Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  1        |    Households are small, also as an effect of population ageing. One
  2    I,     2.  1        |           In addition to the direct effect of health on economy, there
  3    I,     2.  2        |           their reservoirs. Another effect of this increased travelling
  4    I,     2.  2        |         where they are endemic. The effect of global warming on Europe
  5    I,     2.  5        |           do indeed have a positive effect on work satisfaction (EUROFOUND,
  6    I,     2.  7        |     South-East England has the same effect. Sao Paulo in Brazil has
  7    I,     2. 10.  4(11)|                                 Her effect van elektronisch voorschrijven
  8    I,     3.  3        |       coming decades. Generally the effect of fertility decline on
  9    I,     3.  3        |         much more profound than the effect of increasing life expectancy.
 10    I,     3.  3        |            usually only has a small effect on population ageing if
 11    I,     3.  3        |            population ageing if any effect at all. In the second half
 12    I,     3.  3        |           steadily afterwards. This effect was chiefly driven by a
 13   II,     4.  2        |            higher ages had a larger effect on life expectancy than
 14   II,     4.  2        |             3) did not have a large effect on life expectancy in the
 15   II,     4.  2        |             diseases had a negative effect on mortality at young and
 16   II,     4.  2        |        Portugal they had a negative effect on mortality of men in their
 17   II,     4.  2        |           Portugal. In general, the effect of transport accidents on
 18   II,     4.  2        |             table 3) had a negative effect on life expectancy in the
 19   II,     4.  2        |         countries. For example, the effect of remaining causes was
 20   II,     4.  2        |             overall patterns in the effect of changes in the cause
 21   II,     4.  2        |            for women. Note that the effect of smoking on mortality
 22   II,     4.  2        |             men and Dutch women the effect of the decline in mortality
 23   II,     4.  2        |         women in most countries the effect was smaller than for men.
 24   II,     4.  2        |          the 1990s, even though the effect was still negative in 7
 25   II,     4.  2        |        later than men, the negative effect of smoking related cancers
 26   II,     4.  2        |           1980s.~ ~Table 4.2.5. The effect of smoking related cancers
 27   II,     5.  1.  3    |            to produce a therapeutic effect additional to that of all
 28   II,     5.  1.  4    |             have any discriminatory effect.~In order to interact effectively
 29   II,     5.  2.  5    |            2001); the hypolipidemic effect of such an healthy nutrition
 30   II,     5.  2.  7    |         Varigo J, Lisheng A (2004): Effect of potentially modifiable
 31   II,     5.  3.  5    |            al, 2005). The screening effect on the incidence trends
 32   II,     5.  3.  8    |            stakeholders to put into effect policies that can achieve
 33   II,     5.  4.  2    |        least sub-national averages (effect of different sources of
 34   II,     5.  4.  3    |          there is no clear age band effect.~Mortality. According to
 35   II,     5.  4.  3    |           to be any significant age effect.~Measurement of HDL cholesterol
 36   II,     5.  4.  3    |           There is a clear age band effect: the older the population,
 37   II,     5.  5.  1    |         Dodd S, Henry M (2006). The effect of macroeconomic variables
 38   II,     5.  5.  2    |      factors which have a buffering effect, might for example include
 39   II,     5.  5.  2    |            risk or have a buffering effect as evidence is often conflicting
 40   II,     5.  5.  3    |           difference, as well as no effect of urban, rural, and mixed
 41   II,     5.  5.  3    |      individual variability and its effect on treatment. Therefore,
 42   II,     5.  5.  3    |         either with individual main effect, or primed by early exposures
 43   II,     5.  5.  3    |            sclerosis in Ireland, an effect of genetic diversity. J
 44   II,     5.  6.  3    |    explained partly by a cumulative effect of chronic musculoskeletal
 45   II,     5.  6.  3    |             vertebral fracture. The effect is not just due to the recent
 46   II,     5.  6.  3    |              Back pain has a marked effect on the individual and also
 47   II,     5.  6.  6    |   rheumatoid arthritis. Data on the effect of multidisciplinary care
 48   II,     5.  6.  6    |       osteoporotic fracture and the effect of risk factors on screening
 49   II,     5.  8.  3    |            diabetes have a negative effect on survival. In the WHO
 50   II,     5.  9. FB    |             12 studies examined the effect of high body weight during
 51   II,     5.  9. FB    |           studies that examined the effect of high birth weight on
 52   II,     5.  9. FB    |             data about a protective effect of breastfeeding on the
 53   II,     5.  9. FB    |            to document a protective effect of any dietary intervention
 54   II,     5.  9. FB    |           evidence for a protective effect of any maternal exclusion
 55   II,     5.  9. FB    |           that time. The protective effect of maternal avoidance of
 56   II,     5.  9. FB    |        children has some protective effect. However, protection may
 57   II,     5.  9.  4    |          found to have a protective effect: the adjusted odds ratio (
 58   II,     5.  9.  4    |             infancy. The protective effect might be attributable to
 59   II,     5.  9.  4    |        study showed that biological effect of PM can be linked to one
 60   II,     5. 10.  2    |           995.2~Unspecified adverse effect of drug, medicament and
 61   II,     5. 10.  7    |            S (2007): Evaluating the effect of food processing on the
 62   II,     5. 11.  3    |         Vries et al, 2003). The net effect is that melanoma mortality
 63   II,     5. 11.  4    |       disease affects people is the effect it has on personal psychological
 64   II,     5. 11.  4    |       functions can have a profound effect on a country’s health care
 65   II,     5. 14.  3    |            EUGLOREH countries~ ~The effect of dental caries on the
 66   II,     6.  3.  1    |       systems (with a consequential effect on the comparability of
 67   II,     6.  3.  3    |      countries, have had a profound effect on the course of HIV infection,
 68   II,     6.  3.  3    |             have had any noticeable effect, incidence of acute hepatitis
 69   II,     6.  3.  4    |            in childhood, but has no effect on transmission. Therefore,
 70   II,     6.  3.  5    |           not achieved the intended effect of preventing death in young
 71   II,     6.  3.  7    |         where they are endemic. The effect of global warming on Europe
 72   II,     7.  3.  5    |             vary in their degree of effect and no one single factor
 73   II,     8.  1.  5(4) |          implement policies to give effect to the present Convention~
 74   II,     9.  1.  1    |      Graubard BI, Isotalo L (1993): Effect of age, parity, and smoking
 75   II,     9.  1.  1    |             Twins and triplets: the effect of plurality and growth
 76   II,     9.  1.  2    |            the health services into effect.~ ~However, prenatal screening
 77   II,     9.  2.  2    |            unions, (and thereby the effect on children of the union)
 78   II,     9.  2.  3    |          these issues, though their effect is insidious. The WHO has
 79   II,     9.  3.  1    |         seen in men’s health or the effect of socio-economic factors
 80   II,     9.  3.  1    |        uteri adds other 40 000. The effect of menopausal therapies
 81   II,     9.  3.  1    |      ablation therapy, has a marked effect on oestrogen levels (Lee
 82   II,     9.  3.  1    |          unequal burden of war: the effect of armed conflict on the
 83   II,     9.  3.  2    |    healthcare and these may have an effect on outcomes (Alran et al,
 84   II,     9.  3.  2    |      Graubard BI, Isotalo L (1993): Effect of age, parity, and smoking
 85   II,     9.  3.  2    |             Twins and triplets: the effect of plurality and growth
 86   II,     9.  4.  5    |      policies would have a positive effect on community life and the
 87   II,     9.  5.  3    |             and in the differential effect these duties have on their
 88  III,    10.  1        |     generational exposure and their effect. Preventive measures require
 89  III,    10.  1        |           and act as confounders or effect modifiers (Figure 10.1.2) (
 90  III,    10.  1.  1    |            of interest or act as an effect modifier (Szklo, 2000).
 91  III,    10.  1.  1    |           Szklo and Nieto, 2005).~ ~Effect modification is present
 92  III,    10.  1.  1    |         2000). Frequently the terms effect modification and interaction
 93  III,    10.  1.  1    |           interchangeably, although effect modification is by definition
 94  III,    10.  1.  1    |           is by definition a causal effect whereas interaction may
 95  III,    10.  1.  1    |             phenomenon. If there is effect modification, stratified
 96  III,    10.  1.  1    |            foods, which have a weak effect on satiation, may cause
 97  III,    10.  1.  3    |              1998): Fitness and the effect of exercise training on
 98  III,    10.  2.  1    |      diseases. It has a synergistic effect with other risk factors
 99  III,    10.  2.  1    |         known to have a synergistic effect with risk factors causing
100  III,    10.  2.  1    |            of nicotine. The calming effect of nicotine reported by
101  III,    10.  2.  1    |            have contributed to this effect, commonly associated to
102  III,    10.  2.  1    |        concerns include the gateway effectsnuff users may later
103  III,    10.  2.  1    |             a larger disporptionate effect on young men. Alcohol consumption
104  III,    10.  2.  1    |             evidence of a threshold effect, including, for example,
105  III,    10.  2.  1    |             evidence of a threshold effect.~ ~The risk of coronary
106  III,    10.  2.  1    |       suggested that the protective effect is due to a systematic misclassification
107  III,    10.  2.  1    |          age laws can substantially effect youth drinking and alcohol-related
108  III,    10.  2.  1    |            that do not find such an effect. These findings are similar
109  III,    10.  2.  1    |            to have found more of an effect of commercial communications.
110  III,    10.  2.  1    |            evidence for a sustained effect on behaviour (Jones et al,
111  III,    10.  2.  1    |          recommendation for optimal effect being twice daily (Arnadottir
112  III,    10.  2.  1    |             ppm) will have a lesser effect on caries than higher dose
113  III,    10.  2.  1    |            500 ppm, yields a better effect than toothpaste with 1,000
114  III,    10.  2.  1    |        teeth. The caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste increased
115  III,    10.  2.  1    |           for the caries preventing effect of daily supervised tooth
116  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Soder B. Caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste:
117  III,    10.  2.  1    |             settings found that the effect on eating behaviour was
118  III,    10.  2.  1    |         obesity studies measure the effect of interventions at community,
119  III,    10.  2.  1    |        nutritional or physiological effect whose purpose is to supplement
120  III,    10.  2.  1    |            of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations
121  III,    10.  2.  2    |           fraction has a protective effect on CVD. HDL less than 1.
122  III,    10.  2.  5    | Hadders-Algra M, Neeleman J (2003): Effect of antenatal exposure to
123  III,    10.  3.  1    |         also considers the combined effect of radon daughter exposure
124  III,    10.  3.  1    |        health effects. The positive effect is that sunlight and UV
125  III,    10.  3.  1    |              rickets). The negative effect is that UV radiation induces
126  III,    10.  3.  1    |            In conclusion, no health effect has been consistently demonstrated
127  III,    10.  3.  1    |  consistently been shown to have an effect on self-reported symptoms (
128  III,    10.  3.  1    |            In conclusion, no health effect has been consistently demonstrated
129  III,    10.  3.  1    |      regarded as being limited. The effect, if any, seems to be limited
130  III,    10.  3.  1    |           of any other carcinogenic effect of ELF on either children
131  III,    10.  3.  1    |      workplaces may have a prenatal effect resulting in hearing disabilities
132  III,    10.  3.  2    |             toxicity is the adverse effect on the immune system; the
133  III,    10.  3.  4    |               The Urban heat island effect increases existing health
134  III,    10.  3.  4    |            lacking on a clear causeeffect relationship between chemical
135  III,    10.  3.  4    |             a small but significant effect of this disorder in relation
136  III,    10.  4.  1    |         damage due to PM2.5 and the effect of the implementation of
137  III,    10.  4.  1    |            is little data about the effect of long-term exposures.
138  III,    10.  4.  1    |           No threshold for particle effect at whole population level
139  III,    10.  4.  1    |       Mortality (PM) – the dominant effect~o Development of bronchitis (
140  III,    10.  4.  1    |          have a much more important effect than ozone with respect
141  III,    10.  4.  1    |          likely to have the biggest effect on health. It is also important
142  III,    10.  4.  2    |          standards~are exceeded, no effect~is anticipated; Various~
143  III,    10.  4.  2    |            growth~promoters have no effect;~incident involving~clenbuterol:
144  III,    10.  4.  2    |           estimate for~early 1990s: effect in~several thousand children~ ~ ~
145  III,    10.  4.  2    |        origin, human milk~ ~Adverse effect on the~development of the~
146  III,    10.  4.  2    |        origin, human milk~ ~Adverse effect on the~development of the~
147  III,    10.  4.  2    |          cumulation, dose addition) effect or interaction resulting
148  III,    10.  4.  2    |             or weaker than expected effect. Exposure to multiple residues
149  III,    10.  4.  2    |             toxicity is the adverse effect on the immune system. The
150  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Maize, wheat~Oestrogenic effect~In preparation~Exposure
151  III,    10.  4.  2    |      subtropical areas~ ~Neurotoxic effect, various~effects~ ~None~ ~
152  III,    10.  4.  3    |              minimising the adverse effect on the environment” in the
153  III,    10.  4.  5    |    biomarkers of human exposure and effect, and compare waste-related
154  III,    10.  4.  5    |     nuisance (smell, noise, litter, effect on property values, stress
155  III,    10.  4.  5    |          biomarkers of exposure and effect, and compare wasterelated
156  III,    10.  5.  1    |       health must be split into two effect dimensions: the physical
157  III,    10.  5.  1    |         indications of a protective effect of bacterial components
158  III,    10.  5.  1    |           facilities has a positive effect on health. The effect seems
159  III,    10.  5.  1    |      positive effect on health. The effect seems to be twofold, with
160  III,    10.  5.  1    |            also have a compensating effect on the urban heat island
161  III,    10.  5.  1    |            1649–1653.~Cla W (2002): Effect of air-pollution control
162  III,    10.  5.  3    |    explained by the ‘healthy worker effect’, i.e. that only people
163  III,    10.  5.  3    |           do indeed have a positive effect on work satisfaction. Key
164  III,    10.  5.  3    |      reduced absenteeism costs. The effect of workplace health promotion
165  III,    10.  5.  3    |              this positive economic effect is a most powerful health promotion
166  III,    10.  6.  1    |            community spirit and, in effect, a low social control),
167  III,    10.  6.  3    |            community spirit and, in effect, a low social control),
168   IV,    11.  1.  5    |         studies demonstrate minimal effect on physician prescribing
169   IV,    11.  5.  7    |        organs may have an important effect.~ ~ ~
170   IV,    11.  6.  2    |          though this has had little effect on the development of a
171   IV,    11.  6.  3    |             the same redistributive effect as a progressive system,
172   IV,    11.  6.  3    |       understand the redistributive effect of a healthcare system in
173   IV,    11.  6.  3    |    wealthier people. The regressive effect of indirect taxes can be
174   IV,    11.  6.  3    |         terms of the redistributive effect of tax and benefit systems,
175   IV,    11.  6.  3    |         1998).~ ~The redistributive effect of social insurance funding
176   IV,    11.  6.  4    |            factor that modifies the effect of the exposure on the outcome
177   IV,    11.  6.  4    |            In case of a dichotomous effect modifier, the relationship
178   IV,    11.  6.  5    |            Gundersen L (2000): "The Effect of Clinical Practice Guidelines
179   IV,    11.  6.  5    |          1999): "The redistributive effect of health care finance in
180   IV,    12.  2        |          factors; the hypolipidemic effect of such an healthy nutrition
181   IV,    12.  2        |          age laws can substantially effect youth drinking and alcohol-related
182   IV,    12.  2        |            that do not find such an effect. These findings are similar
183   IV,    12.  2        |            to have found more of an effect of commercial communications.
184   IV,    12.  2        |            evidence for a sustained effect on behaviour. ~ ~In general,
185   IV,    12.  7        |         council conclusions in that effect were made in the Council
186   IV,    12. 10        |             of demand, activity and effect.~Smoking and tobacco snuff
187   IV,    12. 10        |          under age youth) came into effect in 2007. Most federal states
188   IV,    12. 10        |     Parliament endorsed it. It took effect on June 1, 2007. The major
189   IV,    12. 10        |       Decree (1339/2006) which took effect on January 2007. The medical
190   IV,    12. 10        |     regularly evaluated and to that effect a new expert group has been
191   IV,    13.  5        |            illustrate that the pure effect of an ageing population
192   IV,    13.  6.  1    |       primarily economic and on the effect on the individual. However,
193   IV,    13.  6.  1    |    education also has a detrimental effect. These losses of social
194   IV,    13.  6.  1    |          Thus, they have an adverse effect on the child throughout
195   IV,    13.  6.  1    |           his/her adult life; and~· Effect on future generations, if
196   IV,    13.  7        |      similar requirements came into effect for tissues and cells of