Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  7    |            rain water, the underground waste disposal system and the
  2    I,     2.  7    |               energy, solar energy and waste recycling. Some buildings
  3    I,     2.  8    |           cycle - from fuel extract to waste disposal - or recycling.~
  4    I,     2.  8    |           accident or terrorist threat~Waste incineration~ ~Mainly from
  5    I,     2.  8    |            power accidents and nuclear waste disposal is a "must" for
  6    I,     2. 10.  4|     stock-on-hand in most hospitals is waste of working capital, with
  7   II,     9        |          drinking water, releases from waste disposal sites, endocrine
  8   II,     9.  1.  2|          drinking water, releases from waste disposal sites, endocrine
  9  III,    10.  3.  2|               emissions related to the waste life stage can take place
 10  III,    10.  3.  2|           food-chain, inadequate toxic waste disposal, injuries and poisonings,
 11  III,    10.  3.  2|                industrial and communal waste water treatment plants,
 12  III,    10.  3.  4|             from flooding), sewage and waste contamination of the drinking-water
 13  III,    10.  4.  2|              use or disposal of animal waste.~ ~Zoonoses are diseases
 14  III,    10.  4.  2|               governing~emissions from waste~incineration; monitoring~
 15  III,    10.  4.  3|               as to leaks of untreated waste and sewage waters resulting
 16  III,    10.  4.  3|            cause is leaks of untreated waste and sewage water resulting
 17  III,    10.  4.  3|          Infections (EWGLI) at http ~ ~Waste water treatment~ ~The European
 18  III,    10.  4.  3|             around 500 million people. Waste water generated by these
 19  III,    10.  4.  3|          pollution of European waters. Waste water discharges may have
 20  III,    10.  4.  3|                into the environment of waste water and sewage sludge.
 21  III,    10.  4.  3|             with ambitions to re-cycle waste water for drinking water
 22  III,    10.  4.  3|         monitoring systems in place.~ ~Waste water and waste water treatment
 23  III,    10.  4.  3|               place.~ ~Waste water and waste water treatment is regulated
 24  III,    10.  4.  3|         effects of discharges of urban waste water and from certain industrial
 25  III,    10.  4.  3|               to discharges from urban waste water treatment plants to
 26  III,    10.  4.  3|              approaches to re-using of waste water and increased desalination
 27  III,    10.  4.  3|               on the supply and on the waste side.~ ~Water sources in
 28  III,    10.  4.  3|            agriculture or insufficient waste water treatment. New potential
 29  III,    10.  4.  3|            sources. Current sewage and waste water treatment processes
 30  III,    10.  4.  3|           Directive 91/271/EC on Urban Waste Water. Available at: htt ML~
 31  III,    10.  4.  5|           water and soil contamination/waste disposal~ ~ ~
 32  III,    10.  4.  5|            derived from sewers, animal waste, the environment or through
 33  III,    10.  4.  5|            fact, due to investments in waste water treatment facilities,
 34  III,    10.  4.  5|              and pollution from animal waste, is the primary health threat
 35  III,    10.  4.  5|              and pollution from animal waste, is the primary health threat
 36  III,    10.  4.  5|                5.2. Soil pollution and waste disposal~ ~Acronyms~ ~BEUC~
 37  III,    10.  4.  5|           Topic Centre on Resource and Waste~EU~European Union~EUROSTAT~
 38  III,    10.  4.  5|               municipal and industrial waste; oil extraction and production;
 39  III,    10.  4.  5|   contamination in Europe~ ~Inadequate waste disposal is one of the main
 40  III,    10.  4.  5|           solid, special and hazardous waste is generated in all Member
 41  III,    10.  4.  5|           European Union. The trend in waste production is that it increases
 42  III,    10.  4.  5|              that 31% of the generated waste is disposed of by land-filling,
 43  III,    10.  4.  5|               is still the most common waste management method used across
 44  III,    10.  4.  5|               pollution.~ ~Even though waste prevention is a top priority
 45  III,    10.  4.  5|                the continued growth in waste generation which is still
 46  III,    10.  4.  5|             environmental impacts from waste. For instance, the inappropriate
 47  III,    10.  4.  5|              disposal and treatment of waste from municipal and industrial
 48  III,    10.  4.  5|                  There are no adequate waste management systems in most
 49  III,    10.  4.  5|           economic activity means more waste generation. Since economic
 50  III,    10.  4.  5|           which can successfully limit waste generation. Nonetheless,
 51  III,    10.  4.  5|         instruments. The objectives of waste prevention are:~· the reduction
 52  III,    10.  4.  5|                are:~· the reduction of waste generation;~· the reduction
 53  III,    10.  4.  5|       efficiency.~ ~Thus, the priority waste streams to be addressed
 54  III,    10.  4.  5|               mass flows and hazardous waste streams.~ ~Contaminated
 55  III,    10.  4.  5|                 for instance on water, waste, chemicals, industrial pollution
 56  III,    10.  4.  5|            Consumption and Production, Waste, and Environment and health
 57  III,    10.  4.  5|             Environment data including waste data is available on the
 58  III,    10.  4.  5|              and EUROSTAT publicationWaste generated and treated in
 59  III,    10.  4.  5|                generation of hazardous waste in European countries and
 60  III,    10.  4.  5|             contains information about waste, especially relevant for
 61  III,    10.  4.  5|              this chapter is hazardous waste, EU waste legislation and
 62  III,    10.  4.  5|         chapter is hazardous waste, EU waste legislation and landfill
 63  III,    10.  4.  5|            legislation and landfill of waste.~ ~WHO Europe has produced
 64  III,    10.  4.  5|          reviewPopulation health and waste management: scientific data
 65  III,    10.  4.  5|             description and analysis~ ~Waste production~ ~Based on the
 66  III,    10.  4.  5|               reports that:~ ~· annual waste generation in the EU-25+
 67  III,    10.  4.  5|                 or 3.8 - 4.1 tonnes of waste per capita.~· the Eastern
 68  III,    10.  4.  5|           estimated to have an average waste generation of 5- 20 tonnes
 69  III,    10.  4.  5|               is that the total annual waste generated in the pan-European
 70  III,    10.  4.  5|          billion tonnes. The amount of waste generated is still increasing
 71  III,    10.  4.  5|               For example, while total waste generation increased by
 72  III,    10.  4.  5|                political importance of waste prevention, the amount of
 73  III,    10.  4.  5|              prevention, the amount of waste generated in the EECCA and
 74  III,    10.  4.  5|               much stronger driver for waste generation than different
 75  III,    10.  4.  5| recommendations for the development of waste prevention programmes in
 76  III,    10.  4.  5|                in the Kiev Strategy.~ ~Waste generation rates vary strongly
 77  III,    10.  4.  5|           strongly between sectors and waste types, reflecting the different
 78  III,    10.  4.  5|                large amounts of mining waste – in EECCA, between half
 79  III,    10.  4.  5|                three quarters of total waste is generated by mining,
 80  III,    10.  4.  5|           greater volumes of municipal waste (Figure 10.4.5.2.2). However,
 81  III,    10.  4.  5|            However, the single largest waste stream in EU-15+EFTA is
 82  III,    10.  4.  5|            construction and demolition waste, mostly generated by intensive
 83  III,    10.  4.  5|              Figure 10.4.5.2.2a. Total waste generation per sector, 2004 (
 84  III,    10.  4.  5|              Figure 10.4.5.2.2b. Total waste generation per sector, 2004 (
 85  III,    10.  4.  5|              Figure 10.4.5.2.2c. Total waste generation per sector, 2004 (
 86  III,    10.  4.  5|               In the EU, 31 % of total waste generated is landfilled,
 87  III,    10.  4.  5|              Consistent information on waste disposal methods in EECCA
 88  III,    10.  4.  5|         between 40 % and 57 % of total waste generated from industry
 89  III,    10.  4.  5|           millions tonnes of hazardous waste, 3%-4% of the total, is
 90  III,    10.  4.  5|            EECCA countries, where more waste types are classified as
 91  III,    10.  4.  5|               the figures on hazardous waste are not entirely comparable.~ ~
 92  III,    10.  4.  5|           Figure 10.4.5.2.3. Hazardous waste generation in selected EU-25+
 93  III,    10.  4.  5|        countries 1996-2004~ ~Hazardous waste generation in the EU-25+
 94  III,    10.  4.  5|         long-term storage of hazardous waste generated during the Soviet
 95  III,    10.  4.  5|                means that much of this waste has no legal owner. To make
 96  III,    10.  4.  5|              treatment and disposal of waste, remain the most important
 97  III,    10.  4.  5|              countries (EEA, 2007a).~ ~Waste disposal~ ~Most epidemiological
 98  III,    10.  4.  5|        literature on health effects of waste landfills provides some
 99  III,    10.  4.  5|                the current increase of waste production and incineration
100  III,    10.  4.  5|               pollution from different waste management options has been,
101  III,    10.  4.  5|            these sources. Whatever the waste management option, there
102  III,    10.  4.  5|            example, measures on water, waste, chemicals, industrial pollution
103  III,    10.  4.  5|           Landfill Directive and other waste legislation, Integrated
104  III,    10.  4.  5|                  for example mining or waste disposal sites — and some
105  III,    10.  4.  5|          contamination (EEA, 2007a).~ ~Waste management~ ~The general
106  III,    10.  4.  5|              The general principles of waste management are embodied
107  III,    10.  4.  5|              embodied in the so-called waste management hierarchy. The
108  III,    10.  4.  5|              prevent the generation of waste, and to reduce their harmful
109  III,    10.  4.  5|                effects. Alternatively, waste materials should be reused,
110  III,    10.  4.  5|             energy. As a final resort, waste should be disposed safely,
111  III,    10.  4.  5|                limits on the amount of waste that can be sent to landfill.~
112  III,    10.  4.  5|             implementation of national waste strategies is expected to
113  III,    10.  4.  5|         estimated 25 million tonnes of waste that will be diverted away
114  III,    10.  4.  5|        prevention of soil pollution by waste is covered by different
115  III,    10.  4.  5|             directives such as:~ ~· EU Waste legislation on hazardous
116  III,    10.  4.  5|               legislation on hazardous waste (Directive 91/689/EEC),
117  III,    10.  4.  5|              cradle to the grave”, the waste producer to the final disposal
118  III,    10.  4.  5|                1999 on the landfill of waste entered into force on 16.
119  III,    10.  4.  5|                from the landfilling of waste, by introducing stringent
120  III,    10.  4.  5|             technical requirements for waste and landfills.~ ~The decision-making
121  III,    10.  4.  5|              location and operation of waste facilities should be transparent
122  III,    10.  4.  5|         replacing poor or even illegal waste management practises with
123  III,    10.  4.  5|             effective in some cases in waste management policies. HIA
124  III,    10.  4.  5|               likely health impacts of waste management is likely to
125  III,    10.  4.  5|                and effect, and compare wasterelated exposures with those
126  III,    10.  4.  5|    environmental concerns in directing waste management strategic choices
127  III,    10.  4.  5|               towards the reduction of waste production, re-use and recycling
128  III,    10.  4.  5|               and illegal practices of waste disposal, which still affect
129  III,    10.  4.  5|              location and operation of waste facilities should be transparent
130  III,    10.  4.  5|         replacing poor or even illegal waste management practices with
131  III,    10.  4.  5|            Since the cost of hazardous waste disposal is much lower out
132  III,    10.  4.  5|          incentive to export hazardous waste. All EECCA and SEE countries
133  III,    10.  4.  5|             safe disposal of hazardous waste and, therefore in most cases,
134  III,    10.  4.  5|               therefore in most cases, waste must be land filled or stored
135  III,    10.  4.  5|                91/689/EEC on hazardous waste. Available at: htt ~ ~European
136  III,    10.  4.  5|                1999 on the landfill of waste. Available at: htt ~ ~European
137  III,    10.  4.  5|              2003): Health hazards and waste management. British Medical
138  III,    10.  4.  5|               residence near hazardous waste landfill sites: A review
139  III,    10.  4.  5|                  Population health and waste management: scientific data
140  III,    10.  5.  1|               industrial emissions and waste~ ~In addition to air pollution
141  III,    10.  5.  1|               is the immense amount of waste in large settlements, which
142  III,    10.  5.  1|               to be channelled through waste water channels. Various
143  III,    10.  5.  1|               performance, noise, air, waste, food, water, regulations
144  III,    10.  5.  1|    environmental and health effects of waste management: municipal solid
145  III,    10.  5.  1|            management: municipal solid waste and similar wastes. Department
146   IV,    11.  1.  6|             fraud (therefore potential waste and administration costs),
147   IV,    12. 10    |             Yes~Soil contamination and waste disposal~High~Regional~
148   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~ High~ ~Selected
149   IV,    12. 10    |                radiation) or noise and waste disposal. The German national
150   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~High priority~The
151   IV,    12. 10    |              is regarded as the key to waste management policy in Germany.
152   IV,    12. 10    |              and environmentally sound waste avoidance and recovery will
153   IV,    12. 10    |                such a way as to reduce waste occurrence and allow environmentally
154   IV,    12. 10    |              adverse by-products, e.g. waste incineration plants, are
155   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~High~Waste Management
156   IV,    12. 10    |                and waste disposal~High~Waste Management Acts 1996-2008~
157   IV,    12. 10    |           water~Soil contamination and waste disposal~ High~o 01 regarding "
158   IV,    12. 10    |      Management of Packaging and other Waste" was enacted. This law makes
159   IV,    12. 10    |              and recovery of packaging waste.~o Law 3010/2002 «Updating
160   IV,    12. 10    |              the sanitary land fill of waste~The last decade many sanitary
161   IV,    12. 10    |              alternative management of Waste Electrical and Electronic
162   IV,    12. 10    |          Council Directive 2002/96 “on waste electrical and electronic
163   IV,    12. 10    |                Management of Hazardous Waste”,~o Ministerial Decision
164   IV,    12. 10    |                management of hazardous waste in compliance with Council
165   IV,    12. 10    |              91/689 “for the hazardous waste” of 12th December 1991”.~
166   IV,    12. 10    |             the management of Hospital Waste it has been approved the
167   IV,    12. 10    |                the management of their waste. Moreover, they have to
168   IV,    12. 10    |             handling hazardous medical waste. Also, hospitals are obliged
169   IV,    12. 10    |               obliged to use different waste bins, for each kind of biologic
170   IV,    12. 10    |              for each kind of biologic waste, marked with defined colours ~ ~
171   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~ high~ ~ national
172   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~intermediate~ Law On W ~ ~
173   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~ High~ National
174   IV,    12. 10    |             implementation of clinical waste plan~Selected chemical contaminants~ ~ ~ -
175   IV,    12. 10    |          health~Soil contamination and waste disposal~ High~GD 195/2005
176   IV,    12. 10    |                 Soil contamination and waste disposal~Intermediate~ ~ ~
177  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|                                        waste~wastewater~water~water-borne~