Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  4        |             Socio-economic trends and inequalities~ ~Europe continues to become
  2    I,     2.  4        |            become wealthier. However, inequalities persist, not only between
  3    I,     2.  4        |              in EUGLOREH countries.~ ~Inequalities persist, not only between
  4    I,     2.  4        |              expert Report on “Health inequalities “, commissioned by, and
  5    I,     2.  4        |      occupational class, or income;~· inequalities in mortality exist from
  6    I,     2.  4        |           women than among men; and~· inequalities in mortality can also be
  7    I,     2.  4        |          cancers, and injury.~ ~These inequalities in mortality lead to substantial
  8    I,     2.  4        |         mortality lead to substantial inequalities in life expectancy at birth (
  9    I,     2.  4        |              during - the late 1980s, inequalities in mortality were in Eastern
 10    I,     2.  4        |              1980s showed substantial inequalities in mortality in all countries,
 11    I,     2.  4        |              women, however, relative inequalities in mortality were of similar
 12    I,     2.  4        |          where a considerable rise of inequalities in mortality has occurred.
 13    I,     2.  4        |           income level:~· substantial inequalities are also found in the prevalence
 14    I,     2.  4        |                over the past decades, inequalities in morbidity by socio-economic
 15    I,     2.  4        |           stable; and~· together with inequalities in mortality, inequalities
 16    I,     2.  4        |            inequalities in mortality, inequalities in morbidity contribute
 17    I,     2.  4        |         morbidity contribute to large inequalities in 'healthy life expectancy' (
 18    I,     2.  4        |          years lived in good health).~Inequalities are also evident in the
 19    I,     2.  4        |              policies to reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk
 20    I,     2.  4        |               begun to address health inequalities systematically and comprehensively
 21   II,     4.  2        |               question raises whether inequalities in life expectancy across
 22   II,     4.  2        |               rates in EU27 in 2005~ ~Inequalities in life expectancy. One
 23   II,     5.  2.  5    |          control and will help reduce inequalities in health and in accessing
 24   II,     5.  3.  2    |        European Commission to address inequalities in cancer information in
 25   II,     5.  3.  2    |             promote actions to reduce inequalities in cancer care, by extending
 26   II,     5.  3.  2    |                ESMO) addresses global inequalities in cancer care and practice
 27   II,     5.  3.  8    |             technologies to eliminate inequalities in the access to cancer
 28   II,     5.  4.  6    |           implementation. This causes inequalities in life expectancy, health
 29   II,     5.  4.  6    |      high-risk groups and to reducing inequalities and optimising healthcare
 30   II,     5.  5.Int(12)|              G. Lindberg (eds) Gender Inequalities in Health (Boston: Harvard
 31   II,     5.  5.  2    |                 Addressing the health inequalities across Europe and improving
 32   II,     5.  5.  3    |               Rössler W (2002):Health inequalities and the health needs of
 33   II,     5.  5.  3    |              that there are very wide inequalities in terms of waiting lists
 34   II,     5.  5.  3    |            the currently unacceptable inequalities in the diagnosis, treatment
 35   II,     5.  7.  4    |          links actually exist. Social inequalities affect the health of disadvantaged
 36   II,     5.  7.  4    |        consequences of socio-economic inequalities. This is true for diseases
 37   II,     5. 14.  3    |               characterized by social inequalities in the face of disease and
 38   II,     5. 14.  3    |              progress. Getting rid of inequalities for minorities and deprived
 39   II,     5. 14.  5    |     improvements, reduction of health inequalities with reference to social
 40   II,     5. 14.  6    |             policy aiming at reducing inequalities in health. However, surveillance
 41   II,     7.  4        |           lowest rate. There are also inequalities in exposure to injury risks
 42   II,     7.  6        |             seriously underestimated.~Inequalities also in injury risk and
 43   II,     8.  2.  1    |               group at risk of health inequalities – in Canada, for example (
 44   II,     8.  2.  1    |         screening would reduce health inequalities.~People with intellectual
 45   II,     8.  2.  1    |             the population and health inequalities are evident. They encounter
 46   II,     8.  2.  1    |        focuses on reduction of health inequalities (see the chapter on policies
 47   II,     8.  2.  1    |           likely to experience health inequalities, yet to date there are no
 48   II,     8.  2.  1    |              avoidable and unjust are inequalities, and must be addressed vigorously.
 49   II,     8.  2.  1    |      socioeconomic position to health inequalities of British children and
 50   II,     8.  2.  1    |           Stegeman, I. (2006). Health Inequalities in the EU. TACKLING HEALTH
 51   II,     8.  2.  1    |               the EU. TACKLING HEALTH INEQUALITIES IN THE EU: THE CONTRIBUTIONS
 52   II,     9            |          UNICEF and others that great inequalities in income remain, and indeed
 53   II,     9.  1        |          interventions, reduce social inequalities in health and access to
 54   II,     9.  1.  1    |         reveal significant geographic inequalities in mortality in the perinatal
 55   II,     9.  1.  1    |               J, Macfarlane A (2004): Inequalities in infant mortality: trends
 56   II,     9.  1.  2    |          geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of congenital
 57   II,     9.  1.  2    |          prevalence. As well as these inequalities, congenital anomalies are
 58   II,     9.  1.  2    |               rarity. Thus, there are inequalities between congenital anomalies
 59   II,     9.  1.  2    |             pregnancy. Socio-economic inequalities in neural tube defect prevalence
 60   II,     9.  1.  2    |                 Trends and Geographic Inequalities in the Livebirth Prevalence
 61   II,     9.  1.  2    |            JES (2000): “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Risk of Congenital Anomaly”,
 62   II,     9.  2.  2    |           regarding that child health inequalities topic in a number of EU
 63   II,     9.  2.  4    |          UNICEF and others that great inequalities in income remain, and indeed
 64   II,     9.  3.  1    |           Patient characteristics and inequalities in doctorsdiagnostic and
 65   II,     9.  3.  2    |               J, Macfarlane A (2004): Inequalities in infant mortality: trends
 66   II,     9.  4.  2    |              prevalence. Large social inequalities for some specific fatal
 67   II,     9.  4.  5    |            broad objectives.~ ~Health Inequalities. As women live longer than
 68   II,     9.  4.  5    |      isolation (WHO, 1999). Important inequalities in life expectancy and overall
 69   II,     9.  5.  1    |             differences contribute to inequalities in health between men and
 70   II,     9.  5.  1    |         population groups.~ ~Economic inequalities mean that in many countries
 71   II,     9.  5.  2    |               health determinants and inequalities in health (Bonté, 2004).
 72   II,     9.  5.  2    |              collection which reflect inequalities in health are the Euro-REVES (
 73   II,     9.  5.  2    |         indicators that would address inequalities in the health of European
 74   II,     9.  5.  2    |             actions to address gender inequalities in health outcomes.~ ~
 75   II,     9.  5.  3    |     description and analysis~ ~Health inequalities~ ~Lifestyle, as well as
 76   II,     9.  5.  3    |         EUGLOREH countries~ ~Economic inequalities mean that in many countries
 77   II,     9.  5.  4    |               of policies.~ ~Tackling inequalities~ ~The most effective policy
 78   II,     9.  5.  4    |               people is to tackle the inequalities that put them at risk. Gender
 79   II,     9.  5.  4    |              put them at risk. Gender inequalities in health need to be addressed
 80   II,     9.  5.  6    |             mental health’, in Gender Inequalities in Health: A Swedish Perspective.. (
 81   II,     9.  5.  6    |         document on mental health and inequalities in Scotland. Scottish Development
 82  III,    10.  1        |      environment~ ~ ~ ~Socio-economic inequalities~ ~ ~ ~Violence and other
 83  III,    10.  2.  1    |       contribution to reducing social inequalities in health in Europe (Mackenbach
 84  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Mackenbach JP. Socioeconomic inequalities in smoking in the European
 85  III,    10.  2.  1    |          Alcohol is a cause of health inequalities within countries. For example,
 86  III,    10.  2.  1    |               most important cause of inequalities in the burden of ill-health
 87  III,    10.  2.  1    |            are responsible for health inequalities are strongly linked to alcohol,
 88  III,    10.  2.  1    |              role of alcohol in these inequalities may be different in different
 89  III,    10.  2.  1    |            countries with the largest inequalities in men aged 45-59 are France
 90  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health (1998): Occupational
 91  III,    10.  2.  1    |              the reduction of disease inequalities. The development of appropriate
 92  III,    10.  2.  1    |               conditions. Oral health inequalities are evident both across
 93  III,    10.  2.  1    |             life, reduction of health inequalities, quality of care and access
 94  III,    10.  2.  1    |              can help to minimize the inequalities in oral health within the
 95  III,    10.  2.  1    |             to reverse them is taken. Inequalities between countries are rising,
 96  III,    10.  2.  1    |        psychosocial effects perceived inequalities have on health (Mackenbach
 97  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Coexistence of social inequalities in undernutrition and obesity
 98  III,    10.  5.  3    |             risks, but also by social inequalities such as employment status,
 99  III,    10.  5.  3    |           policies~- combating health inequalities~- promoting social inclusion~-
100  III,    10.  5.  3    |              M. Marmot (Eds.), Social Inequalities in Health - New Evidence
101  III,    10.  6.  2    |              expert Report on “Health inequalities: Europe in profile“ (Mackenbach,
102  III,    10.  6.  2    |               Action to Tackle Health Inequalities in Europe’ which was carried
103  III,    10.  6.  2    |           course leads to substantial inequalities in health and life expectancy
104  III,    10.  6.  2    |          increasing social and health inequalities.~ ~Mortality and life expectancy~ ~ ~
105  III,    10.  6.  2    |              expert Report on “Health inequalities: Europe in profile“ (Mackenbach,
106  III,    10.  6.  2    |      occupational class, or income;~· inequalities in mortality exist from
107  III,    10.  6.  2    |           women than among men; and~· inequalities in mortality can also be
108  III,    10.  6.  2    |       diseases are the main causes of inequalities, accounting for 33 and 50%
109  III,    10.  6.  2    |          accounting for 33 and 50% of inequalities in mortality associated
110  III,    10.  6.  2    |            important causes of health inequalities in men than in women (Figure
111  III,    10.  6.  2    |              women (Figure 10.6.2.1). Inequalities in mortality related to
112  III,    10.  6.  2    |               Figure 10.6.2.2). These inequalities in mortality lead to substantial
113  III,    10.  6.  2    |         mortality lead to substantial inequalities in life expectancy at birth (
114  III,    10.  6.  2    |          Figure 10.6.2.1. Educational inequalities in mortality in selected
115  III,    10.  6.  2    |              cause~ ~Figure 10.6.2.2. Inequalities in mortality of men~ ~ ~ ~
116  III,    10.  6.  2    |           that during the late 1980s, inequalities in mortality were in Eastern
117  III,    10.  6.  2    |             1980s, showed substantial inequalities in mortality in all countries,
118  III,    10.  6.  2    |              women, however, relative inequalities in mortality were of similar
119  III,    10.  6.  2    |          where a considerable rise of inequalities in mortality has occurred.
120  III,    10.  6.  2    |           income level:~· substantial inequalities are also found in the prevalence
121  III,    10.  6.  2    |                over the past decades, inequalities in morbidity by socio-economic
122  III,    10.  6.  2    |           stable; and~· together with inequalities in mortality, inequalities
123  III,    10.  6.  2    |            inequalities in mortality, inequalities in morbidity contribute
124  III,    10.  6.  2    |         morbidity contribute to large inequalities in 'healthy life expectancy' (
125  III,    10.  6.  2    |          years lived in good health).~Inequalities are also evident in the
126  III,    10.  6.  2    |              policies to reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk
127  III,    10.  6.  2    |               begun to address health inequalities systematically and comprehensively
128  III,    10.  6.  2    |          local level to tackle health inequalities by recognizing social determinants
129  III,    10.  6.  2    |            challenge. Reducing health inequalities has become one of the main
130  III,    10.  6.  2    |           which aim at takling health inequalities, especially by targeting
131  III,    10.  6.  2    |               Action to Tackle Health Inequalities in Europe’ which was carried
132  III,    10.  6.  2    |             causes of poor health and inequalities between and within countries.
133  III,    10.  6.  2    |       determinants of health - health inequalities’ as an important strand
134  III,    10.  6.  2    |               action to reduce health inequalities aims at improving everyone'
135  III,    10.  6.  2    |              of socio-economic health inequalities as well as develop and evaluate
136  III,    10.  6.  2    |    determinants and identified health inequalities using data from the Community
137  III,    10.  6.  2    |            information system. Health inequalities also form an important dimension
138  III,    10.  6.  2    |           recognized to tackle health inequalities within communities. All
139  III,    10.  6.  2    |               current state of health inequalities and identified the evidence
140  III,    10.  6.  2    |        contributes to reducing health inequalities by trying to prevent young
141  III,    10.  6.  2    |         determinants to tackle health inequalities, the national health promotion
142  III,    10.  6.  2    |                2007): Tackling health inequalities in Europe: An integrated
143  III,    10.  6.  2    |          Mackenbach JP (2006): Health inequalities: Europe in profile [on-line
144   IV,    11.  1.  1    | socio-economic and living conditions, inequalities, nutrition and other lifestyle
145   IV,    11.  1.  4    |              perhaps widening, health inequalities are also evident. Ensuring
146   IV,    11.  1.  4    |            one means to reduce health inequalities. Many countries have introduced
147   IV,    11.  2.  2    |       widespread emphasis on tackling inequalities in health. Comprehensive
148   IV,    11.  2.  2    |             policies to reduce social inequalities in health can be seen in
149   IV,    11.  6.  2    |     widespread trend that can address inequalities that arise from local taxation
150   IV,    11.  6.  3    |         Denmark and Germany, reducing inequalities by more than 40% and the
151   IV,    11.  6.  3    |               with a 35% reduction in inequalities. However, it is likely that
152   IV,    11.  6.  4    |       rural areas; these geographical inequalities may have even increased
153   IV,    11.  6.  5    |             Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in
154   IV,    12.  2        |          control and will help reduce inequalities in health and in accessing
155   IV,    12.  2        |           implementation. This causes inequalities in life expectancy, health
156   IV,    12.  5        |               the reduction of health inequalities~ ~2.1.1. Promote initiatives
157   IV,    12.  5        |             address and reduce health inequalities within and between Member
158   IV,    12. 10        |       services which should alleviate inequalities in health/contribute to
159   IV,    12. 10        |               to a decrease in health inequalities~Federal Centre for Health
160   IV,    12. 10        |         poverty and addressing health~inequalities.~htt e/~documents/NAPinclusionreportPDF~.
161   IV,    12. 10        |                     Addressing health inequalities through the development
162   IV,    12. 10        |          Disability~Others : Reducing Inequalities in Health~High ~ ~National
163   IV,    13.Acr        |       widespread emphasis on tackling inequalities in health. Comprehensive
164   IV,    13.Acr        |             policies to reduce social inequalities in health can be seen in
165   IV,    13.  5        |           need for overcoming current inequalities in access to high quality
166   IV,    13.  5        |              policies to reduce these inequalities, e.g. by: addressing risk
167   IV,    13.  5        |               begun to address health inequalities systematically and comprehensively
168   IV,    13.  5        |               widening socio-economic inequalities, limited resources, technological
169  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0    |            indoor~industrial~industry~inequalities~inequality~inequities~inequity~