Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4    |            against increased health risks, and/or have been able to
  2    I,     2.  5    |       affect the type and nature of risks present in the workplace
  3    I,     2.  5    |    workplace and they influence how risks need to be managed. For
  4    I,     2.  5    |      problems, although traditional risks also remain on the agenda.
  5    I,     2.  5    |           forth — which can lead to risks of stress and violence at
  6    I,     2.  5    |       services where there are high risks of stress, violence and
  7    I,     2.  5    |        particles, may result in new risks to workershealth.~ ~New
  8    I,     2.  5    |    sustainability. Awareness of the risks associated to different
  9    I,     2.  5    |             shift in the sharing of risks between beneficiaries, governments,
 10    I,     2.  8    |     avoiding surprises and reducing risks in the future. The WHO has
 11    I,     2.  8    |       Usually small and containable risks~ ~Coal~ ~As for biomass;
 12    I,     2.  8    |            Appreciable occupational risks associated with extraction~ ~
 13    I,     2.  8    |          emissions, but can lead to risks through altered ecology~ ~
 14    I,     2.  8    |             other fossil fuels~Some risks mainly during extraction~ ~
 15    I,     2.  8    |            Appreciable occupational risks associated with~ ~ ~ ~ ~
 16    I,     2.  8    |       Usually small and containable risks~ ~Photovoltaic~ ~Small~ ~
 17    I,     2.  8    |        Negligible~ ~Nuclear~ ~Small risks from release of radioactive
 18    I,     2.  9    |           lakes and enhanced health risks, particularly in water bodies
 19    I,     2. 10.  2|            health and environmental risks (The Royal Society, 2004;
 20   II,     4.  1    |          and reducing environmental risks and accidents, particularly
 21   II,     5.  2.  7|           Absolute and Attributable Risks of Cardiovascular Disease
 22   II,     5.  5.  1|              comparison of relative risks may be more reliable than
 23   II,     5.  5.  1|            15 to 24 presented lower risks than older adults. In four
 24   II,     5.  5.  3|      Johannessen SI (2004): Medical risks in epilepsy: a review with
 25   II,     5.  6.  3|             6.7. Estimated lifetime risks of fractures in the UK at
 26   II,     5.  6.  3|             6.10. Estimated 10 year risks of fractures in the UK at
 27   II,     5.  7.  4|            from so-called competing risks (e.g. cardiovascular mortality
 28   II,     5.  7.  7|      Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular
 29   II,     5.  7.  7|        Distribution of major health risks: findings from the Global
 30   II,     5.  9.  4|           95% CI 1.1-2.3, P=0.017). Risks were higher for asthma defined
 31   II,     5.  9.  4|      respectively, P = 0.04). Lower risks for lifetime asthma (prevalence
 32   II,     5.  9.  4|             for 5 years or more had risks very similar to Italian
 33   II,     5. 12.  7|    Mediterranean diet: benefits and risks. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 71:
 34   II,     5. 14.  4|      changes demonstrate how common risks influence public health,
 35   II,     6.  3.  6|             for consumers about the risks.~ ~The annual incidence
 36   II,     6.  4.  4|       scientific opinions about the risks posed by current and emerging
 37   II,     7.  4    |  inequalities in exposure to injury risks according to sex, age and
 38   II,     7.  4.  1|           prone to taking excessive risks. Thus, policy development
 39   II,     7.  4.  3|      further reduction of transport risks are planned under the leadership
 40   II,     7.  4.  4|           sport activity is without risks: about 18% of injury related
 41   II,     7.  5    |             the evolution of injury risks. Special attention should
 42   II,     7.  5    |          and service related injury risks;~· Encourage collaboration
 43   II,     8.  1.  1|        mental health and also incur risks to their health.~Physically-disabled
 44   II,     8.  2.  1|         only do they experience the risks to physical and mental health
 45   II,     8.  2.  1|   particularly vulnerable to health risks. Evidence suggests that
 46   II,     8.  2.  1| substantively to the greater health risks experienced by, for example,
 47   II,     8.  2.  1|      through simple tests.~ ~Health risks of people with intellectual
 48   II,     8.  2.  1|            These behavioural health risks were associated with gender –
 49   II,     8.  2.  1|            encounter greater health risks, experience poorer physical
 50   II,     8.  2.  1|      lifestyles and thus reduce the risks of obesity, diabetes and
 51   II,     8.  2.  1|       sought. They may incur health risks exacerbated by their roles
 52   II,     8.  2.  1|         managing age-related health risks for people in this group –
 53   II,     9        |      nulliparas both face increased risks of stillbirth (Canterino
 54   II,     9        |           drug is needed to balance risks and benefits. Pharmacovigilance
 55   II,     9        |        abuse also carry teratogenic risks. These are particularly
 56   II,     9        |                Our knowledge of the risks of exposure to chemicals,
 57   II,     9        |           overcrowding increase the risks of accidents and transmission
 58   II,     9.  1.  1|          Brown MB (2007a). Elevated risks of pregnancy complications
 59   II,     9.  1.  1|            MB (2007b). Contemporary risks of maternal morbidity and
 60   II,     9.  1.  2|      nulliparas both face increased risks of stillbirth (Canterino
 61   II,     9.  1.  2|           drug is needed to balance risks and benefits. Pharmacovigilance
 62   II,     9.  1.  2|        abuse also carry teratogenic risks. These are particularly
 63   II,     9.  1.  2|                Our knowledge of the risks of exposure to chemicals,
 64   II,     9.  1.  2|        groups may experience higher risks due to deprivation, as well
 65   II,     9.  1.  2|            as well as some specific risks due to genetic or cultural
 66   II,     9.  1.  2|    vaccination and specific genetic risks.~ ~f) The phenomenon of
 67   II,     9.  1.  2|     childbirth and its reproductive risks needs to be understood at
 68   II,     9.  2.  3|              downplay or deny their risks of HIV and other STIs. Feelings
 69   II,     9.  3.  1|            few male specific health risks in early and middle age (
 70   II,     9.  3.  1|      menopausal symptoms and health risks associated with menopause.
 71   II,     9.  3.  1|            Lack of Control Over STI Risks Drives Microbicide Search.
 72   II,     9.  3.  2|          Brown MB (2007a). Elevated risks of pregnancy complications
 73   II,     9.  3.  2|            MB (2007b). Contemporary risks of maternal morbidity and
 74   II,     9.  4.  4|           overcrowding increase the risks of accidents and transmission
 75   II,     9.  5.  3|             reproductive and health risks. In addition, women’s reduced
 76   II,     9.  5.  5|       requires that the sources and risks of all diverse groups are
 77   II,     9.  5.  6|            Lack of Control Over STI Risks Drives Microbicide Search.
 78   II,     9.  5.  6|        Health Report 2002: reducing risks, promoting healthy life.
 79  III,    10.  1.  3|               An overview of health risks and benefits of alcohol
 80  III,    10.  2.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks~SHS~Second-hand smoke~TCS~
 81  III,    10.  2.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENHIR) has published
 82  III,    10.  2.  1|            Health Report - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life.
 83  III,    10.  2.  1|       referral~ ~Focusing on health risks is the key for preventing
 84  III,    10.  2.  1|       health report 2002Reducing risks, promoting healthy life.
 85  III,    10.  2.  1|           consumption, and weighing risks and benefits of existing
 86  III,    10.  2.  1|            quantification of health risks: global and regional burden
 87  III,    10.  2.  1|       health report 2002Reducing risks, promoting healthy life.
 88  III,    10.  2.  4|            to stratify genome-based risks (Roberts et al., 2000).
 89  III,    10.  2.  4|    individual exposure to exogenous risks. In the field of infectious
 90  III,    10.  2.  4|          first, identify individual risks based on individual genomic
 91  III,    10.  2.  5|      function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based
 92  III,    10.  3.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks~UVR~UV radiation~ ~
 93  III,    10.  3.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENHIR) opinion on “Possible
 94  III,    10.  3.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has recently concluded
 95  III,    10.  3.  1|          assessment of acute health risks in the IF range is currently
 96  III,    10.  3.  1|            not indicated any health risks at exposure levels below
 97  III,    10.  3.  1|         countries~ ~The main health risks of environmental noise,
 98  III,    10.  3.  1|     significantly elevated relative risks to the cardiovascular, respiratory
 99  III,    10.  3.  1|     Significantly elevated relative risks to the respiratory system
100  III,    10.  3.  1|           to inform children on the risks of overexposure and how
101  III,    10.  3.  1|             Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) (2007): Possible
102  III,    10.  3.  2|              emerging” and “modernrisks pose an increasing health
103  III,    10.  3.  2|             identified as potential risks to children’s health at
104  III,    10.  3.  2|             cycle of chemicals. New risks from 'old' pollutants are
105  III,    10.  3.  2|             benefits but also bears risks as chemicals can be released
106  III,    10.  3.  2|        records the number of health risks reported for consumer products.~ ~
107  III,    10.  3.  2|      function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based
108  III,    10.  3.  2|            Member States to prevent risks to the environment and human
109  III,    10.  3.  2|     Directive was extended to cover risks arising from storage and
110  III,    10.  3.  2|             releases and associated risks. Environmental surveillance
111  III,    10.  3.  2|    Principles for evaluating health risks in children associated with
112  III,    10.  3.  3|            and can all pose serious risks to public health, particularly
113  III,    10.  3.  4|            21st century~Benefits or risks to human health~Over most
114  III,    10.  3.  4|       action. Identifying potential risks early enough and responding
115  III,    10.  3.  4|           increases existing health risks in urban areas and excess
116  III,    10.  3.  4|             strategies for reducing risks need to be emphasized more
117  III,    10.  3.  4|             droughts with increased risks of forest and bush fires,
118  III,    10.  4.  1|     Integrated Assessment of Health Risks of Environmental~ISAAC~International
119  III,    10.  4.  1|       regions of Europe. The health risks of air pollution by fine
120  III,    10.  4.  1|          PM10 ) determines both the risks of chronic effects of pollution
121  III,    10.  4.  1|    significant negative impacts nor risks to human health or the environment,
122  III,    10.  4.  2|          identification of emerging risks; and~· weaknesses in the
123  III,    10.  4.  2|            EFSA advises on possible risks related to food safety,
124  III,    10.  4.  2|             identified products and risks. In 2006, there were 938
125  III,    10.  4.  2|          mycotoxins (40%). Reported risks from pesticide residues
126  III,    10.  4.  2|            others, all pose serious risks to public health.~ ~Table
127  III,    10.  4.  2|            measures to manage these risks. Animal health is an important
128  III,    10.  4.  2|           the right balance between risks and benefits of substances
129  III,    10.  4.  2|         management of the potential risks to human health arising
130  III,    10.  4.  2|            proactive in identifying risks in the European food chain
131  III,    10.  4.  2|             fields such as emerging risks where scientific knowledge
132  III,    10.  4.  2|        which represent the greatest risks or uncertainties. If introduced
133  III,    10.  4.  2|        assessments and evaluate the risks involved in the use of pesticides.
134  III,    10.  4.  2|  risk-benefit analysis and emerging risks~ ~In addition to the many
135  III,    10.  4.  2|         identification of “emerging risks”~ ~Risk-benefit analysis~ ~
136  III,    10.  4.  2|              Assessment of emerging risks is distinct from the assessment
137  III,    10.  4.  2|     distinct from the assessment of risks under emergency (or crisis)
138  III,    10.  4.  2|            A procedure for emerging risks identification is being
139  III,    10.  4.  2|           considering that emerging risks are of interest, not only
140  III,    10.  4.  2|             communication regarding risks associated with the entire
141  III,    10.  4.  2|            public confidence in the risks in a open and transparent
142  III,    10.  4.  2|            the public perception of risks linked to food;~· explaining
143  III,    10.  4.  3|       agriculture. Potential health risks arising from these practices
144  III,    10.  4.  3|    reinforced. The potential health risks and impacts connected to
145  III,    10.  4.  3|       become wetter with increasing risks of flooding. Historically
146  III,    10.  4.  3|        Central Europe. Future flood risks are underlining the importance
147  III,    10.  4.  4|      recording the number of health risks reported for consumer products.~ ~ ~
148  III,    10.  4.  5|     pathogens, poses limited health risks; in fact, due to investments
149  III,    10.  4.  5|             degrees in reducing the risks of pollution to human health
150  III,    10.  4.  5|             receptors. In fact, the risks are determined by the physical
151  III,    10.  4.  5|         occurrence and magnitude of risks. Moreover, new generation
152  III,    10.  4.  5|         ability to characterize all risks, such assessments should
153  III,    10.  5.  1|           that by itself is free of risks. Within the private home,
154  III,    10.  5.  1|         2005).~ ~Next to the health risks posed by environmental pollution,
155  III,    10.  5.  3|             estimating attributable risks for specific outcomerisk
156  III,    10.  5.  3|             11. Work organisational risks factors at work per gender~ ~
157  III,    10.  5.  3|             12. Work organisational risks factors at work per economic
158  III,    10.  5.  3|           Table 10.5.3.13. Physical risks factors at work per gender.~ ~
159  III,    10.  5.  3|           Table 10.5.3.14. Physical risks factors at work per economic
160  III,    10.  5.  3|       affect the type and nature of risks present in the workplace
161  III,    10.  5.  3|    workplace and they influence how risks need to be managed. For
162  III,    10.  5.  3|      problems, although traditional risks also remain on the agenda.
163  III,    10.  5.  3|           forth — which can lead to risks of stress and violence at
164  III,    10.  5.  3|       services where there are high risks of stress, violence and
165  III,    10.  5.  3|         newly-emerging occupational risks, but also by social inequalities
166  III,    10.  5.  3|         many years after the health risks have been reduced – which
167  III,    10.  5.  3|            aimed at alleviating the risks. In 1989 the Community adopted
168  III,    10.  5.  3|          together with new types of risks (stress, depression, violence
169  III,    10.  5.  3|       prevention of manual handling risks~- 90/270/EEC: minimum health
170  III,    10.  5.  3|    identification and prevention of risks arising from vibration~ ~
171  III,    10.  5.  3|             are required to control risks at source level, eliminating
172  III,    10.  5.  3|       eliminating or reducing noise risks to a minimum, taking account
173  III,    10.  5.  3|      directive the control of noise risks includes:~- working methods
174  III,    10.  5.  3|          exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (
175  III,    10.  5.  3|      protection of workers from the risks related to noise exposure
176  III,    10.  5.  3|       footwear) appropriate for the risks involved and where they
177  III,    10.  5.  3|            to any increase in other risks~- Following a general Framework
178  III,    10.  5.  3|        assessment and prevention of risks, giving priority to collective
179  III,    10.  5.  3|    collective measures to eliminate risks, providing information and
180  III,    10.  6.  2|      socially patterned with higher risks in lower status people.~ ~
181  III,    10.  6.  2|            against increased health risks and/or have been able to
182  III,    10.  6.  3|        should be borne in mind that risks are relatively low for each
183   IV,    11.  1.  5|   co-morbidities face medical error risks (Weingart et al, 2000).
184   IV,    11.  5.  1|           recipient to unacceptable risks. The evaluation of donors
185   IV,    11.  5.  1|         organs, the balance between risks and expected benefits for
186   IV,    11.  5.  4|             by the transplant team. Risks and characteristics of the
187   IV,    11.  5.  4|          case there is a balance of risks and benefits to be considered:
188   IV,    11.  6.  2|     incentives to select favourable risks.~ ~Most countries now provide
189   IV,    11.  6.  3|            1) due to varying health risks, there is considerable horizontal
190   IV,    11.  6.  4|    solidarity principles by sharing risks across a larger population.
191   IV,    11.  6.  4|     preferentially select the ‘good risks’ (healthier individuals)
192   IV,    11.  6.  4|             funds~mix of population risks~Scotland~HM Revenue and
193   IV,    12.  1    |             understanding of health risks associated with them. ~Drug
194   IV,    12.  4    |          advice on non-food related risks to consumer products, health
195   IV,    12.  4    |             newly identified health risks. These Committees have adopted
196   IV,    12.  4    |            covering possible cancer risks from certain hair dyes,
197   IV,    12.  4    |             assessments of possible risks from nanotechnologies; several
198   IV,    12.  5    |             early identification of risks; analyse their potential
199   IV,    12. 10    |              aims to prevent health risks and to support health-promoting
200   IV,    12. 10    |            so as to minimise health risks and environmental dangers.
201   IV,    12. 10    |   prevention of work-related health risks, cooperation between health
202   IV,    12. 10    |           fieldworkers to recognize risks (negligence and abuse of
203   IV,    12. 10    |          social places for reducing risks for drugs users~2007: inside
204   IV,    13.  2.  3|          pollution and occupational risks are typically the result
205   IV,    13.  5    |       living conditions and curbing risks of death through innovations
206   IV,    13.  5    |        impaired mobility, increased risks of falls and fractures and
207   IV,    13.  7.  4|            difficulty of expressing risks in the same currency of
208   IV,    13.  7.  4|          those likely to experience risks are often not those experiencing