth. In addition, the
 99   II,     4.  2    |         fourth in the rise of life expectancy as well. Smoking related
100   II,     4.  2    |            negative impact on life expectancy in the 1970s. For women,
101   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy. The negative impact of
102   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy could not be attributed
103   II,     4.  2    |       diseases to the rise in life expectancy increased to 50% for both
104   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy for men. In addition, in
105   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy. Whereas smoking related
106   II,     4.  2    |            negative impact on life expectancy in the 1970s, due to the
107   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy in the 1990s. In addition,
108   II,     4.  2    |   decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth by cause of death,
109   II,     4.  2    |      Arriaga decomposition of life expectancy by cause of death for selected
110   II,     4.  2    |   decomposition of changes in life expectancy at birth by cause of death,
111   II,     4.  2    |            to the increase in life expectancy since the 1980s, even though
112   II,     4.  2    |            on the increase in life expectancy than circulatory diseases.
113   II,     4.  2    |        negative impact on the life expectancy of women in the 1980s in
114   II,     4.  2    |            positive impact on life expectancy of women in almost all countries.
115   II,     4.  2    |        have a large effect on life expectancy in the 1980s and 1990s.
116   II,     4.  2    |            negative impact on life expectancy of men in 9 out of the 13
117   II,     4.  2    |            negative effect on life expectancy in the Eastern European
118   II,     4.  2    |         the cause of death on life expectancy seems to be similar. The
119   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy since the 1980s has been
120   II,     4.  2    |       shows by how many years life expectancy at birth increased between
121   II,     4.  2    |         the total increase in life expectancy at birth. The table shows
122   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy; the same occurred for women
123   II,     4.  2    |         the total increase in life expectancy.~ ~Table 4.2.4. Contribution
124   II,     4.  2    |        diseases to changes in life expectancy at birth 1980-2000, selected
125   II,     4.  2    |            negative impact on life expectancy in the 1980s for men in
126   II,     4.  2    |            negative impact on life expectancy in 12 of the 13 countries.
127   II,     4.  2    |            related cancers on life expectancy at birth, selected countries.~ ~
128   II,     4.  2    |            of the increase in life expectancy at birth since the 1980s.
129   II,     4.  2    |        limit to the growth in life expectancy, which will manifest itself
130   II,     4.  2    |         the average change in life expectancy at 65 for selected EU countries.
131   II,     4.  2    |         data on the change in life expectancy at 65 during at least three
132   II,     4.  2    |      Average annual change in life expectancy at 65, selected countries.~ ~
133   II,     4.  2    |     countries the increase in life expectancy at 65 for men in the 1990s
134   II,     4.  2    |    countries, the increase in life expectancy for the elderly in the 1990s
135   II,     4.  2    |           other EU countries, life expectancy has increased for the oldest
136   II,     4.  2    |      Average annual change in life expectancy at the age of 80, selected
137   II,     4.  2    | approaching an upper limit of life expectancy as there is no sign of a
138   II,     4.  2    |        2005~ ~Inequalities in life expectancy. One important question
139   II,     4.  2    |         making projections of life expectancy for European countries is
140   II,     4.  2    |            in countries where life expectancy used to be rather low, the
141   II,     4.  2    |            in countries where life expectancy has been relatively high
142   II,     4.  2    |         compares the level of life expectancy at birth across European
143   II,     4.  2    |            annual increase in life expectancy since 1970 it turns out
144   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy in 1970 and the average
145   II,     4.  2    |         which implies that if life expectancy in 1970 is one year higher,
146   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the
147   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the
148   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy in 1970 and the increase
149   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the
150   II,     4.  2    |          between the level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the
151   II,     4.  2    |           converging trend in life expectancy at birth since 1970. If
152   II,     4.  3    |          Team (2005): Healthy life expectancy in the EU 15. Montpellier,
153   II,     4.  3    |        Jagger (2007): Healthy life expectancy in the UN-European region.
154   II,     4.  3    |             2005): Changes in life expectancy in the European Union since
155   II,     5.  3.Acr| Classification of Diseases~LE~Life Expectancy~MOSES~Medical Oncology Status
156   II,     5.  3.  1|         also due to increased life expectancy at birth (LE). In fact,
157   II,     5.  3.  8|          European increase of life expectancy makes cancer a disease of
158   II,     5.  3.  9|         Working Group (2003): Life expectancy and cancer survival in the
159   II,     5.  4.  6|        causes inequalities in life expectancy, health status and access
160   II,     5.  5.  3|    community and have a lower life expectancy. Despite improvements in
161   II,     5.  5.  3|   attributed to the increased life expectancy (followed by an increasing
162   II,     5.  5.  3|           generally increased life expectancy and previous diagnoses.
163   II,     5.  5.  3|        with a 15-year shorter life expectancy than the general population.
164   II,     5.  5.  3|         age at disease onset, life expectancy at disease onset, age at
165   II,     5.  5.  3|         countries with higher life expectancy are found to also have higher
166   II,     5.  6.  3|            obesity, extending life expectancy will result in greater numbers
167   II,     5.  6.  3|         associated to reduced life expectancy. Mortality is generally
168   II,     5. 11.  4|       associated with reduced life expectancy: collagen vascular diseases,
169   II,     5. 15.  3|        diseases do not affect life expectancy. For 39% of the diseases
170   II,     5. 15.  3|           of the diseases the life expectancy is rather short. An analysis
171   II,     8.  2.  1|          made marked gains in life expectancy in recent decades (WHO 2000).
172   II,     8.  2.  1|         grow in importance as life expectancy increases (Walsh 2005).
173   II,     9        |      studies demonstrate that life expectancy and ‘positive health experiences’
174   II,     9.  3.  1|            of age, the gap in life expectancy, as compared to women, is
175   II,     9.  3.  1|           this male to female life expectancy gap occurs in conditions
176   II,     9.  3.  1|   determinants of the shorter life expectancy in men are most certainly
177   II,     9.  3.  1|            men have a reduced life expectancy coupled with significant
178   II,     9.  3.  1|          60 years, the gap in life expectancy, as compared to women, is
179   II,     9.  3.  1|          is a suggestion that life expectancy without disability is either
180   II,     9.  3.  1|        suggest that increased life expectancy does not bring an increase
181   II,     9.  3.  1|      studies demonstrate that life expectancy and ‘positive health experiences’
182   II,     9.  3.  1|          European level.~ ~As life expectancy continues to increase, a
183   II,     9.  3.  1|          on the gender gap in life expectancy. International Organisation
184   II,     9.  3.  1|    International Network on Health Expectancy and the Disability Process
185   II,     9.  4.  1|           of which are women. Life expectancy for women in the EU is currently
186   II,     9.  4.  3|      estimate disability-free life expectancy. The most recent findings
187   II,     9.  4.  3|           WHO, 1999). Data on life expectancy without disability are limited,
188   II,     9.  4.  3|     limited, but suggest that life expectancy without disability is either
189   II,     9.  4.  3|       suggests that increased life expectancy is not accompanied by an
190   II,     9.  4.  5|           female advantage in life expectancy over males ranges from five
191   II,     9.  4.  5|     Important inequalities in life expectancy and overall health status
192   II,     9.  4.  5|          gender difference in life expectancy is also smaller when years
193   II,     9.  4.  6|           a steep increase in life expectancy for both men and women throughout
194   II,     9.  4.  6|     However, this increase in life expectancy has also led to an increasing
195   II,     9.  5.  1|          men although women’s life expectancy is higher. As the proportion
196   II,     9.  5.  1|     between men’s and women’s life expectancy is low by historical standards (
197   II,     9.  5.  2|    International Network on Health Expectancy and the Disability Process
198   II,     9.  5.  3|      studies demonstrate that life expectancy and ‘positive health experiences’
199   II,     9.  5.  3|             Due to the higher life expectancy of women and their lower
200  III,    10.  2.  1|           average 21 years of life expectancy. In the EU, tobacco kills
201  III,    10.  2.  1|          with a difference in life expectancy at birth between EU countries
202  III,    10.  2.  1|          of the difference in life expectancy between the three Baltic
203  III,    10.  4.  1|           it shortens average life expectancy in Western and Central Europe
204  III,    10.  4.  1|        reduce the statistical life expectancy of the European population
205  III,    10.  4.  1|           the average loss in life expectancy may be more than one year.~ ~
206  III,    10.  4.  1|            an average loss of life expectancy of about 9 months for every
207  III,    10.  4.  1|           loss of statistical life expectancy attributed to anthropogenic
208  III,    10.  5.  1|            estimated that the life expectancy of Roma is shorter on average
209  III,    10.  5.  2|     mortality differences and life expectancy in urban and rural settings.
210  III,    10.  5.  2|              Figure 10.5.2.7. Life expectancy by gender in urban and rural settings
211  III,    10.  5.  2|          future, the data for life expectancy indicate that for children
212  III,    10.  5.  2|          in 2006, the average life expectancy of male children is one
213  III,    10.  5.  2|   inequities in mortality and life expectancy which clearly bring disadvantages
214  III,    10.  6.  2|      associated to health and life expectancy. The fact someone is imbedded
215  III,    10.  6.  2|    inequalities in health and life expectancy in all Western societies.
216  III,    10.  6.  2| inequalities.~ ~Mortality and life expectancy~ ~ ~The expert Report on “
217  III,    10.  6.  2|   substantial inequalities in life expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among
218  III,    10.  6.  2|      inequalities in 'healthy life expectancy' (number of years lived
219   IV,    11.  1.  1|        citizens in many ways. Life expectancy, disease prevention and
220   IV,    11.  1.  1|     population health such as life expectancy and morbidity are largely
221   IV,    11.  1.  3|           or disability-free) life expectancy, responsiveness to the needs
222   IV,    12.  2    |        causes inequalities in life expectancy, health status and access
223   IV,    12.  5    |           for disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) calculation (Robine,
224   IV,    12.  8    |           indicators, such as life expectancy and infant mortality. It
225   IV,    12. 10    |         between now and 2050. Life expectancy is also increasing. Ensuring
226   IV,    13.  1    |        also been reported for life expectancy in different EU countries.~ ~
227   IV,    13.  1    | approaching an upper limit of life expectancy or of health in many different
228   IV,    13.  3    |           positive: increased life expectancy - often in good health -
229   IV,    13.  5    |           overall progress in life expectancy, new and re-emerging health
230   IV,    13.  5    |            potentially reduce life expectancy gains. Care-giving responsibilities
231   IV,    13.  5    |    significant differences in life expectancy observed among groups with
232  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|     exercise~exotoxin~expectancies~expectancy~expenditure~expenditures~