Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2       |            to rise. A recent study estimates that the figure amounts
  2    I,     2.  4       |           However, recent EUROSTAT estimates1 indicate that GDP in the
  3    I,     2.  5       |         economic situation. Recent estimates by EUROSTAT3 indicate that
  4    I,     2.  5       |            positions.~According to estimates, the number of Europeans
  5    I,     2.  7       |         Practitioners Association, estimates that about 20% of the European
  6   II,     4.  1       |           we present the first HLY estimates for the EU25, review the
  7   II,     4.  1       |          website.1 Life expectancy estimates for 2005 were computed using
  8   II,     4.  1       |        death counts and population estimates from the EUROSTAT database,2
  9   II,     4.  1       |           ISTAT, respectively. HLY estimates for the EU25 in 2005 were
 10   II,     4.  1       |           death counts, population estimates and activity limitation),
 11   II,     4.  1       |    illnesses or disabilities.~ ~LE estimates from 1995 to 2005 for the
 12   II,     4.  1       |        death counts and population estimates from the EUROSTAT database,
 13   II,     4.  1       |     countries.~ ~Table 4.1.1 shows estimates for 2005 at European level (
 14   II,     4.  1       |          trends. Table 4.1.2 gives estimates of life expectancy (LE65 )
 15   II,     4.  1       |           by 1 year (Table 4.1.3). Estimates shown in Table 4.1.3 for
 16   II,     5.  2.  4   |         eminently preventable. WHO estimates that modest population-wide
 17   II,     5.  3.  2   |            ENCR to obtain national estimates of cancer incidence from
 18   II,     5.  3.  2   |            and to produce national estimates of cancer incidence. See:
 19   II,     5.  3.  3   |         them):~ ~ Cancer incidence estimates in the European countries
 20   II,     5.  3.  3   |          2007).~- Cancer incidence estimates trends in men and women
 21   II,     5.  3.  3   |           fr/). IARC also produced estimates in 2006 (Ferlay et al, 2007).
 22   II,     5.  3.  3   |           Czech Republic, survival estimates were taken from the EUROCARE
 23   II,     5.  3.  3   |           with 100% coverage). The estimates do not reflect the distribution
 24   II,     5.  3.  3   |            age- and stage-specific estimates of survival by the end of
 25   II,     5.  3.  5   |         ICD-9 180)~Cervical cancer estimates were about 60,000 new cases
 26   II,     5.  3.  6   |            women (Figures 5.3.32). Estimates of 1-year relative survival
 27   II,     5.  3.  6   |     exceptions were Denmark, where estimates remained at the low level
 28   II,     5.  3.  9   |        Colombet M, Boyle P (2007): Estimates of the cancer incidence
 29   II,     5.  4.  1   |            overweight.~ ~Worldwide estimates of prevalence of diabetes
 30   II,     5.  4.  2   |         Diabetes Atlas, containing estimates of the prevalence of diabetes
 31   II,     5.  4.  2   |      provided. Currently, reported estimates refer to more than 200 Countries
 32   II,     5.  4.  2   |          recall bias and imprecise estimates. Differences between different
 33   II,     5.  4.  2   |            significantly to define estimates of rates of complications
 34   II,     5.  4.  2   |       information may get the best estimates using large scale record
 35   II,     5.  4.  2   |        actual reliability of these estimates and are not reported here.~
 36   II,     5.  4.  3   |             According to the above estimates, the number of people currently
 37   II,     5.  4.  4   |         across the years, thus all estimates must be taken with extreme
 38   II,     5.  4.  4   |        incomplete and inconsistent estimates. The variation in the prevalence
 39   II,     5.  4.  8   |       after diagnosis of diabetes: estimates from young and middle-aged
 40   II,     5.  4.  8   |        2025: prevalence, numerical estimates, and projections. Diabetes
 41   II,     5.  4.  8   |            prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections
 42   II,     5.  5.  2   |           and agreed on prevalence estimates for every World Health Organisation (
 43   II,     5.  5.  2   |    possible to derive quantitative estimates through the qualitative
 44   II,     5.  5.  2   |            Ferri et al (2005) made estimates of future developments based
 45   II,     5.  5.  2   |            rates and UN population estimates and projections. The estimate
 46   II,     5.  5.  3   |          hospitalisation. However, estimates are available (for example,
 47   II,     5.  5.  3   |    respectively. Based on combined estimates there was no significant
 48   II,     5.  5.  3   |            According to calculated estimates based on the lifetime prevalence
 49   II,     5.  5.  3   |            a whole. The calculated estimates for schizophrenia in the
 50   II,     5.  5.  3   |        although not congruent with estimates usually reported in textbooks -
 51   II,     5.  5.  3   |         Incidence data are usually estimates based on first treatment/
 52   II,     5.  5.  3   |       diagnosis of interest. These estimates have to be interpreted with
 53   II,     5.  5.  3   |           according to the updated estimates of the Global burden of
 54   II,     5.  5.  3   |           More recently, published estimates of lifetime suicide prevalence
 55   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Global Burden of Disease estimates, amounting to one fifth
 56   II,     5.  5.  3   |           Europe note 17.8%, while estimates in the WHO Report for Europe
 57   II,     5.  5.  3   |           no atypicals. Prevalence estimates on schizophrenia for Finland
 58   II,     5.  5.  3   |             1999), but even higher estimates cannot account for the extremely
 59   II,     5.  5.  3   |            upper end of prevalence estimates from previously published
 60   II,     5.  5.  3   |         variation among prevalence estimates. Over half of the variation
 61   II,     5.  5.  3   |          the variation among study estimates can be explained by the
 62   II,     5.  5.  3   |        known factors on prevalence estimates should now be further investigated
 63   II,     5.  5.  3   |          estimated, as comparative estimates of the rate of occurrence
 64   II,     5.  5.  3   |            Countries, by age (best estimates)~ ~Table 5.5.3.5.4. Incidence (
 65   II,     5.  5.  3   |           4. Mean total prevalence estimates by age group varied significantly
 66   II,     5.  5.  3   |             The highest prevalence estimates have been reported for the
 67   II,     5.  5.  3   |            total cost. No reliable estimates of the cost of premature
 68   II,     5.  5.  3   |           be included in the study estimates.~A patient with mild disability
 69   II,     5.  5.  3   |       Burden of Disease (GBD) 2002 Estimates. In: WHO Health Report 2004.~
 70   II,     5.  5.  3   |          Europe.~ ~Crude incidence estimates varied from 5/100,000 to
 71   II,     5.  5.  3   |   Parkinson’s disease in Europe.~ ~Estimates of crude prevalence rates
 72   II,     5.  5.  3   |         influence on the morbidity estimates. The flaws and drawbacks
 73   II,     5.  5.  3   |    differences in methodology.~Our estimates show the highest average
 74   II,     5.  5.  3   |            countries and hence our estimates for these countries are
 75   II,     5.  6.  3   |          impact and future trends. Estimates of incidence and prevalence
 76   II,     5.  6.  3   |          Husberg, 2000). In France estimates of the costs of osteoarthritis
 77   II,     5.  6.  3   |     Problems and Conditions) gives estimates of the annual incidence
 78   II,     5.  6.  3   |         100,000 for adult females. Estimates of the prevalence of RA
 79   II,     5.  6.  4   |       claims. A hindrance to these estimates is the lack of consistent
 80   II,     5.  6.  6   |           in a British population: estimates of severity and prevalence
 81   II,     5.  6.  6   |          Steen VD, Wolfe F (1998): Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis
 82   II,     5.  6.  6   |            the United Kingdom: new estimates for a new century. Rheumatology.(
 83   II,     5.  7.  1   |         CKD (Coresh et al, 2005 ). Estimates in Asia and Australia (Chen
 84   II,     5.  7.  5   |  creatinine and equation-based GFR estimates for any creatinine prescription
 85   II,     5.  7.  7   | Health-related quality of life and estimates of utility in chronic kidney
 86   II,     5.  8.  3   |    reported 101 overall prevalence estimates from 28 different countries,
 87   II,     5.  8.  3   |          region has more than four estimates (Table 5.8.1)~ ~Table 5.
 88   II,     5.  8.  3   |            Table 5.8.1. Prevalence estimates for COPD per different variables~ ~
 89   II,     5.  8.  3   |      example of the variability of estimates caused by different definitions
 90   II,     5.  8.  3   |              It was shown that the estimates of direct annual costs per
 91   II,     5.  8.  7   |       Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: what is the true burden
 92   II,     5.  8.  7   |          Raat H (2006): Prevalence estimates of asthma or COPD from a
 93   II,     5.  9.  3   |        results from the ISAAC: the estimates in ECRHS were lower; however,
 94   II,     5.  9.  3   |          lower than the prevalence estimates recorded by questionnaire-based
 95   II,     5. 10.  3   |       context of the ECRHS project estimates in 12.2% the prevalence
 96   II,     5. 11.  3   |           et al, 1995). Prevalence estimates for adults suggest an overall
 97   II,     5. 11.  3   |     Weismann et al, 1980).~Overall estimates of the prevalence and incidence
 98   II,     5. 12.  2   |            of the ICD (WHO, 1992).~Estimates of the resident populations,
 99   II,     5. 13       |          and men. According to WHO estimates, excessive body weight derived
100   II,     5. 15.  3   |            in Europe. However, the estimates provided by the Italian
101   II,     5. 15.  3   |           be considered as minimum estimates, since the registry system
102   II,     6.  3.  1   |         indicated by country-based estimates. For example, in England,
103   II,     6.  3.  1   |         the EU level these country estimates indicate annual costs in
104   II,     7.  3.  5   |         national and international estimates of each are lacking. Not
105   II,     7.  4.  7   |   developed in order to get better estimates of the size of the problem.
106   II,     8.  2.  1   |           data based on population estimates that specifically related
107   II,     8.  2.  1   |            UK Department of Health estimates that the prevalence of severe
108   II,     8.  2.  1   |        Bersen, 1976).~ ~Prevalence estimates may vary among studies due
109   II,     8.  2.  2   |            Resnikoff et al, 2004). Estimates for Bulgaria and Turkey
110   II,     8.  2.  2   |            Resnikoff et al, 2004). Estimates for Bulgaria and Turkey
111   II,     8.  2.  3   |           WHO to obtain comparable estimates of hearing loss. While the
112   II,     8.  2.  3   |  interpolated to obtain comparable estimates according to the WHO definitions
113   II,     9           |           World Health Report 2002 estimates that over 3% of all disease
114   II,     9.  2.  3   |         Commission, 2006d). Recent estimates indicate that more than
115   II,     9.  3.  1   |     ovarian function or to ageing. Estimates of the median age of menopause
116   II,     9.  3.  1   |             Data do not allow firm estimates of trends in terms of infection
117   II,     9.  3.  1   |           data with United Nations estimates of rise, the proportion
118   II,     9.  3.  1   |           World Health Report 2002 estimates that over 3% of all disease
119   II,     9.  3.  1   |            war losses on mortality estimates for Italy: a first attempt
120   II,     9.  3.  2   |   countries of Europe has produced estimates ranging from 1.0 to 10.1
121   II,     9.  3.  3   |       health and injuries. The WHO estimates unsafe sex to be the second
122   II,     9.  4.  3   |            of these being over 75 (estimates for 1996).~ ~Table 9.4.2.
123   II,     9.  5.  3   |            in every social milieu. Estimates on violence against women,
124   II,     9.  5.  3   |           World Health Report 2002 estimates that over 3% of all disease
125  III,    10.  2.  1   |            lost. Very conservative estimates put the costs for only two
126  III,    10.  2.  1   |       Smoking is, according to the estimates from vital statistics, the
127  III,    10.  2.  1   |               The current existing estimates of the total smoking-attributable
128  III,    10.  2.  1   |          and 42% respectively. The estimates suggest that alcohol is
129  III,    10.  2.  1   | description and analysis~ ~Overall estimates on the prevalence of use
130  III,    10.  2.  1   |           10.2.1.3.1. Conservative estimates of prevalence and total
131  III,    10.  2.  1   |          last year drug prevalence estimates from various studies in
132  III,    10.  2.  1   |       information such as indirect estimates of the hidden population
133  III,    10.  2.  1   |          total, problem drug users estimates from different countries
134  III,    10.  2.  1   |        definition, most countriesestimates include only injecting drug
135  III,    10.  2.  1(9)|         and other herein mentioned estimates are far from robust and
136  III,    10.  2.  1   |           1.3.2Problem Drug Use estimates: Problem opioid use and
137  III,    10.  2.  1   |        injecting drug use~ ~Recent estimates on the prevalence of problem
138  III,    10.  2.  1   |         and Norway. Data from POUs estimates, police seizures, drug-related
139  III,    10.  2.  1   |            drug overdose. National estimates of such population group
140  III,    10.  2.  1   |         and subnational prevalence estimates based on IDU samples.~The
141  III,    10.  2.  1   |          provides context-specific estimates of occupational, transport
142  III,    10.  2.  1   | instruments will produce different estimates of a certain behaviour (
143  III,    10.  2.  1   |           physical activity: first estimates for Switzerland. Scientific
144  III,    10.  2.  1   |          and men. According to WHO estimates, excessive body weight,
145  III,    10.  2.  1   |  population concerned according to estimates by the WHO in 2003. Iodine
146  III,    10.  2.  1   |         countries according to WHO estimates. Prevalence of iron deficiency
147  III,    10.  3.  1   |            radon quantitative risk estimates. The WHO also considers
148  III,    10.  3.  1   |      Boegli, 2006).~ ~The existing estimates of noise exposure in Europe
149  III,    10.  3.  1   |            debatable. Several risk estimates which can be indicatively
150  III,    10.  3.  1   |        Ferlay J, Parkin DM (2002): Estimates of cancer incidence and
151  III,    10.  3.  2   |          perceived impact. The WHO estimates that over 30% of the global
152  III,    10.  4.  1   |           lung function as adults. Estimates show that the risk of reduced
153  III,    10.  4.  1   |         diseases in Europe. Recent estimates indicate that 20 million
154  III,    10.  4.  1   |             2004). The more recent estimates of the air pollution impact
155  III,    10.  4.  2   |           European level, national estimates of use derived from commercial
156  III,    10.  4.  2   |           FAO/WHO, 2003). Exposure estimates were made by combining consumption
157  III,    10.  4.  5   |          remedial treatment. These estimates have increased considerably
158  III,    10.  4.  5   |          the data available and on estimates, the EEA assessment reports
159  III,    10.  4.  5   |            million sites. National estimates show that more than 8 % (
160  III,    10.  4.  5   |            to be remediated. These estimates have increased considerably
161  III,    10.  4.  5   |          country. However, overall estimates identify heavy metals and
162  III,    10.  4.  5   |          Figure 10.4.5.2.7). These estimates are based on the frequency
163  III,    10.  4.  5   |          countries for which these estimates are available.~ ~Although
164  III,    10.  5.  3   |         reporting levels, Eurostat estimates the actual number of accidents
165  III,    10.  5.  3   |  population increase. According to estimates, the number of Europeans
166  III,    10.  5.  3   |          amounting to 45% of GDP. Estimates expect 2.0 million work-related
167  III,    10.  6.  3   |         national and international estimates of this sort of offences
168   IV,    11.  1.  1   |            factors. Moreover, some estimates suggest that health care
169   IV,    11.  1.  5   |           European level, although estimates suggest that errors occur
170   IV,    11.  3.  2   |          and Portugal (HFA 2007)3. Estimates of pharmaceutical expenditure
171   IV,    11.  6.  4   |        historical allocations,~and estimates of future health-related
172   IV,    12.Acr       |    Environmental burden of disease estimates~EFTA~European free trade
173   IV,    13.Acr       |    Environmental burden of disease estimates~EGE~Ethics and New Technologies~
174   IV,    13.  2.  2   |    Environmental burden of disease estimates (EBD) are important communication
175   IV,    13.  2.  2   |           Global Burden of Disease estimates, amounting to one fifth
176   IV,    13.  2.  4   |           The WHO (2005) presented estimates of the Burden of Disease,
177   IV,    13.  2.  4   |          study has made additional estimates of the major risk factors
178   IV,    13.  2.  4   |            8).~ ~ ~Table 13.6. WHO estimates for preventable Burden of