Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2    |                  in the demand structure caused by demographic ageing will
  2    I,     2.  9    |               groups. Climate change has caused advancement in the life
  3    I,     3.  3    |             ageing. Population ageing is caused by declining fertility and
  4    I,     3.  3    |                 1980s in most countries, caused by the baby-boom generation
  5   II,     4.  2    |                 the increase for men was caused by the decline in mortality
  6   II,     4.  2    |               life expectancy was mainly caused by a decline in mortality
  7   II,     4.  2    |         cerebrovascular disease together caused one fourth in the rise of
  8   II,     4.  2    |                  cerebrovascular disease caused 40% of the increase in life
  9   II,     4.  2    |                of mortality by cancer is caused by smoking. Mortality by
 10   II,     4.  2    |                  by circulatory diseases caused more than half of the increase
 11   II,     4.  2    |                 4.2.5 shows that cancers caused by smoking had a negative
 12   II,     5.  1.  1|                 anorexia and bulimia are caused by a complex of conditions
 13   II,     5.  1.  1|              words, eating disorders are caused by an environment where
 14   II,     5.  1.  1|          Reproductive disfuncions can be caused by some pharmaceuticals.
 15   II,     5.  1.  1|            effects on development can be caused by exposure to lead, cadmium,
 16   II,     5.  2.  4|           exception of smoke, are mostly caused by the interaction between
 17   II,     5.  2.  7|                 in mortality from stroke caused by changes in stroke event
 18   II,     5.  3.  2|                  that:~- mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos;~-
 19   II,     5.  3.  5|                 detects cervical lesions caused by HPV infection before
 20   II,     5.  3.  5|            Figure 5.3.21). This could be caused by different HPV exposure
 21   II,     5.  5.Int|                that eating disorders are caused by a combination of psychological,
 22   II,     5.  5.Int|             misuse of drugs and the harm caused by alcohol. Initiatives
 23   II,     5.  5.  1|              comparable to the reduction caused by serious physical illness (
 24   II,     5.  5.  2|                of symptoms) which may be caused by an almost infinite number
 25   II,     5.  5.  3|                 anorexia and bulimia are caused by several conditions including
 26   II,     5.  5.  3|              words, eating disorders are caused by an environment where
 27   II,     5.  5.  3|  re-hospitalisation. The economic burden caused by schizophrenia exceeds
 28   II,     5.  5.  3|         definition is given for a deathcaused” by schizophrenia. Other
 29   II,     5.  5.  3|               increased mortality mainly caused by co-morbid disorders and
 30   II,     5.  5.  3|            unnatural deaths. Death rates caused by schizophrenia vary widely
 31   II,     5.  5.  3|           statistics on all expenditures caused by schizophrenia is not
 32   II,     5.  5.  3|                  do to reduce the burden caused by schizophrenia for affected
 33   II,     5.  5.  3|           However, whether this is truly caused by cigarette smoking, or
 34   II,     5.  6.  3|              pain is defined as symptoms caused by a specific pathophysiologic
 35   II,     5.  6.  4|                 sickness absence that is caused by the different musculoskeletal
 36   II,     5.  8.  3|                 variability of estimates caused by different definitions
 37   II,     5.  9. FB|                  have developed symptoms caused by occupational allergic
 38   II,     5.  9.  4|                  but may also be in part caused by the removal of pets in
 39   II,     5.  9.  4|          sensitization was predominantly caused by grass pollen (12.7%),
 40   II,     5. 11.  1|           conversely, skin failure (e.g. caused by a severe drug reaction)
 41   II,     5. 11.  3|             blackheads) and scars. It is caused by a combination of factors
 42   II,     5. 11.  3|                 been mainly perceived as caused by internal disease (“skin
 43   II,     5. 11.  3|             world-wide and 37 000 deaths caused by melanoma. In Europe,
 44   II,     5. 11.  3|                diagnosed and 9000 deaths caused by melanoma. The annual
 45   II,     5. 14.  1|           inflammatory disease initially caused by bacterial infection with
 46   II,     5. 14.  3|                 the loss of tooth enamel caused by acid attack, is currently
 47   II,     6.  3.  2|         associated infections (HCAI) are caused by resistant bacteria, a
 48   II,     6.  3.  2|                 S. aureus infections are caused by MRSA. Data on AMR show
 49   II,     6.  3.  3|         infection~ ~Chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia
 50   II,     6.  3.  3|               Gonorrhoea~ ~Gonorrhoea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria
 51   II,     6.  3.  3|                an infection of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV).
 52   II,     6.  3.  3|                the E.U.~ ~Hepatitis C is caused by the hepatitis C virus (
 53   II,     6.  3.  4|                of the respiratory tract, caused by influenza virus A and
 54   II,     6.  3.  4|                  is a bacterial disease, caused by inhaling a bacteria belonging
 55   II,     6.  3.  4|                 is a respiratory disease caused by the bacteria Legionella
 56   II,     6.  3.  4|               with a high fatality rate, caused by a corona virus, the SARS-associated
 57   II,     6.  3.  4|            health services, the epidemic caused significant social and economic
 58   II,     6.  3.  5|          Invasive meningococcal disease, caused by the bacterium Neisseria
 59   II,     6.  3.  5|                Most disease in Europe is caused by serogroups B and C. Since
 60   II,     6.  3.  5|              rates.~ ~Invasive infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae
 61   II,     6.  3.  5|                 of the respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella
 62   II,     6.  3.  5|                  upper respiratory tract caused by a toxin from the bacterium
 63   II,     6.  3.  5|                years.~ ~Mumps~ ~Mumps is caused by the mumps virus. Mumps
 64   II,     6.  3.  5|               women).~ ~Polio~ ~Polio is caused by poliovirus. Childhood
 65   II,     6.  3.  5|                case of flaccid paralysis caused by wild polio was reported
 66   II,     6.  3.  5|              199293 when imported polio caused an outbreak of 71 cases
 67   II,     6.  3.  6|                while Cryptosporidium has caused waterborne outbreaks in
 68   II,     6.  3.  6|                 It may be that outbreaks caused by norovirus in confined
 69   II,     6.  3.  6|                 gastrointestinal disease caused by the bacterium Campylobacter.
 70   II,     6.  3.  6|                  is a diarrhoeal disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella.
 71   II,     6.  3.  6|        life-threatening systemic disease caused by the Salmonella typhi
 72   II,     6.  3.  6|                 Shigellosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Shigella
 73   II,     6.  3.  6|             Yersiniosis~ ~Yersiniosis is caused by the bacterium Yersinia (
 74   II,     6.  3.  6|                 Listeriosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Listeria
 75   II,     6.  3.  6|                 Brucellosis is a disease caused by Brucella genus bacteria.
 76   II,     6.  3.  6|                serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin produced
 77   II,     6.  3.  6|                  while wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from an
 78   II,     6.  3.  6|                  acute enteric infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio
 79   II,     6.  3.  6|               viral disease of the liver caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV).
 80   II,     6.  3.  6|         Toxoplasmosis~ ~Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite
 81   II,     6.  3.  6|                 is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia intestinalis (
 82   II,     6.  3.  6| Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, infecting
 83   II,     6.  3.  6|              zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the larval stage of the
 84   II,     6.  3.  6|     Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused Trichinella. The main source
 85   II,     6.  3.  7|                Tularaemia is a zoonosis, caused by the bacteria Francisella
 86   II,     6.  3.  7|              nephropathia epidemica’, is caused by the puumala virus, and
 87   II,     6.  3.  7|                    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, characterised
 88   II,     6.  3.  7|                  wide clinical spectrum, caused by Leptospira bacteria.
 89   II,     6.  3.  7|            Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus
 90   II,     6.  3.  7|             Rabies~ ~Rabies is a disease caused by a rhabdovirus. It is
 91   II,     6.  3.  7|          diseases~ ~Malaria~ ~Malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium,
 92   II,     6.  3.  7|                  haemorrhagic fevers are caused by the ebolavirus and marburgvirus
 93   II,     6.  3.  7|             Yellow fever virus (YFV) has caused large epidemics in Africa
 94   II,     6.  3.  7|                     Yellow fever has not caused any outbreaks in Europe
 95   II,     7.  4    |              Sports injuries;~· Injuries caused by products and services;~·
 96   II,     7.  4.  1|                   drowning and accidents caused by fire and flames are the
 97   II,     7.  4.  5|                   Prevention of injuries caused by products and services~ ~
 98   II,     7.  5    |                 sport injuries; injuries caused by products and services;
 99   II,     8.  2.  1|               age of 18 years. It can be caused by injury, disease, or a
100   II,     8.  2.  2|            activities.~Visual impairment caused by uncorrected or inadequately
101   II,     8.  2.  2|           magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive
102   II,     9        |                in developed countries is caused by physical inactivity.~ ~
103   II,     9        |                  acceleration in decline caused by external factors can
104   II,     9.  1.  2|               possibility that it can be caused by exposure to endocrine
105   II,     9.  2.  3|         controversy about alleged damage caused by MMR (measles, mumps and
106   II,     9.  2.  3|            proportion of obesity will be caused by genetic or metabolic
107   II,     9.  3.  1|                in the degree of distress caused. Difficulties in integrating
108   II,     9.  3.  1|                in developed countries is caused by physical inactivity.~ ~
109   II,     9.  3.  2|                   the pregnancy directly caused the death) and indirect (
110   II,     9.  3.  2|              higher multiple birth rates caused by more common use of procedures
111   II,     9.  3.  3|                 et al, 2006) that may be caused by women under-report and/
112   II,     9.  4.  4|                  acceleration in decline caused by external factors can
113   II,     9.  5.  3|                 one of the main problems caused by drinking. There is much
114   II,     9.  5.  3|                in developed countries is caused by physical inactivity.~ ~
115   II,     9.  5.  4|                on Public health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol (
116  III,    10.  2.  1|                  2008). All the diseases caused by direct smoke and second-hand
117  III,    10.  2.  1|               Table 10.2.1.1.1. Diseases caused by smoking and by second-hand
118  III,    10.  2.  1|                    CDC (2006)~ ~Diseases caused by smoking~Diseases caused
119  III,    10.  2.  1|               caused by smoking~Diseases caused by second-hand smoke~Cancers~
120  III,    10.  2.  1|           Bladder~ ~ ~ ~For the diseases caused by second-hand smoke: Evidence
121  III,    10.  2.  1|               and adverse health effects caused by active cigarette smoking.~ ~ ~
122  III,    10.  2.  1|              nicotine, there is a “kick” caused in part by the drug’s stimulation
123  III,    10.  2.  1|                 90s. This phenomenon has caused a dramatic increase in drug-related
124  III,    10.  2.  1|                  in particular infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (
125  III,    10.  2.  1|                  EMCDDA, refer to deaths caused directly by the consumption
126  III,    10.  2.  1|              ecstasy are infrequent, but caused considerable concern as
127  III,    10.  2.  1|           patterns and the complications caused by the combined use of different
128  III,    10.  3.  1|                    Indoor radon exposure caused by radon gas seeping into
129  III,    10.  3.  1|                  ages combined, melanoma caused by UVR leads to the loss
130  III,    10.  3.  2|         currently much of this burden is caused by “traditionalrisk factors
131  III,    10.  3.  3|                  S. aureus infections is caused by MRSA. Evidence from the
132  III,    10.  3.  3|                of the respiratory tract, caused by influenza virus A and
133  III,    10.  3.  3|               with a high fatality rate, caused by a corona virus, the SARS-associated
134  III,    10.  3.  3|                  morbillivirus. Mumps is caused by the mumps virus. Rubella
135  III,    10.  3.  3|                  birth defects. Polio is caused by poliovirus, which infects
136  III,    10.  3.  3|                 It may be that outbreaks caused by norovirus in confined
137  III,    10.  3.  3|                 is a respiratory disease caused by the bacteria Legionella
138  III,    10.  3.  3|          Invasive meningococcal disease, caused by the bacterium Neisseria
139  III,    10.  3.  3|                 of the respiratory tract caused by the Bordetella pertussis
140  III,    10.  3.  3|                  upper respiratory tract caused by a toxin from the Corynebacterium
141  III,    10.  3.  3|                while Cryptosporidium has caused waterborne outbreaks in
142  III,    10.  3.  3|              stressors. Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite
143  III,    10.  3.  3|                 is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia intestinalis,
144  III,    10.  3.  3| Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, infecting
145  III,    10.  3.  3|              zoonotic parasitic disease, caused by the larval stage of the
146  III,    10.  3.  3|     Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Trichinella. The first
147  III,    10.  3.  4|               Europe, climate change has caused an increase in the frequency
148  III,    10.  3.  4|             although much more frequent, caused relatively fewer deaths.
149  III,    10.  3.  4|               events as the event having caused most deaths, on flooding
150  III,    10.  3.  4|              harmful exposures were also caused or exacerbated by extreme
151  III,    10.  3.  4|             health impacts, the heatwave caused also economic damages. France
152  III,    10.  3.  4|               floods into direct effects caused by the floodwaters (such
153  III,    10.  3.  4|           injuries) and indirect effects caused by other flood effects (
154  III,    10.  3.  4|                  disorders and poisoning caused by toxic substances. Health
155  III,    10.  3.  4|              Region, and the devastation caused affected almost 300 000
156  III,    10.  4.  1|        recognised.~ ~Damage to health is caused primarily by two types of
157  III,    10.  4.  2|                  bovis; and~• infections caused by verotoxigenic Escherichia
158  III,    10.  4.  2|           poultry. Food-borne infections caused by these resistant bacteria
159  III,    10.  4.  2|             Campylobacter outbreaks were caused by contaminated drinking
160  III,    10.  4.  2|                 of the Common Market has caused, also for matters concerning
161  III,    10.  4.  3|             illness. Four outbreaks were caused by protozoa (3.7% of cases
162  III,    10.  4.  5|            Moreover, toxic algal blooms, caused by the increasing eutrophication
163  III,    10.  4.  5|           Swimmers Itch” is a dermatitis caused by trematode parasites of
164  III,    10.  4.  5|          difficult to detect as they are caused by long term low-level exposures.
165  III,    10.  5.  3|                 vulnerable to disruption caused by illness among employees.
166  III,    10.  5.  3|                perceived health problems caused by work are reported. All
167  III,    10.  5.  3|            national authorities as being caused by a factor at work. Since
168  III,    10.  5.  3|      irrespective of their severity were caused or made worse by work. However,
169  III,    10.  5.  3|             losses~Production losses are caused by absence from work due
170  III,    10.  5.  3|            problems totally or partially caused by working conditions, including
171  III,    10.  5.  3|            Germany compensation is still caused by exposures to silica even
172  III,    10.  5.  3|               France 48% compensation is caused by exposures to asbestos
173  III,    10.  5.  3|              many accidents and diseases caused by work and there is not
174   IV,    12.  2    |                 impact. Such constraints caused the closure of several cancer
175   IV,    13.  2.  2|                in developed countries is caused by physical inactivity.~ ~ ~
176   IV,    13.  2.  3|                  diet is similar to that caused by smoking. The theoretical
177   IV,    13.  2.  3|          acrylamide is greater than that caused by various substances found
178   IV,    13.  2.  3|                 10,000~ ~Gastroenteritis caused by micro-organisms in food~ ~ ~
179   IV,    13.  2.  3|                   Overweight can also be caused by lack of physical activity,