Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2. 10.  3   |        Council that a European health insurance card should replace paper
  2   II,     5.  1.  4   |                partner, travel agent, insurance company or national health
  3   II,     5.  1.  4   |               about the most suitable insurance, reimbursements and provisions,
  4   II,     5.  4.  2   |                              5.4.2.7. Insurance/reimbursement records~ ~
  5   II,     5.  4.  2   |               reimbursement records~ ~Insurance/reimbursement schemes (RS)
  6   II,     5.  5.  1   |         mental health and from health insurance data. In addition, the HfA
  7   II,     5.  5.  2   |              is a separate obligatory insurance for long-term care. In Austria,
  8   II,     5.  5.  2   |             being taken up by certain insurance companies offering positive
  9   II,     5.  5.  2   |    introduction of the long-term care insurance but also more recently in
 10   II,     5.  5.  3   |               are available in Health Insurance Centre (treatment attendance
 11   II,     5.  5.  3   |              in part be due to health insurance policies but are probably
 12   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Observed~Expected~ ~ ~Europe~Insurance policies~Prevalent cohorts~
 13   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Olafsson et al., 1998~Poland~Insurance policies~Prevalent cohort~
 14   II,     5.  5.  3   |               2.4~Alstrom, 1950 (*)~ ~Insurance policies~Prevalent cohort~
 15   II,     5. 14.  3   |               them, even if they have insurance coverage or qualify for
 16   II,     5. 14.  3   |           qualify for the oral health insurance program. Residents of institutions
 17   II,     5. 14.  7   |        However, people without health insurance, ageing people, deprived
 18   II,     7.  2       |            for the traffic sector and insurance recorded data for the occupational
 19   II,     7.  2.  4   |         Security) or private specific insurance for accidents at work, or
 20   II,     9.  3.  2   |             financing (public/private insurance/couples themselves), demand
 21  III,    10.  2.  1   |               Swiss National Accident Insurance Organisation (SUVA), Department
 22  III,    10.  3.  4   |       non-governmental organisations, insurance companies, research institutes
 23  III,    10.  3.  4   |         familiar possessions. Lack of insurance is also likely to make recovery
 24  III,    10.  3.  4   |             and flood forecasting and insurance policies. It also implies
 25  III,    10.  5.  3   |           place in the Member States: Insurance based systems where care
 26  III,    10.  5.  3   | health promotion and statutory social insurance institutions. Through the
 27  III,    10.  5.  3   |              for companies and social insurance institutions.~Diseases often
 28  III,    10.  5.  3   |          health and safety and social insurance need to influence policies
 29  III,    10.  5.  3   |          health and safety and social insurance need to influence policies
 30   IV,    11.Acr       |         Tomography~PHI~Private health insurance~SHARE~Survey of Health,
 31   IV,    11.  1.  3   |             unreformed’ social health insurance e.g. France, Austria, Greece,
 32   IV,    11.  1.  3   |            Slovenia;~2) social health insurance with competitive sickness
 33   IV,    11.  1.  3   |     contracted model of social health insurance (Bismarck model)2. This
 34   IV,    11.  1.  3(2)|             varying forms that social insurance (‘Bismarkian’) systems take
 35   IV,    11.  1.  3   |       introducing competition between insurance funds in systems with social
 36   IV,    11.  1.  3   |          funds in systems with social insurance; c) separating purchasing
 37   IV,    11.  1.  4   |            care is coverage by health insurance. Universal, or near universal,
 38   IV,    11.  1.  4   |            income groups with private insurance to access certain services
 39   IV,    11.  1.  4   |               mainly by social health insurance, and in particular to those
 40   IV,    11.  1.  5   |             2003). In Germany, health insurance funds impose data and documentation
 41   IV,    11.  1.  6   |              systems, while in social insurance systems fee-for-service
 42   IV,    11.  1.  6   |          transparent, information for insurance funds improved, and hospital
 43   IV,    11.  1.  6   |              increased accessibility, insurance plans expanded their benefits
 44   IV,    11.  1.  6   |              of funds and handling of insurance claims. Often expenditure
 45   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               show that social health insurance countries generally have
 46   IV,    11.  1.  6   |          generalized the provision of insurance through competing private
 47   IV,    11.  1.  6   |             through competing private insurance funds though with heavy
 48   IV,    11.  1.  6   |              the collection of health insurance premiums from the collection
 49   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               2004).~ ~Private health insurance (PHI) is associated with
 50   IV,    11.  1.  6   |               statutory public health insurance systems. This results from
 51   IV,    11.  1.  6   |       bureaucracy involved in private insurance markets related to assessing
 52   IV,    11.  1.  6   |              for the statutory health insurance systems, around 3-5% in
 53   IV,    11.  2.  1   |              systems of social health insurance tend to have higher levels
 54   IV,    11.  2.  1   |          countries with social health insurance systems in Western Europe
 55   IV,    11.  3.  1   |              contracted by a regional insurance fund, are present in Austria
 56   IV,    11.  3.  2   |               of the statutory health insurance system. The public share
 57   IV,    11.  3.  2   |                 whether government or insurance fund - pays. The reference
 58   IV,    11.  3.  2   |              the cost of drugs to the insurance beneficiaries depend both
 59   IV,    11.  6.  2   |       financing to employment related insurance contributions. There is
 60   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               resources by individual insurance funds. Some countries have
 61   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            competition between health insurance funds to improve purchasing,
 62   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            The role of private health insurance remains quite small although
 63   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              countries. Since private insurance generally services richer
 64   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             or local taxes and social insurance contributions, with private
 65   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          consisting of private health insurance, medical saving accounts (
 66   IV,    11.  6.  2   |    out-of-pocket payments and private insurance. Out-of-pocket payments
 67   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             countries. Private health insurance (PHI) plays a relatively
 68   IV,    11.  6.  2   |        countries where private health insurance was not available prior
 69   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           general taxation and social insurance contributions (usually payroll
 70   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             with predominantly social insurance funding include Austria,
 71   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             taxation to social health insurance contribution mechanisms
 72   IV,    11.  6.  2   |        financed through social health insurance (e.g. France, Germany, the
 73   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            system of statutory social insurance and private (substitutive)
 74   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         private (substitutive) health insurance to a heavily regulated system
 75   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            system of statutory health insurance with competing private insurance
 76   IV,    11.  6.  2   |      insurance with competing private insurance funds.~ ~Table 11.12. Financing
 77   IV,    11.  6.  2   |       corporate income, unlike social insurance contributions which are
 78   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              section on Social Health Insurance below), which arguably will
 79   IV,    11.  6.  2   |      populations. Among social health insurance systems, the trend towards
 80   IV,    11.  6.  2   |       Progressivity).~ ~Social health insurance~ ~Social health insurance
 81   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             insurance~ ~Social health insurance provides the organizing
 82   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           introduced earmarked social insurance contributions levied on
 83   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             because the social health insurance contributions have been
 84   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             see footnote 4).~ ~Social insurance contributions are usually
 85   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              The advantages of social insurance contributions are common
 86   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           public. Also, social health insurance revenue may be better protected
 87   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             if eligibility for health insurance is dependent on income or
 88   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             agents vary across social insurance systems. Contributions can
 89   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              by the individual health insurance funds, as in Austria, the
 90   IV,    11.  6.  2(4)|             channelled through social insurance funds as social insurance
 91   IV,    11.  6.  2(4)|             insurance funds as social insurance contributions in spite of
 92   IV,    11.  6.  2(4)|           funds that are allocated to insurance funds to subsidize for those
 93   IV,    11.  6.  2(4)|        Therefore, the level of social insurance contributions may be overestimated
 94   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            2008).~ ~Relying on health insurance funds to collect resources
 95   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           collecting revenue from the insurance funds (in Romania for the
 96   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              in 1998 to extend social insurance contributions to a tax on
 97   IV,    11.  6.  2   |     represented a shift from a social insurance model based on wage to a
 98   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           total income, making health insurance fundsrevenue less vulnerable
 99   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              In 2006 tax transfers to insurance funds were introduced to
100   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              2008).~ ~The 2006 Health Insurance Law of the Netherlands also
101   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         separate (public and private) insurance schemes with one national
102   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              it is a statutory health insurance scheme characterized by
103   IV,    11.  6.  2   |       presence of multiple funds, the insurance market is apparently consolidating
104   IV,    11.  6.  2   |        currently there are 19 private insurance funds, but only 5 when one
105   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               some belong to the same insurance conglomerate (Klazinga,
106   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               2007).~ ~Private health insurance~ ~The majority of healthcare
107   IV,    11.  6.  2   |     mechanisms include private health insurance (PHI) and out-of-pocket
108   IV,    11.  6.  2   |       independent, private-for-profit insurance companies (in countries
109   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             or private not-for-profit insurance companies and funds (in
110   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          Thomson, 2004). Substitutive insurance substitutes for cover that
111   IV,    11.  6.  2   |          excluded from) the statutory insurance scheme. In Portugal and
112   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             resistance. Supplementary insurance provides cover for faster
113   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              choice. As supplementary insurance allows individuals additional
114   IV,    11.  6.  2   |           those with and without this insurance (van Doorslaer et al, 2004;
115   IV,    11.  6.  2   |         Thomson, 2004). Complementary insurance provides cover for services
116   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              the form of substitutive insurance (prior to the 2006 reforms
117   IV,    11.  6.  2   |            co-payments (complementary insurance) (Mossialos and Thomson,
118   IV,    11.  6.  2   |                 Indeed, complementary insurance covers over 90% of the French
119   IV,    11.  6.  2   |              Portugal, private health insurance is partly subsidised by
120   IV,    11.  6.  2   |             where all private medical insurance policies are subject to
121   IV,    11.  6.  2   |               policies are subject to Insurance Premium Tax (Foubister et
122   IV,    11.  6.  3   |            more on social and private insurance like the Netherlands, Germany,
123   IV,    11.  6.  3   |                  Within social health insurance systems, the degree of fairness
124   IV,    11.  6.  3   |            fully covered with private insurance. As a result, the social
125   IV,    11.  6.  3   |             result, the social health insurance systems in Germany and the
126   IV,    11.  6.  3   |               the recent extension of insurance coverage for the costs of
127   IV,    11.  6.  3   |       redistributive effect of social insurance funding has been studied
128   IV,    11.  6.  3   |    equalization through social health insurance and negative economic effects
129   IV,    11.  6.  3   |           economic effects of linking insurance contributions to earnings (
130   IV,    11.  6.  3   |       Contrary to taxation and social insurance where people contribute
131   IV,    11.  6.  3   |         However, while private health insurance has been found to be regressive
132   IV,    11.  6.  3   |               purchase private health insurance, this will make the financing
133   IV,    11.  6.  3   |               However, private health insurance may also skew the provision
134   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          countries with social health insurance funds (Table 11.14), the
135   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           selection (in social health insurance systems) and may break historical
136   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               where individual health insurance funds are responsible for
137   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              for collecting their own insurance contributions (Thomson,
138   IV,    11.  6.  4   |        Germany (with 21 and about 290 insurance funds, respectively) 100%
139   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               purchasers (e.g. social insurance funds), whereas in countries
140   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              the cost of each plan or insurance fund member to reflect their
141   IV,    11.  6.  4   |             latter with social health insurance systems, in particular where
142   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       regional governments and health insurance funds are often reluctant
143   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              sickness funds in social insurance systems, such as Germany
144   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              The potential for health insurance funds to identify and preferentially
145   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          formulae, such as the social insurance systems listed above and
146   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       advantages of competition among insurance funds (van de Ven et al
147   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Sickness and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI) for contributions
148   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Sickness and Disability Insurance (RIZIV/INAMI)~100 competitive
149   IV,    11.  6.  4   |        central taxes)~National Health Insurance Fund (insurance premiums)~
150   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       National Health Insurance Fund (insurance premiums)~Ministry of Health (
151   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           revenue)~28 Regional Health Insurance Funds (insurance revenue).~ ~
152   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Health Insurance Funds (insurance revenue).~ ~Insurance revenue:
153   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          Funds (insurance revenue).~ ~Insurance revenue: Age, historical
154   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       Taxation Agency~Estonian Health Insurance Fund with 7 regional departments~
155   IV,    11.  6.  4   |   municipalities, and National Health Insurance~Each municipality allocates.
156   IV,    11.  6.  4   |             to municipalities. Social Insurance institution allocates~452
157   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            355 sickness funds~Federal Insurance Office~355 competitive sickness
158   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Greece~30 social health insurance funds. Ministry of Finance.
159   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          Finance allocates to NHS and insurance funds to cover deficits.~
160   IV,    11.  6.  4   |      structure~Lithuania~State Social Insurance Council~State Sickness Fund~ ~ ~
161   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            Romania~42 District health insurance funds and 2 national funds
162   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Health (taxes)~National Insurance Fund and Ministry of Health~
163   IV,    11.  6.  4   |             and Ministry of Health~42 insurance funds and 2 national funds~
164   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              costs)~Slovakia~5 health insurance companies~Each fund allocates~ ~
165   IV,    11.  6.  4   |              Slovenia~National Health Insurance Institute~Each fund allocates~ ~ ~
166   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            government; Swedish Social Insurance Agency; 21 county councils;
167   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           Ministry of Finance; Social insurance funds (SSK; GERF; Bag-Kur)~
168   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            Ministry of Health; Social insurance funds~Ministry of Health;
169   IV,    11.  6.  4   |            Ministry of Health; Social insurance funds~none~Wales~HM Revenue
170   IV,    11.  6.  4   |        population to statutory health insurance. In some countries with
171   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               funded by social health insurance, the attainment of universal
172   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               as insured by statutory insurance although the numbers of
173   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       essential part of social health insurance systems. Not only they clarify
174   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          broad frame of social health insurance systems (Gibis et al, 2004).
175   IV,    11.  6.  4   |             packages in social health insurance countries to only the core
176   IV,    11.  6.  4   |           2004). Unlike social health insurance and private health insurance
177   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          insurance and private health insurance systems, coverage through
178   IV,    11.  6.  4   |          system towards social health insurance was believed to be a possible
179   IV,    11.  6.  4   |       financed from the social health insurance contributions in the hope
180   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               in the hope that health insurance funds could collect additional
181   IV,    11.  6.  4   |               Sickness and Invalidity Insurance in Belgium, the Pharmaceuticals
182   IV,    11.  6.  5   |              Maarse H (2006): "Health insurance reform in the Netherlands."
183   IV,    11.  6.  5   |          performance in social health insurance systems. Social health insurance
184   IV,    11.  6.  5   |      insurance systems. Social health insurance systems in Western Europe.
185   IV,    11.  6.  5   |            decisions in social health insurance systems. Social health insurance
186   IV,    11.  6.  5   |      insurance systems. Social health insurance systems in Western Europe.
187   IV,    11.  6.  5   |            Germany's statutory health insurance scheme]." Jahrbücher für
188   IV,    11.  6.  5   |               W. a. S. (2005): Health Insurance in the Netherlands: the
189   IV,    11.  6.  5   |           Netherlands: the new health insurance system from 2006. The Hague,
190   IV,    11.  6.  5   |               2004): Voluntary health insurance in the European Union. Copenhagen,
191   IV,    11.  6.  5   |              RB (2004): Social health insurance in perspective: the challenge
192   IV,    11.  6.  5   |              stability. Social health insurance systems in Western Europe.
193   IV,    11.  6.  5   |        selection on the sickness fund insurance market in five European
194   IV,    12.  4       |               migrant workers, health insurance (DG EMPL)~· health research (
195   IV,    12.  4       |               DG Employment on health insurance and health care issues and
196   IV,    12.  5       |     Administrative data (e. g. health insurance data, data on health care
197   IV,    12.  6       |          service providers and health insurance; and (iv) industry with
198   IV,    12. 10       |          Health.~Employer’s liability insurance associations (Berufsgenossenschaften)
199   IV,    12. 10       |                and Statutory accident insurance (Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung),
200   IV,    12. 10       |         services of the German social insurance system (Statutory Sickness
201   IV,    12. 10       |              Sickness Funds, Accident Insurance and Pension Insurance working
202   IV,    12. 10       |        Accident Insurance and Pension Insurance working together). Alcohol (
203   IV,    12. 10       |         according to national laws or insurance statute).~Nutritional assessment
204   IV,    12. 10       |          operating) network of Social Insurance Institutions exists for
205   IV,    12. 10       |           institutions, manufactures, insurance funds, and patient organizations
206   IV,    12. 10       |       Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (Kassenärztliche
207   IV,    12. 10       |             assistance.~Social Health Insurance Modernization Act (Gesetz
208   IV,    12. 10       |             included in Social health insurance since January 2004, equal
209   IV,    12. 10       |            cooperation between health insurance fund and accident insurance
210   IV,    12. 10       |           insurance fund and accident insurance organization~National Guide
211   IV,    12. 10       |           organisations of the health insurance fund and the accident insurance
212   IV,    12. 10       |       insurance fund and the accident insurance organizations~ ~Deprivation
213   IV,    12. 10       |            within the statuory health insurance system have the oppurtunity
214   IV,    12. 10       |            2007:~htt ~ ~Poverty~ high~Insurance public law 13 august 2004 :
215   IV,    12. 10       |     assistance to get a supplementary insurance :~ht ~ Regional programmes
216   IV,    12. 10       |        Occupational Health and Safety Insurance~National Programme on Safety
217   IV,    13.  5       |            with their national health insurance coverage. Prior authorisation
218   IV,    13.  6.  3   |           countries, this is based on insurance provision linked to parental