Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4        |                inevitable.~ ~As in the case with mortality, rates of
  2    I,     2.  5        |            Health at Work, 2006).~Both case studies and quantitative
  3    I,     2.  8        |               e.g. as is currently the case for oil) are likely to have
  4    I,     2. 10.  4    |           authentication. In the worst case, two packs of drugs with
  5    I,     2. 10.  4    |             the supply chain, in which case stakeholders would be alerted
  6    I,     2. 10.  4    |        information in healthcare: “The case for coding is compelling,
  7   II,     4.  2        |            with Figure 4.2.2). In that case the regression coefficient
  8   II,     5.  1.  1    |                policies. Screening and case identification strategies
  9   II,     5.  1.  1    |                due to abdominal fat In case of a genetic susceptibility
 10   II,     5.  1.  2    |         worried that he may misread in case of little or even no dialogue
 11   II,     5.  1.  2    |            account all these issues in case of long lasting diseases.
 12   II,     5.  2.  2    |            fatality are also reported; case fatality (including in-
 13   II,     5.  2.  2    |               stroke events and 28-day case fatality are also reported;
 14   II,     5.  2.  2    |            fatality are also reported; case fatality (including in-
 15   II,     5.  2.  3    |           separate cases of AMI or one case of AMI and one case of IHD.
 16   II,     5.  2.  3    |                one case of AMI and one case of IHD. In addition, there
 17   II,     5.  2.  3    |             coronary events and 28-day case fatality for men and women
 18   II,     5.  2.  3    |         Eastern and Eastern countries. Case fatality from coronary heart
 19   II,     5.  2.  3    |               aged 35-64 years; 28-day case fatality (including patients
 20   II,     5.  2.  3    |             functional outcome and the case fatality after stroke.~ ~
 21   II,     5.  2.  3    |               stroke events and 28-day case fatality for men and women
 22   II,     5.  2.  3    |               of changes in attack and case fatality rates with changes
 23   II,     5.  2.  3    |                attributable to reduced case fatality and one third to
 24   II,     5.  2.  3    |               whether this decrease of case fatality was due to changes
 25   II,     5.  2.  3    |               women aged 35-64; 28-day case fatality; average annual
 26   II,     5.  2.  7    |               in stroke event rates or case fatality?. Stroke 34:1833-
 27   II,     5.  3.  2    |            hospitalisation or cost per case have to be collected by
 28   II,     5.  3.  3    |        Verdecchia et al, 2007). In the case of Czech Republic, survival
 29   II,     5.  3.  5    |          screening programmes. In this case, screening detects cervical
 30   II,     5.  3.  6    |               all cancers reflects the case mix by cancer site. For
 31   II,     5.  4.  2    |             limitation in the frequent case where different countries/
 32   II,     5.  4.  2    |                Fleming, 2004).~In this case participants are motivated
 33   II,     5.  4.  2    |                hospitals.~A particular case of outcome is that of mortality:
 34   II,     5.  4.  2    |         complete diabetes sources. The case of Tayside, Scotland provides
 35   II,     5.  4.  5    |                due to abdominal fat In case of a genetic susceptibility,
 36   II,     5.  4.  6    |             even more important in the case of countries reporting a
 37   II,     5.  4.  6    |              of high risk state in the case of diabetes obesity should
 38   II,     5.  4.  6    |              risk factors. This is one case in which screening on an
 39   II,     5.  5.  1    |              This was particularly the case for Portugal, France and
 40   II,     5.  5.  2    |                study, this was not the case. Also, the EURODEM study
 41   II,     5.  5.  2    |               age groups. This was the case for Austria, Germany, Hungary,
 42   II,     5.  5.  2    |               populations. This is the case for Cyprus, Ireland, Malta,
 43   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the lack of psychiatric case registries in most of the
 44   II,     5.  5.  3    |            Figure 5.5.3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia in EUGLOREH
 45   II,     5.  5.  3    |        psychiatric illnesses, detailed case registries (which are only
 46   II,     5.  5.  3    |                to develop a consistent case definition have created
 47   II,     5.  5.  3    |        diagnosis, lack of agreement on case definition and differences
 48   II,     5.  5.  3    |          definition and differences in case finding methods have contributed
 49   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Member State in ASD as the case identification system is
 50   II,     5.  5.  3    |             measure prevalence and the case definition of ASD in Europe
 51   II,     5.  5.  3    |                be explored to maximize case ascertainment. The large
 52   II,     5.  5.  3    |                explained by suboptimal case ascertainment or by flaws
 53   II,     5.  5.  3    |     populations at risk, the extent of case identification and the study
 54   II,     5.  5.  3    |          explained through accuracy in case ascertainment and selection
 55   II,     5.  5.  3    |             for suicide in epilepsy: a case control study. Epilepsia
 56   II,     5.  5.  3    |             AED~Antiepileptic Drug~CFR~Case Fatality Ratio~IBE~International
 57   II,     5.  5.  3    |               PR-SP-MS and PP-MS.~ ~MS case registers in ”Europe”~Population-based
 58   II,     5.  5.  3    |                was related to improved case assessment over time. The
 59   II,     5.  5.  3    |              widespread improvement of case ascertainment and survey
 60   II,     5.  5.  3    |                the different degree of case ascertainment coverage based
 61   II,     5.  5.  3    |               a general improvement in case ascertainment and survey
 62   II,     5.  5.  3    |               billion. The cost per MS case in Europe ranges from €10
 63   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Differences in methods for case ascertainment may also influence
 64   II,     5.  5.  3    |                some studies. As is the case for elderly PD patients,
 65   II,     5.  5.  3    |                al, 2005). The cost per case differed significantly across
 66   II,     5.  5.  3    |             Figure 5.5.3.6.2. Cost per case in PD in selected EUGLOREH
 67   II,     5.  5.  3    |              MM, Maraganore DM (1998): Case ascertainment uncertainties
 68   II,     5.  6.  3    |               of local inflammation.~ ~Case definition can be based
 69   II,     5.  6.  3    |                the definition of a new case. It can be estimated by
 70   II,     5.  6.  3    |          Natural history~ ~A classical case of osteoporosis may be present
 71   II,     5.  7.  1    |             cost excess of $26.000 per case per year in the USA (Smith
 72   II,     5.  8.  3    | patho-physiology, for instance, in the case of COPD, other smoking-related
 73   II,     5.  8.  3    |            pre-existing disease—in the case of COPD, pulmonary hypertension
 74   II,     5.  8.  7    |              practice: cross sectional case finding study. BMJ 2002;
 75   II,     5. 10.  1    |              incriminated food. In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy,
 76   II,     5. 11.  3    |               a localized area. In the case of piercing, where the duration
 77   II,     5. 11.  5    |        extended sets of indicators and case studies, including examples
 78   II,     5. 12.  4    |          decades – which remain in any case far from the level reached
 79   II,     5. 12.  6    |          difficult to evaluate. In any case, it is likely to be modest
 80   II,     5. 14.  3    |             until recently This is the case for instance for Slovenia
 81   II,     5. 15.  1    |              drug development. In this case, rarity is defined as the
 82   II,     6.  3.  1    |             diagnosed, and finally the case is notified. For a large
 83   II,     6.  3.  1    |                travel revenues. In the case of pandemics, no part of
 84   II,     6.  3.  3    |               country of origin of the case, rather than on the possible
 85   II,     6.  3.  4    |             severe pneumonia with high case fatality rates, especially
 86   II,     6.  3.  5    |      Generalised spasms can occur. The case fatality rate ranges from
 87   II,     6.  3.  5    |           measure. In Europe, the last case of flaccid paralysis caused
 88   II,     6.  3.  7    |             Leone (2000 and 2003), one case in the Netherlands in 2000,
 89   II,     6.  3.  7    | Eurosurveillance reported one imported case of CCHF in the UK, in a
 90   II,     6.  3.  7    |              In the last 10 years, one case was reported by Germany
 91   II,     6.  4.  2    |         decision 2002/253/EC lays down case definitions for reporting
 92   II,     7.  4.  3    |                the most vulnerable. In case of a collision with a motorised
 93   II,     7.  6        |         causing injuries (as it is the case in interpersonal violence,
 94   II,     8.  2.  1    |             group, and it is still the case that intellectual disability
 95   II,     9            |                 EUROCAT, 2004). In the case of epilepsy and diabetes,
 96   II,     9.  1.  1    |                arise from variation in case definition and in the inclusion
 97   II,     9.  1.  2    |         quality data (both in terms of case ascertainment and diagnostic
 98   II,     9.  1.  2    |            investigation by autopsy in case of infant death c) the likelihood
 99   II,     9.  1.  2    |               recent years due to late case registration). This increase
100   II,     9.  1.  2    |           encouraged, and done only in case of lethal anomaly. Some
101   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 EUROCAT, 2004). In the case of epilepsy and diabetes,
102   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 this is not always the case and what is emerging is
103   II,     9.  3.  1    |        Replacement Treatment (ART). In case of unclear results, the
104   II,     9.  3.  1    |               dialysis method; in this case the cut off is 5 ng/dl (
105   II,     9.  3.  1    |            digital examination and, in case of doubt, by transrectal
106   II,     9.  3.  1    |                 Obesity in Europe: the case for action. European Association
107   II,     9.  3.  2    |      completeness of registration) and case description. Improvement
108   II,     9.  3.  3    |                the programme as in the case of the UK Teenage Pregnancy
109   II,     9.  4.  6    |             care or - in a more severe case - may lead to moving into
110  III,    10.  1        |              likely association in the case of cancer/radon to a low
111  III,    10.  1        |               low likelihood as in the case of cancer/EMF.~ ~Table 10.
112  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Norway ( however, in the case of Luxembourg, consumption
113  III,    10.  2.  1    |          suggests that this is not the case. There is no apparent correlation
114  III,    10.  2.  1    |                suggest that, as is the case with tobacco, consideration
115  III,    10.  2.  1    |               criminal drinking-driver case may be delayed or successfully
116  III,    10.  2.  1    |                of stabilisation in the case of cannabis, amphetamines
117  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|             complementary systems, HIV case reporting and HIV seroprevalence
118  III,    10.  2.  1(14)|                          Most national case definitions are the same
119  III,    10.  2.  4    |           diseases. The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium has recently
120  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 can be rare in the one case (e.g., due to MC4R mutant
121  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 or common in the other case (due to environmental factors).~ ~
122  III,    10.  2.  4    |            2003, www ~ ~Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (2007):
123  III,    10.  2.  5    |       Endocrine disrupters represent a case when mutagenesis is not
124  III,    10.  3.  1    |            Additionally, diagnosis and case identification may be more
125  III,    10.  3.  1    |                may be particularly the case in urban areas, where most
126  III,    10.  3.  1    |          general public and workers in case of a significant increase
127  III,    10.  3.  2    |            exposure routes such as the case of acrylamide in food (EU,
128  III,    10.  3.  2    |       Endocrine disrupters represent a case when mutagenesis is not
129  III,    10.  3.  2    |             activities in mining – the case of cyanide spill in Baia
130  III,    10.  3.  2    |             explosive substances – the case of Enschede fireworks accident,
131  III,    10.  3.  2    |                based fertilisers – the case of the explosion in a fertiliser
132  III,    10.  3.  2    |                known problems which in case of persistent substances,
133  III,    10.  3.  3    |             severe pneumonia with high case fatality rates, especially
134  III,    10.  3.  3    |           severity of the disease, the case fatality and number of cases (
135  III,    10.  3.  4    |           illness). The reverse is the case for winter. Preliminary
136  III,    10.  3.  4    |               in Bulgaria in 2005. The case of Bulgaria shows that floods
137  III,    10.  4.  1    |             knowledge, assessments and case studies in Europe.~ ~The
138  III,    10.  4.  1    |             studies such as the Dublin case study, the former East Germany
139  III,    10.  4.  1    |                Germany and the Atlanta case. There are also several
140  III,    10.  4.  1    |                 This is especially the case with asthma and allergies.~ ~
141  III,    10.  4.  2    |         possible safeguard measures in case of emergencies; f) consumer
142  III,    10.  4.  2    |         external borders. In the first case, consumers can be reassured
143  III,    10.  4.  2    |              the market; in the second case, consumers can be reassured
144  III,    10.  4.  2    |              on a weekly basis. In the case of a large outbreak of an
145  III,    10.  4.  2    |           severity of the disease, the case fatality, and number of
146  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 This is especially the case for resistance to fluoroquinolones
147  III,    10.  4.  2    |        notified for the first time. In case of plastic materials and
148  III,    10.  4.  2    |            considered to be an extreme case as only a minority of Europeans
149  III,    10.  4.  2    |                may be difficult or, in case of rare events, impossible
150  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Member State or, in the case of a third country, to refuse,
151  III,    10.  4.  2    |               to operate such plans in case of an emergency; (g) that
152  III,    10.  4.  2    |               This is particularly the case for Regulation (EC) No 852/
153  III,    10.  4.  3    |          Figure 10.4.3.2).~ ~A special case of water safety is the occurrence
154  III,    10.  4.  3    |             actions should be taken in case of contamination to prevent
155  III,    10.  4.  4    |               skin or mucosa as in the case for tattoo and piercing
156  III,    10.  4.  5    |      applicability of the principle in case of remediation of historical
157  III,    10.  4.  5    |              of existing sites. In the case of remediation schemes of
158  III,    10.  5.  1    |              open windows but – in the case of noise – also through
159  III,    10.  5.  1    |                solutions.~Various city case studies, evidence reports
160  III,    10.  5.  2    |        rural settings~ ~Continuing the case of long-standing illnesses,
161  III,    10.  5.  2    |               urban places). Four-week case mortality was also significantly
162  III,    10.  5.  2    |                Bulgaria:~incidence and case fatality findings from a '
163  III,    10.  5.  2    |               of symptoms in a Swedish case control study. BMC Family
164  III,    10.  5.  3    |             and manufacturing (in each case, around every fourth employee
165  III,    10.  5.  3    |                home (OSHA, 2002).~Both case studies and quantitative
166  III,    10.  6.  1    |        psychological help available in case of crisis or problem (Nosikov
167  III,    10.  6.  1    |             respondent can count on in case of serious problems and
168   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            demographics, payer mix and case mix. It also includes issues
169   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                example, adjustment for case mix is needed to identify
170   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               that is risk adjusted by case mix complexity – are being
171   IV,    11.  2.  1    |               providers. In the latter case, the shortfall tends to
172   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                does not seem to be the case with specialist physicians (
173   IV,    11.  4        |           soundness of HTA, as was the case with HTA in positron emission
174   IV,    11.  5.  4    |     transmission risk inherent in each case. Although a definition of
175   IV,    11.  5.  4    |              characteristics. In every case there is a balance of risks
176   IV,    11.  6.  2    |              opt out of (or, as in the case of the Netherlands, are
177   IV,    11.  6.  4    |       misleading, in particular in the case of Germany. The situation
178   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               or positive list (in the case of Austria, the list is
179   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                outcome of interest. In case of a dichotomous effect
180   IV,    11.  6.  4    |               or waiting time (e.g. in case of hip fracture, the time
181   IV,    11.  6.  5    |            2006): "Editorial: Hospital case payment systems in Europe."
182   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                for the Enabling State. CASE Discussion Paper No. 41.
183   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Committed to Safety: Ten Case Studies on Reducing Harm
184   IV,    12.  1        |              this is still largely the case today. From the start, the
185   IV,    12.  1        |       difficult ethical aspects in the case of therapeutic substances
186   IV,    12.  2        |             are already present.~ ~The case for screening for undiagnosed
187   IV,    12.  2        |          suggests that this is not the case. There is no apparent correlation
188   IV,    12.  2        |                suggest that, as is the case with tobacco, consideration
189   IV,    12.  2        |               criminal drinking-driver case may be delayed or successfully
190   IV,    12. 10        |            targets and measures.~As in case of alcohol dependants a (
191   IV,    12. 10        |                industry. An end-to-end case of early warning at the
192   IV,    12. 10        |               the public to accuse any case of low and improper quality
193   IV,    12. 10        |             work activities at risk in case of alcohol consumption.~
194   IV,    13.  1        |            health-achievements. In any case, there is no evidence that
195   IV,    13.  2.  3    |          diseases such as AIDS. In the case of chemical contamination,
196   IV,    13.  3        |             compared. This is also the case when the positive time-trends
197   IV,    13.  7.  3    |              be studied for example in case of an international, boarding
198   IV,    13.  7.  5    |            individual level..~ ~In any case, clearness is needed and
199   IV,    13.  8        |              help them build their own case. NGOs with recognised expertise