Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4    |              and a rise in excessive drinking and other risk factors for
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|           HCV) infection and alcohol drinking.~Dermatological diseases~
  3   II,     5.  4.  2|          sensitive topics e.g. heavy drinking, smoking etc. The usual
  4   II,     5. 12.  1|           HCV) infection and alcohol drinking: the control of alcohol
  5   II,     5. 12.  1|               the control of alcohol drinking is the most immediate instrument
  6   II,     5. 12.  4|          also Chapter 6) and alcohol drinking (Corrao and Aricò, 1998).~ ~
  7   II,     5. 12.  4|           but also to the pattern of drinking (out of meal) and to the
  8   II,     5. 12.  5|            Chapter 6) and of alcohol drinking.~ ~Thus, control of alcohol
  9   II,     5. 12.  5|             Thus, control of alcohol drinking is the most immediate instrument
 10   II,     5. 12.  5|       concerns prevention of alcohol drinking .~Universal vaccination
 11   II,     5. 12.  5|              or avoidance of alcohol drinking.~Control of alcohol drinking
 12   II,     5. 12.  5|         drinking.~Control of alcohol drinking is also the key measure
 13   II,     5. 12.  5|            Since the rise of alcohol drinking in those countries is essentially
 14   II,     5. 12.  6|        countries, changes in alcohol drinking appear to well explain short-term
 15   II,     5. 12.  7|               Health topics. Alcohol drinking. Available at: htt ~ ~World
 16   II,     5. 13    |           and in accordance with the drinking and diet culture (European
 17   II,     5. 14.  3|            with decay experience and drinking fruit juice and carbonated
 18   II,     6.  3.  6|             and through contaminated drinking water. Cryptosporidiosis
 19   II,     8.  2.  1|        seriously damaging effects of drinking alcohol during pregnancy
 20   II,     8.  2.  1|              and should refrain from drinking alcoholic drinks. Doctors
 21   II,     9        |             Trimester of Pregnancy~ ~Drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
 22   II,     9        |             Trends regarding alcohol drinking among young women in some
 23   II,     9        |          countries, especially binge drinking, are of great concern. The
 24   II,     9        |        concern. The effects of binge drinking on the fetus are largely
 25   II,     9        |        byproducts of chlorination in drinking water, releases from waste
 26   II,     9        |            cross-cultural studies of drinking in Europe have been of a
 27   II,     9        |       contexts and cultural roles of drinking. Cross-cultural variation
 28   II,     9        |              at an early age. Weekly drinking is more widespread among
 29   II,     9        |           the United Kingdom. Weekly drinking among 15-year-old girls
 30   II,     9.  1.  2|             Trimester of Pregnancy~ ~Drinking alcohol during pregnancy.
 31   II,     9.  1.  2|             Trends regarding alcohol drinking among young women in some
 32   II,     9.  1.  2|          countries, especially binge drinking, are of great concern. The
 33   II,     9.  1.  2|        concern. The effects of binge drinking on the fetus are largely
 34   II,     9.  1.  2|        byproducts of chlorination in drinking water, releases from waste
 35   II,     9.  2.  1|            with regard to eating and drinking patterns.~ ~Child health
 36   II,     9.  2.  4|            cross-cultural studies of drinking in Europe have been of a
 37   II,     9.  2.  4|       contexts and cultural roles of drinking. Cross-cultural variation
 38   II,     9.  2.  4|              at an early age. Weekly drinking is more widespread among
 39   II,     9.  2.  4|           the United Kingdom. Weekly drinking among 15-year-old girls
 40   II,     9.  2.  5|      activities related to under-age drinking; work on obesity and prevention;
 41   II,     9.  2.  7|              and cultural aspects of drinking. Available at: http://www.
 42   II,     9.  2.  7|           www.sirc.org/publik/social_drinking.pdf#search=%22social%20and%
 43   II,     9.  3.  1|           2005): Alcohol, gender and drinking problems: perspectives from
 44   II,     9.  3.  3|             correlation of excessive drinking and risky sexual behaviour (
 45   II,     9.  5.  3|         behaviour when people drink. Drinking behaviour is related to
 46   II,     9.  5.  3|           afflicted by another one's drinking. One third of problem drinkers
 47   II,     9.  5.  3|              main problems caused by drinking. There is much evidence
 48   II,     9.  5.  3|              9.5.6 below illustrates drinking patterns for men and women
 49   II,     9.  5.  3|              Ireland.~ ~Table 9.5.6. Drinking patterns among men and women
 50   II,     9.  5.  3|           and in accordance with the drinking and diet culture (European
 51   II,     9.  5.  6|              and cultural aspects of drinking. htt ml Available at: (accessed
 52   II,     9.  5.  6|           2005): Alcohol, gender and drinking problems: perspectives from
 53  III,    10.  1    |             of contaminated food and drinking water~Schools~Developmental~
 54  III,    10.  1.  1|           psychosocial determinants: drinking is a social act in many
 55  III,    10.  1.  1|            consumption include early drinking experiences, expectations
 56  III,    10.  1.  1|            consumption, heavy social drinking, psychological stress, low
 57  III,    10.  1.  1|            Potvin, 2004).~ ~Parental drinking affects the environment
 58  III,    10.  1.  1|              The association between drinking and aggressive behaviour
 59  III,    10.  1.  1|          social roles, concern about drinking, victimization as well as
 60  III,    10.  1.  1|              been studied in problem drinking fathers and their sons and
 61  III,    10.  1.  1|                For the initiation of drinking, parental influence is more
 62  III,    10.  1.  1|              perception of excessive drinking in the family environment
 63  III,    10.  1.  1|     encourage frequent and excessive drinking among adolescents. In late
 64  III,    10.  1.  1|       alcohol misusers. Again, heavy drinking may be the cause or the
 65  III,    10.  1.  1|             correlation of excessive drinking and risky sexual behaviour (
 66  III,    10.  1.  3|           Lauerman RJ (1987): Social drinking as a health and psychosocial
 67  III,    10.  1.  3|               Overview of studies on drinking patterns and consequences.
 68  III,    10.  1.  3|            1999): Social anxiety and drinking in college students: a social
 69  III,    10.  1.  3|             the emerging paradigm of drinking patterns and their social
 70  III,    10.  2.  1|            as a result of his or her drinking. A public health perspective
 71  III,    10.  2.  1|    particular amounts or patterns of drinking.~ ~Binge drinking has increased
 72  III,    10.  2.  1|        patterns of drinking.~ ~Binge drinking has increased much among
 73  III,    10.  2.  1|          consumption and patterns of drinking~ ~The European Union is
 74  III,    10.  2.  1|       European Union is the heaviest drinking region of the world, with
 75  III,    10.  2.  1|           the world, with each adult drinking on average 11 litres of
 76  III,    10.  2.  1|         consumption, with Luxembourg drinking 2.5 times as much per adult
 77  III,    10.  2.  1|             least once a week, binge drinking was also common amongst
 78  III,    10.  2.  1|         drinkers, a pattern of binge drinking was most common in Ireland,
 79  III,    10.  2.  1|             five or more drinks on a drinking occasion remained the same
 80  III,    10.  2.  1|             16 year olds on the last drinking occasion was 60g of alcohol.
 81  III,    10.  2.  1|          pure alcohol. Last occasion drinking levels are slightly lower
 82  III,    10.  2.  1|           participants who have been drinking, with 25%-85% of violent
 83  III,    10.  2.  1|          consumption. Episodic heavy drinking, frequency of drinking and
 84  III,    10.  2.  1|         heavy drinking, frequency of drinking and drinking volume are
 85  III,    10.  2.  1|            frequency of drinking and drinking volume are all independently
 86  III,    10.  2.  1|        aggression, with frequency of drinking appearing to be the most
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|             is the violence~Parental drinking can affect the environment
 88  III,    10.  2.  1|            16% of cases.~The risk of drinking and driving increases with
 89  III,    10.  2.  1|             frequency of high volume drinking occasions, as well as blood
 90  III,    10.  2.  1|           who engage periodically in drinking large quantities of alcohol,
 91  III,    10.  2.  1|         likelihood of death.~ ~Heavy drinking is a major risk factor for
 92  III,    10.  2.  1|         consumption and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasion.
 93  III,    10.  2.  1|           who had reduced or stopped drinking, a phenomenon associated
 94  III,    10.  2.  1|      ischemic stroke. Episodic heavy drinking increases the risk of heart
 95  III,    10.  2.  1|            similar problems.~ ~Heavy drinking during adolescence and young
 96  III,    10.  2.  1|         social determinants, such as drinking patterns, the drinking environment
 97  III,    10.  2.  1|            as drinking patterns, the drinking environment and the health
 98  III,    10.  2.  1|            drinkers, reduce underage drinking and reduce per occasion
 99  III,    10.  2.  1|            reduce per occasion binge drinking. Higher prices also delay
100  III,    10.  2.  1|           younger teenagers to start drinking and slow progression towards
101  III,    10.  2.  1|             slow progression towards drinking larger amounts. Heavy drinkers
102  III,    10.  2.  1|        emergency room admissions and drinking & driving cases (Ragnarsdottir
103  III,    10.  2.  1|              that changes in minimum drinking age laws can substantially
104  III,    10.  2.  1|           substantially effect youth drinking and alcohol-related harm,
105  III,    10.  2.  1|            full benefits of a higher drinking age are only realized if
106  III,    10.  2.  1|             of young people to start drinking, the amount they drink and
107  III,    10.  2.  1| advertisements in a jurisdiction and drinking by young people. Where this
108  III,    10.  2.  1|             and drivers suspected of drinking driving are breath-tested,
109  III,    10.  2.  1|             infractions by convicted drinking drivers are all effective
110  III,    10.  2.  1|      effective measures for reducing drinking & driving casualties.~ ~
111  III,    10.  2.  1|            not effective in reducing drinking and driving (Anderson and
112  III,    10.  2.  1|             than the legal limit for drinking and driving. Furthermore,
113  III,    10.  2.  1|              social norms supporting drinking, and in which alcohol is
114  III,    10.  2.  1|         inconclusive effects. Whilst drinking guidelines have been used
115  III,    10.  2.  1|           United Kingdom’s ‘sensible drinking guidelines’ when relied
116  III,    10.  2.  1|            media campaigns to reduce drinking and driving, particularly
117  III,    10.  2.  1|              place for what concerns drinking and driving.~ ~Drinking
118  III,    10.  2.  1|              drinking and driving.~ ~Drinking context~ ~Licensed drinking
119  III,    10.  2.  1|          Drinking context~ ~Licensed drinking environments are associated
120  III,    10.  2.  1|         associated with drunkenness, drinking & driving and problem behaviours
121  III,    10.  2.  1|            consumption and high risk drinking, but were not as successful
122  III,    10.  2.  1|             be effective in reducing drinking and driving, alcohol related
123  III,    10.  2.  1|           associated with on-premise drinking, develop specific solutions
124  III,    10.  2.  1|            other problems related to drinking in licensed premises.~ ~
125  III,    10.  2.  1|       population impact on excessive drinking could be significant if
126  III,    10.  2.  1|        Council Recommendation on the drinking of alcohol by young people,
127  III,    10.  2.  1|             Consumption, Patterns of Drinking and Burden of Disease in
128  III,    10.  3.  2|          natural sources. Arsenic in drinking water and cadmium from diffused
129  III,    10.  4.  2|        Poultry meat and contaminated drinking water~Salmonellosis~35.0
130  III,    10.  4.  2|              vegetables~Contaminated drinking water~Trichinellosis and
131  III,    10.  4.  2|          were caused by contaminated drinking water. Caliciviruses are
132  III,    10.  4.  2|              most common sources are drinking water, fruit and vegetables.
133  III,    10.  4.  2|  Environmental contaminants~ ~Lead~ ~Drinking water, via lead~Water pipes~ ~
134  III,    10.  4.  2|            2006 standard~for lead in drinking water~to be reduced, means
135  III,    10.  4.  2|           598ng/L have been found in drinking water in the Rhine-Ruhr
136  III,    10.  4.  2|            as residues in food or in drinking water. Protecting the health
137  III,    10.  4.  2|    vegetables;~EU: lettuce, spinach,~drinking water~ ~Exposure via drinking
138  III,    10.  4.  2|        drinking water~ ~Exposure via drinking water,~below standard; sporadic~
139  III,    10.  4.  2|              consumption of nitrate-~drinking rich vegetables; avoid~using
140  III,    10.  4.  2|         treated food and residues in drinking water derived from groundwater;~·
141  III,    10.  4.  2|         groundwater above parametric drinking water standards (legal levels
142  III,    10.  4.  3|                10.4.3. Ingestion and drinking water contamination and
143  III,    10.  4.  3|       population have access to safe drinking water. An effective quality
144  III,    10.  4.  3|           when the water is used for drinking, food preparation, recreation,
145  III,    10.  4.  3|       Meanwhile, the availability of drinking water from natural sources
146  III,    10.  4.  3|    precautions need to be developed. Drinking water supplies risk to be
147  III,    10.  4.  3|               and WHO Guidelines for drinking water (WHO, 2006a). Another
148  III,    10.  4.  3|          presentation and analysis~ ~Drinking water~ ~Health impact of
149  III,    10.  4.  3|        Health impact of poor quality drinking water~ ~Significant mortality
150  III,    10.  4.  3|              countries with advanced drinking water and sanitation systems,
151  III,    10.  4.  3|         However, in some rural areas drinking water is abstracted from
152  III,    10.  4.  3|              3.2. Number of reported drinking water-borne outbreaks in
153  III,    10.  4.  3|         effects in children. The WHO Drinking water guidelines (WHO, 2006)
154  III,    10.  4.  3|   concentration of 10 μg/l for As in drinking water . The estimated cancer
155  III,    10.  4.  3|             control. In rural areas, drinking water is abstracted from
156  III,    10.  4.  3|      European Region, access to safe drinking water remains lower, albeit
157  III,    10.  4.  3|              countries with advanced drinking water and sanitation systems (
158  III,    10.  4.  3|             re-cycle waste water for drinking water there is a potential
159  III,    10.  4.  3|              adequate supply of safe drinking water and adequate sanitation
160  III,    10.  4.  3|            water used as a source of drinking water. Priority diseases
161  III,    10.  4.  3|         Arsenic, as a contaminant of drinking water, is not included.
162  III,    10.  4.  3|          from the WHO Guidelines for drinking water, i.e. 10 μg/l (10
163  III,    10.  4.  3|              10 μg/l (10 ppb).~ ~The Drinking water directive stipulates
164  III,    10.  4.  3|         Future developments~ ~A safe drinking water supply and safe bathing
165  III,    10.  4.  3|   groundwater to meet the demand for drinking water, and are quickly depleting
166  III,    10.  4.  3|            know that the delivery of drinking water is highly vulnerable
167  III,    10.  4.  3|              potential pollutants of drinking water are appearing, e.g.
168  III,    10.  4.  3|     contaminating natural waters and drinking water sources. Current sewage
169  III,    10.  4.  3|             low levels of arsenic in drinking water may currently be underestimated
170  III,    10.  4.  3|              Commission (1998a): The Drinking Water Directive (DWD), Council
171  III,    10.  4.  3|             Arsenic epidemiology and drinking water standards. Science
172  III,    10.  4.  3|                   WHO – Water; WHO | Drinking water. Available at: htt ~ ~
173  III,    10.  4.  5|       ingestion, for example through drinking water from sources that
174  III,    10.  4.  5|           the exposure of humans via drinking water from ground sources
175  III,    10.  5.  1|            challenge of contaminated drinking water and water-related
176  III,    10.  5.  1|               2006): Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target:
177  III,    10.  6.  2|              and a rise in excessive drinking and other risk factors for
178   IV,    12.  2    |         social determinants, such as drinking patterns, the drinking environment,
179   IV,    12.  2    |            as drinking patterns, the drinking environment, and the health
180   IV,    12.  2    |         drinkers, to reduce underage drinking, and to reduce per occasion
181   IV,    12.  2    |            reduce per occasion binge drinking. Higher prices also delay
182   IV,    12.  2    |           younger teenagers to start drinking and slow progression towards
183   IV,    12.  2    |             slow progression towards drinking larger amounts. Heavy drinkers
184   IV,    12.  2    |              that changes in minimum drinking age laws can substantially
185   IV,    12.  2    |           substantially effect youth drinking and alcohol-related harm,
186   IV,    12.  2    |            full benefits of a higher drinking age are only realized if
187   IV,    12.  2    | advertisements in a jurisdiction and drinking by young people. Where this
188   IV,    12.  2    |             and drivers suspected of drinking driving are breath-tested,
189   IV,    12.  2    |             infractions by convicted drinking drivers are all effective
190   IV,    12.  2    |            not effective in reducing drinking and driving (Anderson and
191   IV,    12.  2    |             than the legal limit for drinking and driving. Further, an
192   IV,    12.  2    |              social norms supporting drinking, and in which alcohol is
193   IV,    12.  2    |         inconclusive effects. Whilst drinking guidelines have been used
194   IV,    12.  2    |           United Kingdom’s ‘sensible drinking guidelines’ when relied
195   IV,    12.  2    |            media campaigns to reduce drinking and driving, particularly
196   IV,    12.  2    |         policies in place concerning drinking and driving. ~ ~Drinking
197   IV,    12.  2    |             drinking and driving. ~ ~Drinking context~ ~Licensed drinking
198   IV,    12.  2    |          Drinking context~ ~Licensed drinking environments are associated
199   IV,    12.  2    |            consumption and high risk drinking, but were not as successful
200   IV,    12.  2    |             be effective in reducing drinking and driving, alcohol related
201   IV,    12.  2    |           associated with on-premise drinking, develop specific solutions
202   IV,    12.  2    |            other problems related to drinking in licensed premises.~ ~
203   IV,    12.  2    |       population impact on excessive drinking could be significant. For
204   IV,    12.  2    |        Council Recommendation on the drinking of alcohol by young people,
205   IV,    12. 10    |               National/Regional~ Yes~Drinking and recreational water~Intermediate
206   IV,    12. 10    |                Air pollution~ High~ ~Drinking and recreational water~
207   IV,    12. 10    |        alcohol to underage and youth drinking alcohol in public9 Law
208   IV,    12. 10    |       alcohol consumption as well as drinking behaviour of subgroups is
209   IV,    12. 10    |              and nitrogen oxides. ~ ~Drinking and recreational water~High
210   IV,    12. 10    |      European Regulations concerning drinking and bathing water have been
211   IV,    12. 10    |             in the respective areas. Drinking water is considered one
212   IV,    12. 10    |       programs (Federal Ordinance on Drinking Water). The process of implementation
213   IV,    12. 10    |      machinery) regulations 2007~ ~ ~Drinking and recreational water~High~ ~ ~ ~ ~
214   IV,    12. 10    |         participate in this action~ ~Drinking and recreational water~
215   IV,    12. 10    |        environment 2003-2008 http ~ ~Drinking and recreational water~
216   IV,    12. 10    |           water~ high~Articles about drinking water in 2004 public health
217   IV,    12. 10    |      national Public Health Strategy~Drinking and recreational water~
218   IV,    12. 10    |      regulations on requirements for Drinking and recreational water~
219   IV,    12. 10    |               High~ National level~ ~Drinking and recreational water~
220   IV,    12. 10    |           National and local level~ ~Drinking waterDecree-Law 306/2007
221   IV,    12. 10    |            of surveillance system of drinking water.~ ~Soil contamination
222   IV,    12. 10    |              on environmental health~Drinking and recreational water~
223   IV,    12. 10    |          High~Law 458/2002 regarding drinking water modified and completed
224   IV,    12. 10    |           Law 311/2004 (according to Drinking Water Directive 98/83)~GD
225   IV,    12. 10    |             outbreaks transmitted in drinking water in Sweden~ ~Levels
226   IV,    12. 10    |             with Acquis communitaire~Drinking and recreational water~High~ ~ ~
227   IV,    13.  2.  4|        having a high blood pressure, drinking too much alcohol, overweight,
228  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|  drink-driver~drink-driving~drinkers~drinking~drinking-driving~drinking-water~