Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  7    |              people, will be living in urban areas. By 2030, this figure
  2    I,     2.  7    |               suggest a steady rise of urban populations. Within the
  3    I,     2.  7    |                 The divergence between urban and rural settlements introduces
  4    I,     2.  7    |               of the variation between urban and rural settlements are
  5    I,     2.  7    |           living conditions to the new urban settlers and keep them in
  6    I,     2.  7    |              of global importance. The urban area will occupy just one
  7    I,     2.  7    |                problems or large-scale urban settlements. Research work
  8   II,     5.  5.  1|            status, education and rural/urban living and thus compare
  9   II,     5.  5.  3|                as well as no effect of urban, rural, and mixed habitation
 10   II,     5.  5.  3|                but also people born in urban areas show a higher incidence.
 11   II,     5.  5.  3|                study was in a rural or urban location and whether cases
 12   II,     5.  6.  6|                disk degeneration in an urban population. Annals of 1958
 13   II,     6.  3.  5|          deprivation in specific inner urban areas, were both strongly
 14   II,     8.  2.  1|             are higher in deprived and urban areas (UK DoH, 2001).~ ~
 15   II,     9.  2.  2|            living in extreme rural and urban poverty, and are therefore
 16   II,     9.  2.  3|              seems to be predominantly urban and occurs frequently in
 17   II,     9.  2.  6|               Policies on planning and urban design, transport, environment,
 18   II,     9.  3.  3|         frequent among those living in urban areas of Italy and less
 19  III,    10.  1    |             non food consumer products~Urban, Rural and Industrial~Age~
 20  III,    10.  2.  1|              male gender, living in an urban area and preference of certain
 21  III,    10.  2.  1|             communities, especially in urban settings, the protection
 22  III,    10.  2.  1|              al, 2002).~ ~Not only the urban environment in which people
 23  III,    10.  2.  1|                 fewer green spaces and urban planning policies resulting
 24  III,    10.  2.  1|                resulting in increasing urban sprawl play an important
 25  III,    10.  2.  1|                transport, environment, urban planning, employers, local
 26  III,    10.  2.  1| physical activity and active living in urban environments: the role of
 27  III,    10.  2.  1|             Paper supports sustainable urban transport actions and specifies
 28  III,    10.  2.  1|         towards better and sustainable urban mobility that will be presented
 29  III,    10.  2.  1|          results of the Green Paper on Urban Mobility (European Commission,
 30  III,    10.  2.  1|            sectors, such as transport, urban planning, environment, employers
 31  III,    10.  2.  1|              Towards a new culture for urban mobilityDirectorate General
 32  III,    10.  2.  1|            transport/clean/green_paper_urban_transport/doc/2007_09_25_
 33  III,    10.  2.  1|            transport/doc/2007_09_25_gp_urban_mobility_en.pdf]~ ~European
 34  III,    10.  2.  1| physical activity and active living in urban environments: the role of
 35  III,    10.  2.  1|                transport, environment, urban planning, employers, local
 36  III,    10.  3.  1|               particularly the case in urban areas, where most of these
 37  III,    10.  3.  2|                part of our natural and urban environment. The chemical
 38  III,    10.  3.  4|             countries~Vulnerability in urban and rural areas is different;
 39  III,    10.  3.  4|            island effects in all large urban environments can account
 40  III,    10.  3.  4|          Athens or 8°C in London . The Urban heat island effect increases
 41  III,    10.  3.  4|               existing health risks in urban areas and excess mortality
 42  III,    10.  4.  1|                children who grow up in urban areas. Children with asthma
 43  III,    10.  4.  1|              US, the Dept of Housing & Urban Development has established
 44  III,    10.  4.  1|               domestic wood stoves. In urban areas, up to 10 per cent
 45  III,    10.  4.  3|          important disparities between urban and rural areas: only 30–
 46  III,    10.  4.  3|          important disparities between urban and rural areas: only 30–
 47  III,    10.  4.  3|          rural areas often lags behind urban areas, particularly in eastern
 48  III,    10.  4.  3|               effects of discharges of urban waste water and from certain
 49  III,    10.  4.  3|            relation to discharges from urban waste water treatment plants
 50  III,    10.  4.  3|         subject to eutrophication.~The Urban Wastewater Directive requires
 51  III,    10.  4.  3|                 Directive 91/271/EC on Urban Waste Water. Available at: htt ML~
 52  III,    10.  4.  5|       especially in rural more than in urban areas.~ ~Many health endpoints
 53  III,    10.  5.  1|                migration from rural to urban areas and led to the development
 54  III,    10.  5.  1|            large cities. The resulting urban development is a departure
 55  III,    10.  5.  1|               industrial emissions and urban pests. Sealed land and contaminants
 56  III,    10.  5.  1|              health and wellbeing. The urban sprawl has many drawbacks
 57  III,    10.  5.  1|             that often are defined as “urban problemscome into consideration.
 58  III,    10.  5.  1|          environmental determinants of urban and rural settlements may
 59  III,    10.  5.  1|              can be much lower than in urban areas.~ ~It is estimated
 60  III,    10.  5.  1|                relation to outdoor and urban conditions, cannot be assessed
 61  III,    10.  5.  1|             compensating effect on the urban heat island in summer time (Elm st
 62  III,    10.  5.  1|               al, 2004). Data from the Urban Audit of EU cities shows
 63  III,    10.  5.  1|           participating cities provide urban green areas within walking
 64  III,    10.  5.  1|              1996). City data from the Urban Audit project show that
 65  III,    10.  5.  1|     incineration plants may add to the urban air pollution (DEFRA, 2004).~ ~
 66  III,    10.  5.  1|                DEFRA, 2004).~ ~Outdoor urban pests~ ~As within the building,
 67  III,    10.  5.  1|             2004).~Future scenarios of urban sprawl as well as climate
 68  III,    10.  5.  1|      industrial or military sites into urban quarters or service areas:
 69  III,    10.  5.  1|            reduced space consumption / urban sprawl. Still, noise, air
 70  III,    10.  5.  1|             number of these addressesurban health issues”, focusing
 71  III,    10.  5.  1|         benchmarking and comparison of urban conditions and (b) for the
 72  III,    10.  5.  1|                 for the improvement of urban conditions, focusing on
 73  III,    10.  5.  1|           tools is given here below:~ ~Urban Audit~ ~The Urban Audit
 74  III,    10.  5.  1|             below:~ ~Urban Audit~ ~The Urban Audit collects information
 75  III,    10.  5.  1|                and health aspects into urban transport and demand side
 76  III,    10.  5.  1|         scientific awareness that good urban spatial planning can shape
 77  III,    10.  5.  1|     considerations at the heart of all urban planning and generate political
 78  III,    10.  5.  1|              of the concept of healthy urban planning and all that is
 79  III,    10.  5.  1|             the application of healthy urban planning principles and
 80  III,    10.  5.  1|              Ageing and accessibility, Urban design and physical activity,
 81  III,    10.  5.  1|               3. Mainstreaming healthy urban planning through appropriate
 82  III,    10.  5.  1|               local population.~htt ~ ~Urban matrix, knowledge networks~ ~
 83  III,    10.  5.  1|           matrix, knowledge networks~ ~Urban matrix, knowledge networks
 84  III,    10.  5.  1|           required information.~htt ~ ~Urban health indicators~ ~Based
 85  III,    10.  5.  1|               that the health needs of urban dwellers and the ability
 86  III,    10.  5.  1|             and the ability to monitor urban health will become a high
 87  III,    10.  5.  1|       identified the development of an urban health indicator system
 88  III,    10.  5.  1|             development of a system of urban health indicators.~ ht ~ ~
 89  III,    10.  5.  1|               of human settlements and urban issues. Although many projects
 90  III,    10.  5.  1|               Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment~ ~The Communication
 91  III,    10.  5.  1|           challenges faced by Europe's urban areas, focusing on 4 priority
 92  III,    10.  5.  1|     conjunction with stakeholders, are urban environmental management,
 93  III,    10.  5.  1|              environmental management, urban transport, sustainable construction
 94  III,    10.  5.  1|           sustainable construction and urban design. The strategy contains
 95  III,    10.  5.  1|          priorities to be addressed by urban actors and policy-makers.~htt ~ ~
 96  III,    10.  5.  1|              directives in relation to urban environment and settlements.
 97  III,    10.  5.  1|                sites: Competitiveness, urban sustainability and public
 98  III,    10.  5.  1|       Integrated pest management in an urban community: a successful
 99  III,    10.  5.  1|           social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and
100  III,    10.  5.  1|             Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden. In: Ann. N.
101  III,    10.  5.  1|            Environment Agency (2006a): Urban sprawl in Europe. The ignored
102  III,    10.  5.  1|                Noise and health in the urban environment. In: Reviews
103  III,    10.  5.  1|          mental health. In: Journal of Urban Health 80(4): 536-555.~Federal
104  III,    10.  5.  1|                 Reduction potential of urban PM 25 mortality risk using
105  III,    10.  5.  1|                    Lawrence RJ (2000): Urban Health: a new agenda? In:
106  III,    10.  5.  1|                Takano T, et al (2002): Urban residential environments
107  III,    10.  5.  1|           Community Health 56: 913-918.Urban Audit (htt ~ ~Tranter DC (
108  III,    10.  5.  1|      determinants for health equity in urban settings. WHO Kobe Centre,
109  III,    10.  5.  1| physical activity and active living in urban environments. The role of
110  III,    10.  5.  1|             and sanitation target: the urban and rural challenge of the
111  III,    10.  5.  2|                                10.5.2. Urban and rural populations~ ~
112  III,    10.  5.  2|      represented by the definition of “urban” and “rural”. First of all,
113  III,    10.  5.  2|               areas. The definition of urban and rural areas, however,
114  III,    10.  5.  2|   infrastructures or the distance from urban centres. In many cases it
115  III,    10.  5.  2|              what does not fall under “urban”. Still, recent study results
116  III,    10.  5.  2|              dualism between rural and urban areas may be more an imagination
117  III,    10.  5.  2|              of settlement categories (urban versus rural), but also
118  III,    10.  5.  2|                be easily considered as urban or rural based on the profile
119  III,    10.  5.  2|                 in many member states, urban settlements account for
120  III,    10.  5.  2|           considered two categories of urban versus rural settlements
121  III,    10.  5.  2|                of the health status of urban and rural populations strongly
122  III,    10.  5.  2|               how – in a given studyurban and rural are defined (Johnson-Webb
123  III,    10.  5.  2|                the differences between urban and rural populations may
124  III,    10.  5.  2|                 The divergence between urban and rural settlements introduces
125  III,    10.  5.  2|        dimensions of variation between urban and rural settlement are
126  III,    10.  5.  2|            service provision – between urban and rural setting, as well
127  III,    10.  5.  2|              some years older than the urban population (Eurofound, 2006).
128  III,    10.  5.  2|            younger people migrate into urban areas, which leaves an increasing
129  III,    10.  5.  2|                dependency rate between urban and rural areas is higher
130  III,    10.  5.  2|               of the EU (Spain: 22% in urban versus 33% in rural areas;
131  III,    10.  5.  2|        slightly lower in rural than in urban areas (OECD, 2007).~ ~With
132  III,    10.  5.  2|               secondary education than urban dwellers (Eurofound, 2006).~
133  III,    10.  5.  2|    health-related living conditions as urban residents tend to complain
134  III,    10.  5.  2|                due to air pollution in urban and rural settings~ ~Figure
135  III,    10.  5.  2|         recreational / green spaces in urban and rural setting~ ~Health
136  III,    10.  5.  2|             health differences between urban and rural settings. Data
137  III,    10.  5.  2|      considered and the definition of “urban” and “rural” is not comparable.
138  III,    10.  5.  2|     differences and life expectancy in urban and rural settings. However,
139  III,    10.  5.  2|               clear difference between urban and rural settings. The
140  III,    10.  5.  2|           decreased mortality rates in urban areas. For females, there
141  III,    10.  5.  2|           standard mortality rate with urban and rural settlements, males~ ~
142  III,    10.  5.  2|      age-adjusted mortality rates with urban and rural settlements, females~ ~
143  III,    10.  5.  2|              poor health from rural to urban areas (O`Reilly et al.,
144  III,    10.  5.  2|            populations versus 11.57 in urban settings), a trend identified
145  III,    10.  5.  2|                expectancy by gender in urban and rural settings in Lithuania,
146  III,    10.  5.  2|                2.8. Mortality rates in urban and rural settings in Lithuania,
147  III,    10.  5.  2|            year higher (66.4 years) in urban settings than in rural settings (
148  III,    10.  5.  2|              is 2 years (77.8 years in urban and 75.7 years in rural settings).~
149  III,    10.  5.  2|                Self-reported health in urban and rural settings~ ~In
150  III,    10.  5.  2|              illness and disability in urban and rural settings~ ~Continuing
151  III,    10.  5.  2|                in the Netherlands, the urban population shows more health
152  III,    10.  5.  2|                health problems between urban and rural residents, showing
153  III,    10.  5.  2|               2.11. Health problems in urban and rural citizens in the
154  III,    10.  5.  2|                Infection prevalence in urban and rural male citizens
155  III,    10.  5.  2|       interventions as those living in urban areas (Wood, 2004). Even
156  III,    10.  5.  2|        citizens is much higher than in urban settings (Male: 909 in rural
157  III,    10.  5.  2|             909 in rural versus 597 in urban places; Female: 667 in rural
158  III,    10.  5.  2|             667 in rural versus 322 in urban places). Four-week case
159  III,    10.  5.  2|                 compared to the 35% of urban places (Powles et al, 2002).~ ~
160  III,    10.  5.  2|                better than children in urban settings (Du Prel et al.,
161  III,    10.  5.  2|          birth weight, indicating that urban new-borns are substantially
162  III,    10.  5.  2|      prevalence for girls in rural and urban settings (8.5%), while for
163  III,    10.  5.  2|               prevalence was higher in urban (14.2%) than in rural settings (
164  III,    10.  5.  2|              state of mind is worse in urban areas, with social pathologies
165  III,    10.  5.  2|                being more prevalent in urban settings. The authors conclude
166  III,    10.  5.  2|            stable social conditions in urban areas may be a causal factor (
167  III,    10.  5.  2|                smokers also tend to be urban dwellers (Völzke et al.,
168  III,    10.  5.  2|     considerable advantage compared to urban residents. A meta-review
169  III,    10.  5.  2|           accessing health services in urban and rural areas (2006)~ ~ ~
170  III,    10.  5.  2|               United Kingdom~Rural: 20~Urban: 18~EU countries with intermediate
171  III,    10.  5.  2|              Slovenia, Spain~Rural: 27~Urban: 24~ ~EU countries with
172  III,    10.  5.  2|             Poland, Slovakia~Rural: 34~Urban: 17~ ~2006-Accession countries
173  III,    10.  5.  2|              Romania, Turkey~Rural: 58~Urban: 47~ ~EU25~ ~Rural: 23~Urban:
174  III,    10.  5.  2|           Urban: 47~ ~EU25~ ~Rural: 23~Urban: 20~ ~ ~ ~Adapted from:
175  III,    10.  5.  2|                questions the equity of urban and rural citizens with
176  III,    10.  5.  2|         required for rural settings as urban health systems do not translate
177  III,    10.  5.  2|             morbidity and mortality in urban and rural regions. Therefore,
178  III,    10.  5.  2|              question whether rural or urban residents are more or less
179  III,    10.  5.  2|              precise statements on the urban and rural differences of
180  III,    10.  5.  2|               services compared to the urban settlers. This lack of access
181  III,    10.  5.  2|              would distinguish between urban and rural settings. The
182  III,    10.  5.  2|         consistent review of rural and urban health conditions in the
183  III,    10.  5.  2|            Although the terminology of urban versus rural settings remains
184  III,    10.  5.  2|                and that differences in urban places may become more and
185  III,    10.  5.  2|          Health of New Zealand (2007): UrbanRural Health Comparisons:
186  III,    10.  5.  2|        Practice as a tool for studying urban/rural health and health
187  III,    10.  5.  2|           Rosato M, Connolly S (2007): Urban and rural variations in
188  III,    10.  5.  2|               et al. (2002): Stroke in urban and rural populations in
189  III,    10.  5.  2|               myocardial infarction in urban and rural areas in Northeast
190  III,    10.  6.  2|       unemployment, unsafe workplaces, urban slums, globalization and
191   IV,    11.  3.  1|                 typically in favour of urban areas, have introduced measures
192   IV,    11.  3.  1|       physicians to rural and deprived urban areas. Greece applies educational
193   IV,    11.  6.  4|              other cities, and between urban and rural areas; these geographical
194   IV,    12. 10    |                Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (Bundesministerium
195   IV,    12. 10    |               the population living in urban areas is subject of several
196   IV,    12. 10    |                Transport, Building and Urban affairs (htt n) and its
197   IV,    12. 10    |                Transport, Building and Urban Affairs, Federal Ministry
198   IV,    13.  2.  3|              genetic make-up. Finally, urban air pollution and occupational
199  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|          United Kingdom~uptake~uranium~urban~urbanization~urban-rural~