Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  5.Int|             mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar and other psychotic
  2   II,     5.  5.Int|    significant risk factor in men.~ ~Schizophrenia in the EU has a prevalence
  3   II,     5.  5.Int|       depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia and other psychotic illnesses
  4   II,     5.  5.  3|                             5.5.3.2. Schizophrenia and disorders of the schizophrenia
  5   II,     5.  5.  3|   Schizophrenia and disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum~ ~
  6   II,     5.  5.  3|              5.3.2.1. Introduction~ ~Schizophrenia (ICD-10/F20) is a relapsing
  7   II,     5.  5.  3|           thinking. Disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum are coded F21-F29.~
  8   II,     5.  5.  3|          spectrum are coded F21-F29.~Schizophrenia is a long-lasting disorder
  9   II,     5.  5.  3|             Disability). People with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have
 10   II,     5.  5.  3|            the need for treatment of schizophrenia and access or utilization
 11   II,     5.  5.  3|           with the stigma related to schizophrenia.~Prevalence and Incidence~
 12   II,     5.  5.  3|     long-term persistent belief that schizophrenia occurs in about 1% of the
 13   II,     5.  5.  3|               7 per 1000 suffer from schizophrenia in the WHO European Region (
 14   II,     5.  5.  3|             calculated prevalence of schizophrenia should be 3 465 899 (htt ).
 15   II,     5.  5.  3|         Since relapses are frequent, schizophrenia is associated with repeated
 16   II,     5.  5.  3|          schizophrenias” instead of “schizophrenia”. The first onset of this
 17   II,     5.  5.  3|         advances in the treatment of schizophrenia. Medications (antipsychotics)
 18   II,     5.  5.  3|            percentage of people with schizophrenia are not receiving appropriate
 19   II,     5.  5.  3|      effective treatments exist) for schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis
 20   II,     5.  5.  3|            of treatment, people with schizophrenia sometimes do not get the
 21   II,     5.  5.  3|          illness and especially with schizophrenia (Wrigley et al, 2005). The
 22   II,     5.  5.  3|         health care system is due to schizophrenia which affords relatively
 23   II,     5.  5.  3|            economic burden caused by schizophrenia exceeds the direct treatment
 24   II,     5.  5.  3|         Andlin-Sobocki et al, 2005).~Schizophrenia belongs to the ten leading
 25   II,     5.  5.  3|          prevalence and incidence of schizophrenia as a single diagnosis. Available
 26   II,     5.  5.  3|             calculated estimates for schizophrenia in the majority of epidemiological
 27   II,     5.  5.  3|       patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia; patients not receiving
 28   II,     5.  5.  3|   underestimate the need for care in schizophrenia and the burden of the disease.
 29   II,     5.  5.  3|             to identify persons with schizophrenia may still be an important
 30   II,     5.  5.  3|             reluctance in diagnosing schizophreniaespecially in non-psychiatric
 31   II,     5.  5.  3|              rates. The renaming of “Schizophrenia” to “Integration Disorder”
 32   II,     5.  5.  3|           i.e. the chapter including schizophrenia, are not complete for all
 33   II,     5.  5.  3|             the actual prevalence of schizophrenia since about 80% of patients
 34   II,     5.  5.  3|            the care of patients with schizophrenia.~ ~Inter-country comparison
 35   II,     5.  5.  3|              rates are available for schizophrenia (ICD-10/F20). They are listed
 36   II,     5.  5.  3|              for a deathcaused” by schizophrenia. Other data sources like
 37   II,     5.  5.  3|           provide data restricted to schizophrenia (ICD-10/F20) but focus on
 38   II,     5.  5.  3|           quality, are inconsistent. Schizophrenia itself is no fatal disease
 39   II,     5.  5.  3|           underlying conditions like schizophrenia. Therefore, these mortality
 40   II,     5.  5.  3|      substances applied for treating schizophrenia and relapse prevention are
 41   II,     5.  5.  3|          actual use in patients with schizophrenia since these drugs are applied
 42   II,     5.  5.  3|       antipsychotics (not limited to schizophrenia) numbers should be regarded
 43   II,     5.  5.  3|    prescribed to treat patients with schizophrenia (IMS 2003).~ ~ ~Health indicators
 44   II,     5.  5.  3|           the stigma associated with schizophrenia, on treatment gaps and costs
 45   II,     5.  5.  3|              the main aspects of the schizophrenia burden.~Prevalence and Incidence~
 46   II,     5.  5.  3|   individuals experience an onset of schizophrenia during their lifetime is
 47   II,     5.  5.  3|            experience a new onset of schizophrenia per year; thus the incidence
 48   II,     5.  5.  3|              while for Finnish women schizophrenia seems to be more often a
 49   II,     5.  5.  3|             of people suffering from schizophrenia.~There is a substantial
 50   II,     5.  5.  3|        projected mortality rates for schizophrenia according to the updated
 51   II,     5.  5.  3|             Saha, 2007).~People with schizophrenia are at an increased mortality
 52   II,     5.  5.  3|          ratio (SMR) for people with schizophrenia was elevated by a factor
 53   II,     5.  5.  3|             mortality of people with schizophrenia.~In addition, the metabolic
 54   II,     5.  5.  3|        deaths. Death rates caused by schizophrenia vary widely between countries
 55   II,     5.  5.  3|           Lifetime suicide rates for schizophrenia of 10% are widely cited.
 56   II,     5.  5.  3|       lifetime suicide prevalence in schizophrenia are contradictory: While
 57   II,     5.  5.  3|           suicides in the context of schizophrenia.~All these factors underline
 58   II,     5.  5.  3|            per 1000; Main diagnosis: Schizophrenia ICD-10 codes: F20.~Figure
 59   II,     5.  5.  3|            of the complex aspects of schizophrenia and their impact on the
 60   II,     5.  5.  3|       fourteenth). In terms of YLDs, schizophrenia is ranking 11th and accounts
 61   II,     5.  5.  3|              5.5.3.2.1. DALYs due to schizophrenia~DALY rates for schizophrenia
 62   II,     5.  5.  3|         schizophrenia~DALY rates for schizophrenia are especially important
 63   II,     5.  5.  3|             is reflected by the high schizophrenia DALY rates estimated from
 64   II,     5.  5.  3|            the work life. Therefore, schizophrenia carries with it massive
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|              measure for people with schizophrenia. Longitudinal research has
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|             Co-morbidity~People with schizophrenia are significantly more likely
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|              on physical illness and schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|           schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia have a higher prevalence
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|     conditions in women and men with schizophrenia compared to controls.~Schizophrenia
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|  schizophrenia compared to controls.~Schizophrenia is associated to co-morbid
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|             50% of the patients with schizophrenia are addicted to alcohol,
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|             adequate for people with schizophrenia. In addition, substance
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|           about 15% in patients with schizophrenia as compared to 23% in
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|        family history of people with schizophrenia there is evidence of an
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|         addition, people affected by schizophrenia show a much stronger tendency
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|           rate in people affected by schizophrenia cannot be exclusively attributed
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|          were noticed in people with schizophrenia before the use of antipsychotic
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|            the disease burden due to schizophrenia is underestimated.~Evidence
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|          Evidence based treatment of schizophrenia and treatment gaps.~Treatment
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|              art of the treatment of schizophrenia comprises psycho-pharmacotherapy,
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|         While nearly all people with schizophrenia need antipsychotics not
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|      psychotherapy for patients with schizophrenia (Pitschel-Walz and Bäuml,
 83   II,     5.  5.  3|           treatment of patients with schizophrenia, an important issue is represented
 84   II,     5.  5.  3|         onset of symptoms and before schizophrenia is diagnosed and appropriate
 85   II,     5.  5.  3|              7 per 1000) affected by schizophrenia are estimated to be untreated.
 86   II,     5.  5.  3|            age 15 and older covering schizophrenia are available only from
 87   II,     5.  5.  3|         people needing treatment for schizophrenia and the number of people
 88   II,     5.  5.  3|             median treatment gap for schizophrenia (including other non affective-psychoses)
 89   II,     5.  5.  3|             far too many people with schizophrenia do not receive timely and
 90   II,     5.  5.  3|            to more severe courses of schizophrenia resulting in increased disability
 91   II,     5.  5.  3|              in the understanding of schizophrenia and in its treatment have
 92   II,     5.  5.  3|             routine clinical care of schizophrenia is far behind the current
 93   II,     5.  5.  3|             essential if people with schizophrenia are to benefit from advances
 94   II,     5.  5.  3|       evidence that the treatment of schizophrenia should be based on three
 95   II,     5.  5.  3|              Prevalence estimates on schizophrenia for Finland are contradictory;
 96   II,     5.  5.  3|           for other indications than schizophrenia. Thus, the reasons for this
 97   II,     5.  5.  3|              number of patients with schizophrenia receive some kind of individual
 98   II,     5.  5.  3|        non-compliance of people with schizophrenia and their frequent non-adherence
 99   II,     5.  5.  3|          patients with first-episode schizophrenia was significantly greater
100   II,     5.  5.  3|              excellent guidelines on schizophrenia treatment, most of them
101   II,     5.  5.  3|       evidence based knowledge about schizophrenia treatment and to provide
102   II,     5.  5.  3|            these resources. Although schizophrenia was not explicitly in the
103   II,     5.  5.  3|             degree be also valid for schizophrenia.~Adequate numbers of specialized
104   II,     5.  5.  3|          Nordic study on people with schizophrenia living in the community
105   II,     5.  5.  3|  discrimination~People affected with schizophrenia do not only suffer from
106   II,     5.  5.  3|       associated to the diagnosis of schizophrenia. An international example
107   II,     5.  5.  3|             experience with renaming schizophrenia (Sato, 2006). A pilot study
108   II,     5.  5.  3|               three with people with schizophrenia and three with patients’
109   II,     5.  5.  3|               Fang and Rizzo, 2007).~Schizophrenia especially is associated
110   II,     5.  5.  3|      prejudices are that people with schizophrenia are dangerous and that their
111   II,     5.  5.  3|            discrimination because of schizophrenia provided limited evidence
112   II,     5.  5.  3|         Direct and indirect costs of schizophrenia~A number of studies have
113   II,     5.  5.  3|              illness as a whole, and schizophrenia as a single diagnosis. Economic
114   II,     5.  5.  3|             is particularly true for schizophrenia. The direct costs account
115   II,     5.  5.  3|           all expenditures caused by schizophrenia is not available. Yet the
116   II,     5.  5.  3|      disorders represented mainly by schizophrenia. However, the authors stressed
117   II,     5.  5.  3|         hospital stays is related to schizophrenia, being a very severe disease
118   II,     5.  5.  3|              cohort of patients with schizophrenia over 5 years. They found
119   II,     5.  5.  3|           budgets necessary to treat schizophrenia according to the therapeutic
120   II,     5.  5.  3|             3.2.8. Costs per case of schizophrenia in EUGLOREH countries.~Andrews
121   II,     5.  5.  3|            and optimal treatment for schizophrenia (Andrews et al, 2003). Their
122   II,     5.  5.  3|      defining a core set of unbiased schizophrenia treatment recommendations.
123   II,     5.  5.  3|          commenting on the survey on schizophrenia practice guidelines, “would
124   II,     5.  5.  3|            focussed on the stigma of schizophrenia.~To date there are few programmes
125   II,     5.  5.  3|              focusing exclusively on schizophrenia: Poland has established
126   II,     5.  5.  3|         fight stigma associated with schizophreniaOpen the Doors” as did
127   II,     5.  5.  3|             Open Hearts.~Research in schizophrenia~Networking in research has
128   II,     5.  5.  3|              effective instrument in schizophrenia research e.g. in Germany.
129   II,     5.  5.  3|            One of these disorders is schizophrenia. But when talking about
130   II,     5.  5.  3|          talking about prevention of schizophrenia the only option that will
131   II,     5.  5.  3|              prevention programme on schizophrenia – are under development.
132   II,     5.  5.  3|           German Research Network on Schizophrenia.~
133   II,     5.  5.  3|         early detection, first-onset schizophrenia, somatic and psychiatric
134   II,     5.  5.  3|           the stigma associated with schizophrenia;~· to ameliorate the delivery
135   II,     5.  5.  3|          reduce the burden caused by schizophrenia for affected people, their
136   II,     5.  5.  3|             and clinical research on schizophrenia at European level covering
137   II,     5.  5.  3|            and optimal treatment for schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 183:427-
138   II,     5.  5.  3|              toward individuals with schizophrenia in six German cities. Results
139   II,     5.  5.  3|           1997): Excess mortality of schizophrenia, A meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry
140   II,     5.  5.  3|              R (2007): The stigma of schizophrenia from patients’ and relatives’
141   II,     5.  5.  3|              medication adherence in schizophrenia. Psychiatr Clin North Am
142   II,     5.  5.  3|    comorbidity in women and men with schizophrenia: a population-based controlled
143   II,     5.  5.  3|           mass index in persons with schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 46:549-
144   II,     5.  5.  3|         Mortality among persons with schizophrenia in Sweden: An epidemiological
145   II,     5.  5.  3|            discrimination because of schizophrenia - Open the Doors”: Results
146   II,     5.  5.  3|          Rutz W, McIntyre JS (2005): Schizophrenia practice guidelines: international
147   II,     5.  5.  3|        Psychiatric rehabilitation in schizophrenia: advances and challenges.
148   II,     5.  5.  3|            2006): Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future
149   II,     5.  5.  3|             suicide rates in treated schizophrenia: 1875-1924 and 1994-1998
150   II,     5.  5.  3|       Citrome L (2005): Diabetes and schizophrenia 2005: are we any closer
151   II,     5.  5.  3|      Peltonen L, Lonnqvist J (1997): Schizophrenia in the gentic isolate of
152   II,     5.  5.  3| antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder:
153   II,     5.  5.  3|        nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia: A comprehensive review
154   II,     5.  5.  3|         guidelines and protocols for schizophrenia. Program and abstracts of
155   II,     5.  5.  3|           Patterns of usual care for schizophrenia: initial results from the
156   II,     5.  5.  3|             initial results from the Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research
157   II,     5.  5.  3|  psychosocial treatment practices in schizophrenia: Lessons from the Patient
158   II,     5.  5.  3|          2007): Physical illness and schizophrenia: a review of the literature.
159   II,     5.  5.  3|          Levander S (2007): Costs of schizophrenia during 5 years. Acta Psych
160   II,     5.  5.  3|              dimensions of stigma in schizophrenia. Schiz Res 98:194-200.~Marneros,
161   II,     5.  5.  3|       Variations in the incidence of schizophrenia: data versus dogma. Schiz
162   II,     5.  5.  3|          lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a re-examination. Arch
163   II,     5.  5.  3|          Psychological treatments in schizophrenia: I. Meta-analysis of family
164   II,     5.  5.  3|            2007): Social outcomes in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry
165   II,     5.  5.  3|              MR (2006): Nicotine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst
166   II,     5.  5.  3|          review of the prevalence of schizophrenia PLoS Med. 2(5):e141.~Saha
167   II,     5.  5.  3|    systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality
168   II,     5.  5.  3|              Sato M (2006): Renaming schizophrenia: a Japanese perspective.
169   II,     5.  5.  3|        efficacy-effectiveness gap in schizophrenia. Available at: http:www.
170   II,     5.  5.  3|          Decline in the incidence of schizophrenia in the Finnish cohorts born
171   II,     5.  5.  3|            in Long-term Treatment in Schizophrenia. psychoneuro 32:327-330.~
172   II,     5.  5.  3|           German Research Network on schizophrenia. Bridging the gap between
173   II,     5.  5.  3|              affective disorders and schizophrenia World Health Organization,
174   II,     5.  5.  3|        disorder (PR 6.1) followed by schizophrenia (PR 5.8).~ ~Prognosis~Treatment
175   II,     7.  4.  6|            such as major depression, schizophrenia, alcohol and other drug
176   II,     9.  3.  1|          Möller-Leimkühler, 2002).~ ~Schizophrenia. In the EU schizophrenia
177   II,     9.  3.  1|             Schizophrenia. In the EU schizophrenia has a prevalence of about
178   II,     9.  5.  3|              anxiety~Females > Males~Schizophrenia~Males = Females~Bipolar
179   II,     9.  5.  4|      illnesses - e.g. depression and schizophrenia;~ ~Gender mainstreaming~ ~
180  III,    10.  2.  4|        pre-menopausal breast cancer, schizophrenia and recurrent pregnancy
181  III,    10.  2.  5|             to mental disorders like schizophrenia (Wahlbeck et al, 2001) and
182  III,    10.  2.  5|             J (2001): Association of schizophrenia with low maternal body mass
183   IV,    13.  2.  2|       fourteenth). In terms of YLDs, schizophrenia is ranking 11th and accounts
184   IV,    13.  2.  3|     Particulate matter in atmosphere~Schizophrenia, prostate cancer, influenza~
185   IV,    13.  5    |   improvements would be needed (e.g. schizophrenia and transplants).~ ~The
186  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|   salmonellosis~salt~sanitation~sars~schizophrenia~school~schools~scleroderma~