Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  3       |          reunification policies and birth patterns of migrants. Despite
  2    I,     2.  3       |     workforce in their countries of birth and training~ ~
  3    I,     2.  4       |  inequalities in life expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among men,
  4    I,     3.  1       |          mean age of mothers at the birth of their first child. Postponement
  5    I,     3.  1       |          age of the mother at first birth started to increase sharply,
  6    I,     3.  1       |         women who had not yet given birth to a first child. Since
  7    I,     3.  1       |        increase in the age at first birth has slowed down. The rising
  8    I,     3.  1       |             risen, the age at first birth would have been lower than
  9    I,     3.  1       |            rise in the age at first birth over the past decades, at
 10    I,     3.  1       |         1960s the mean age at first birth was 23 to 24 years in many
 11    I,     3.  1       |          inspection of the TFR in a birth cohort perspective shows
 12    I,     3.  1       |             replacement. Women from birth cohort 1955, who turned
 13    I,     3.  1       |           rises in the age at first birth occurred: women born in
 14    I,     3.  1       |             born in a certain year (birth cohort) postpone a birth,
 15    I,     3.  1       |            birth cohort) postpone a birth, the fertility rate for
 16    I,     3.  1.  0(1)|          age of the mother at first birth, when comparing fertility
 17    I,     3.  1.  0(1)|            to women from successive birth cohorts. Individual women
 18    I,     3.  1       |            rise in the age at first birth levels off, period TFRs
 19    I,     3.  1       | childlessness stood at about 10% in birth cohort 1935 in Belgium,
 20    I,     3.  1       |     percentages are higher in later birth cohorts; in cohort 1955
 21    I,     3.  1       |           20% remains to be seen.~ ~Birth cohorts in which 25% of
 22    I,     3.  1       |        marriage are higher than the birth rates outside marriage.3~ ~
 23    I,     3.  1.  0(2)|            means that if women in a birth cohort would start getting
 24    I,     3.  1.  0(3)|                However, non-marital birth rates may not include children
 25    I,     3.  2       |          reunification policies and birth patterns of migrants. Despite
 26   II,     4.Acr       |           Life Expectancy (DFLE0 at birth; DFLE65 at 65 years etc.)~
 27   II,     4.Acr       |             Life Expectancy (LE0 at birth; LE65 at 65 years etc.)~
 28   II,     4.  1       |     increases in life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) were used to infer
 29   II,     4.  1       |     inclusion of life expectancy at birth (and at age 50 and 65) as
 30   II,     4.  1       |        trends in life expectancy at birth and at 65 in the EU27and
 31   II,     4.  1       |             percentage (HLY/LE), at birth, at 50 and at 65. It also
 32   II,     4.  1       |         Healthy Life Years (HLY) at birth, at 50 and at 65, in the
 33   II,     4.  1       |            total life expectancy at birth for men and women, respectively (
 34   II,     4.  1       |           the EU life expectancy at birth ranks amongst the highest
 35   II,     4.  1       |        trends in life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) in the EU27 by gender.
 36   II,     4.  1       |             1.3. Life expectancy at birth (LE0), in the European Union (
 37   II,     4.  1       |            2005, life expectancy at birth steadily increased in the
 38   II,     4.  1       |        Healthy Life Years (HLY), at birth, at 50 and at 65, among
 39   II,     4.  1       |        values of life expectancy at birth in 2005 range from 65.3
 40   II,     4.  1       |        values of life expectancy at birth (LE0 ) and healthy life
 41   II,     4.  1       |           of the life expectancy at birth is lived with some reported
 42   II,     4.  1       |         current conditions women at birth are expected to live 6 years
 43   II,     4.  1       |         lowest life expectancies at birth is over 13 years for men
 44   II,     4.  1       |        values of life expectancy at birth in the EU27, USA and Japan
 45   II,     4.  1       |             1.5. Life expectancy at birth (LE0) in the European Union (
 46   II,     4.  1       |          firstly that by 2005 LE at birth is almost identical for
 47   II,     4.  1       |         EU27 and USA. Women’s LE at birth is one year higher in the
 48   II,     4.  2       |        countries life expectancy at birth has increased, on average,
 49   II,     4.  2       |         trend in life expectancy at birth there have been different
 50   II,     4.  2       |       changes in life expectancy at birth across EU countries can
 51   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth and at other ages. The analysis
 52   II,     4.  2       |         decades, life expectancy at birth has increased by 2.3 years
 53   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth during the last three decades
 54   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth: for men one third of the
 55   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth, and for women the age groups
 56   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth was large: one fifth of
 57   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth in the EU15 since 1970.
 58   II,     4.  2       |          rise in life expectancy at birth. In addition, the decline
 59   II,     4.  2       |       changes in life expectancy at birth by cause of death, EU15
 60   II,     4.  2       |       changes in life expectancy at birth by cause of death, selected
 61   II,     4.  2       |            years life expectancy at birth increased between 1980 and
 62   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth. The table shows that for
 63   II,     4.  2       |       changes in life expectancy at birth 1980-2000, selected countries~ ~
 64   II,     4.  2       |       cancers on life expectancy at birth, selected countries.~ ~The
 65   II,     4.  2       |      increase in life expectancy at birth since the 1980s. One important
 66   II,     4.  2       |         level of life expectancy at birth across European countries
 67   II,     4.  2       |         level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the annual average
 68   II,     4.  2       |         level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the annual average
 69   II,     4.  2       |         level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the annual average
 70   II,     4.  2       |         level of life expectancy at birth in 1970 and the annual average
 71   II,     4.  2       |         trend in life expectancy at birth since 1970. If the rate
 72   II,     5.  1.  1   |             background;~· has given birth to a large baby (over 9
 73   II,     5.  3.  1   |        increased life expectancy at birth (LE). In fact, cancer is
 74   II,     5.  5.  1   |           of residence and place of birth as important determinants
 75   II,     5.  5.  3   |     geographic areas, using year of birth as a reference for trend
 76   II,     5.  5.  3   |           presumed to be present at birth have the highest mortality,
 77   II,     5.  7.  2   |        collect at least the date of birth and gender of each patient
 78   II,     5.  9. FB   |         high body weight, either at birth or later in childhood, are
 79   II,     5.  9.  3   |            remission of asthma from birth to the age of 44 by using
 80   II,     5.  9.  3   |          for 1974-1979 vs 1953-1958 birth cohort). The overall remission
 81   II,     5.  9.  3   |             history of asthma, from birth to adulthood, and, consequently,
 82   II,     5.  9.  4   |      illnesses. Several prospective birth cohort studies found a decreased
 83   II,     5.  9.  7   |             Keil T (2006): European birth cohort study on asthma and
 84   II,     5. 11.  3   |          Acne vulgaris, disfiguring birth marks or cutaneous anomalies
 85   II,     5. 11.  3   |           Atopic Dermatitis~Swedish birth cohort~Point prevalence
 86   II,     5. 11.  3   |     examined eczema from a national birth cohort study (the National
 87   II,     5. 11.  5   |            factors before or around birth (Mar and Marks, 2000).~Between
 88   II,     5. 11.  5   |    neurodevelopmental disorders and birth defects, water- and food-related
 89   II,     5. 14.  1   |      respiratory disorder, pre-term birth, and diabetes (Bourgeois
 90   II,     5. 14.  3   |           and the risk of premature birth. Periodontal health disparities
 91   II,     6.  3.  5   |              foetal death or severe birth defects. The overall trend
 92   II,     8.  2.  1   |           condition is present from birth or the early developmental
 93   II,     8.  2.  1   |           all of which occur before birth. Other causes that take
 94   II,     8.  2.  1   |     congenital cytomegalovirus), or birth defects that affect the
 95   II,     8.  2.  1   |            being born or soon after birth (such as trauma and asphyxia).
 96   II,     8.  2.  1   |          begin treatment soon after birth. Parents and doctors can
 97   II,     8.  2.  1   |   intellectual disability and other birth defects.~ ~Secondary prevention~
 98   II,     9           |           due to the higher preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies (
 99   II,     9           |          malformations diagnosed at birth.~ ~The thalidomide (softenon)
100   II,     9           |          can be either present from birth, or acquired by illness
101   II,     9.  1       |          period, including pre-term birth, low birth weight and perinatal
102   II,     9.  1.  1   |             anomalies, very preterm birth, and stillbirths associated
103   II,     9.  1.  1   |           Reu et al, 2000). Preterm birth and low birth weight are
104   II,     9.  1.  1   |    morbidity, including the preterm birth rate, the APGAR score (Apgar,
105   II,     9.  1.  1   |            their legal criteria for birth registration and in their
106   II,     9.  1.  1   |             28 completed days after birth) after live birth at or
107   II,     9.  1.  1   |             after birth) after live birth at or after 22 complete
108   II,     9.  1.  1   |              at 0-6 days after live birth) and late neonatal deaths (
109   II,     9.  1.  1   |             at 7-27 days after live birth).~Comparisons of the neonatal
110   II,     9.  1.  1   |       deaths (day 0-364) after live birth at or after 22 completed
111   II,     9.  1.  1   |            Risk factors~C: Multiple birth rate by number of fetuses~
112   II,     9.  1.  1   |            Distribution of place of birth~R: Percentage of infants
113   II,     9.  1.  1   |           infants breast-feeding at birth~F: Indicator of support
114   II,     9.  1.  1   |           et al, 2007). The preterm birth rate has increased in many
115   II,     9.  1.  1   |        selected EUGLOREH countries, birth cohorts 1990-1998~ ~Among
116   II,     9.  1.  1   |           is defined as a weight at birth below 1500g. VLBW rate among
117   II,     9.  1.  1   |           time, at least until 1996 birth cohort, and mainly in the
118   II,     9.  1.  1   |            in 9 European countries, birth cohorts 1990-1998~ ~Population
119   II,     9.  1.  1   |       growth restriction or preterm birthmay reap large dividends
120   II,     9.  1.  1   |              Trends in twin preterm birth subtypes in the United States,
121   II,     9.  1.  1   |          mode: an analysis based on birth certificates. Am J Public
122   II,     9.  1.  1   |           Zeitlin J (2006): Preterm birth and multiple pregnancy in
123   II,     9.  1.  1   |            2002): The risk of major birth defects after intracytoplasmic
124   II,     9.  1.  1   |           mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. Fetal
125   II,     9.  1.  1   |           mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. Fetal
126   II,     9.  1.  1   |             after extremely preterm birth. EPICure Study Group. N
127   II,     9.  1.  1   |      Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe: reality or artefact?
128   II,     9.  1.  2   |           Congenital (“present from birth”) anomalies which involve
129   II,     9.  1.  2   |            diagnosed prenatally, at birth or within the first year
130   II,     9.  1.  2   |             births per year. Annual birth coverage is 23.4% of births
131   II,     9.  1.  2   |     International Clearinghouse for Birth Defect Surveillance and
132   II,     9.  1.  2   |        Trends in the total and live birth prevalence per 1 000 births
133   II,     9.  1.  2   |            heart disease~ ~The live birth prevalence of congenital
134   II,     9.  1.  2   |        Trends in the total and live birth prevalence per 1 000 births
135   II,     9.  1.  2   |         EUROCAT registers, the live birth prevalence of Down Syndrome
136   II,     9.  1.  2   |         four-fold variation in live birth prevalence of Down Syndrome
137   II,     9.  1.  2   |             9.1.2.4. Total and live birth prevalence per 1 000 births
138   II,     9.  1.  2   |        Trends in the total and live birth prevalence per 1 000 births
139   II,     9.  1.  2   |         very wide variation in live birth prevalence rates, from 0.
140   II,     9.  1.  2   |           due to the higher preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies (
141   II,     9.  1.  2   |          malformations diagnosed at birth.~ ~The thalidomide (softenon)
142   II,     9.  1.  2   |            approximately 3 euro per birth in a registry area, or 1
143   II,     9.  1.  2   |        registry area, or 1 euro per birth in the European Union.~ ~
144   II,     9.  1.  2   |             d) electronic access to birth registrations and medical
145   II,     9.  1.  2   |          International Assessment", Birth Defects Research (Part A),
146   II,     9.  1.  2   |        technologies and the risk of birth defects – a systematic review.
147   II,     9.  1.  2   |          risk factor for structural birth defects. Arch Paed Adolesc
148   II,     9.  2.  1   |     wellbeing and development, from birth to young adulthood. It spans
149   II,     9.  2.  2   |         those aged 0-14 years (from birth to early secondary school
150   II,     9.  2.  4   |          can be either present from birth, or acquired by illness
151   II,     9.  3.  1   |             is much smaller than at birth. During early childhood,
152   II,     9.  3.  1   |             is much smaller than at birth.~ ~Table 9.3.1.1 Premature
153   II,     9.  3.  2   |           than 5 million women give birth in the EU. Another 2 million
154   II,     9.  3.  2   |     conditions, the higher multiple birth rates caused by more common
155   II,     9.  3.  2   |              including the multiple birth rate, maternal age, parity,
156   II,     9.  3.  2   |            of healthy pregnancy and birth also enhances our understanding
157   II,     9.  3.  2   |          discharge data and medical birth registers to measure severe
158   II,     9.  3.  2   |           are associated to preterm birth and congenital anomalies (
159   II,     9.  3.  2   |              Trends in twin preterm birth subtypes in the United States,
160   II,     9.  3.  2   |          mode: an analysis based on birth certificates. Am J Public
161   II,     9.  3.  2   |           Zeitlin J (2006): Preterm birth and multiple pregnancy in
162   II,     9.  3.  2   |            2002): The risk of major birth defects after intracytoplasmic
163   II,     9.  3.  2   |           mild and moderate preterm birth to infant mortality. Fetal
164   II,     9.  3.  2   |           and 5-year outcomes after birth at 30-34 weeks of gestation.
165   II,     9.  3.  2   |             after extremely preterm birth. EPICure Study Group. N
166   II,     9.  3.  2   |      Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe: reality or artefact?
167   II,     9.  4.  1   |           This, combined with lower birth rates, gender, the impact
168  III,    10.  2.  1   |    difference in life expectancy at birth between EU countries of
169  III,    10.  2.  1   |      increased risk of craniofacial birth defects, oral and pharyngeal
170  III,    10.  2.  1   |           different age groups from birth to old age and with physical activity
171  III,    10.  2.  1   |        above the 85th percentile at birth were more likely to be overweight
172  III,    10.  2.  5   |              Longitudinal data from birth cohorts in Europe indicate
173  III,    10.  2.  5   |   prospective evidence from a Dutch birth cohort. Early human development
174  III,    10.  2.  5   |            depression in a national birth cohort. Br J Psychiatry
175  III,    10.  2.  5   |           mass index, small size at birth and thinness during childhood.
176  III,    10.  3.  3   |              foetal death or severe birth defects. Polio is caused
177  III,    10.  4.  2   |    development and abnormalities at birth. Although cloning has a
178  III,    10.  4.  2   |        reproduction of clones gives birth to animals not different
179  III,    10.  4.  5   |        reproductive outcome such as birth defects and low birth weight.
180  III,    10.  4.  5   |       reproductive outcomes such as birth defects and low birth weight.
181  III,    10.  5.  3   |             who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding~- 94/
182  III,    10.  6.  2   |  inequalities in life expectancy at birth (4 to 6 years among men,
183   IV,    11.  5.  1   |      matching. This idea led to the birth of international transplant
184   IV,    12.  5       |           statistics (Mortality and Birth Statistics, Population data)~-
185   IV,    13.  7.  4   |      reproduction (e.g. cloning) or birth control (e.g. day-after
186  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0   |     biomonitoring~biphenyls~bipolar~birth~birth weight~births~bladder~