Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1    |              a major risk factor for COPD.A study by Lundback (2003)
  2   II,     5.  1.  1    |           and socioeconomic group as COPD determinants. In the analysed
  3   II,     5.  1.  1    |           non-smokers. Prevalence of COPD reached 50% in elderly smokers.~
  4   II,     5.  8.Acr    |     limitation~AO~airway obstruction~COPD~chronic obstructive pulmonary
  5   II,     5.  8.  1    |       Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) refers to pathologies characterized
  6   II,     5.  8.  1    |            bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is a common, costly and
  7   II,     5.  8.  1    |             the European population. COPD is a treatable disease,
  8   II,     5.  8.  1    |           fully reversible. However, COPD is often underestimated
  9   II,     5.  8.  1    |            year in Europe because of COPD. It represents the fifth
 10   II,     5.  8.  1    |           Niederlander et al, 2006). COPD is the main reason for mortality
 11   II,     5.  8.  1    |         significant augmentations in COPD prevalence and mortality
 12   II,     5.  8.  1    |          study, which envisaged that COPD would rise to the third
 13   II,     5.  8.  1    |                 The main elements of COPD are chronic bronchitis and
 14   II,     5.  8.  1    |         emphysema: (Siafakas, 2006). COPD has significant extra-pulmonary
 15   II,     5.  8.  2    |         Office for Europe~ ~Although COPD and asthma are considered
 16   II,     5.  8.  3    |            mortality associated with COPD. It covers co-morbidity
 17   II,     5.  8.  3    |             data on the incidence of COPD in the EU, mainly deriving
 18   II,     5.  8.  3    |              cumulative incidence of COPD was 11.0% according to the
 19   II,     5.  8.  3    |      incidence rates of GOLD-defined COPD of 1.8% in never smokers,
 20   II,     5.  8.  3    |            of chronic bronchitis and COPD were assessed at 22% and
 21   II,     5.  8.  3    |     incidence of moderate and severe COPD was 1% in never smokers,
 22   II,     5.  8.  3    |          Since 2000, many studies on COPD prevalence have been published (
 23   II,     5.  8.  3    |             Prevalence estimates for COPD per different variables~ ~
 24   II,     5.  8.  3    |             year olds to 14.4% (6.3% COPD) (Murtagh et al, 2005).~ ~
 25   II,     5.  8.  3    |     estimated that the prevalence of COPD in the general Spanish population
 26   II,     5.  8.  3    |        population, the prevalence of COPD was estimated to increase
 27   II,     5.  8.  3    |             assess the prevalence of COPD severity stages, as defined
 28   II,     5.  8.  3    |          European centres) suggested COPD GOLD stage II was 10.1%
 29   II,     5.  8.  3    |            the overall prevalence of COPD at stage I or higher was
 30   II,     5.  8.  3    |                A doctor diagnosis of COPD was reported only by 5.6%
 31   II,     5.  8.  3    |       British Thoracic Society (BTS)-COPD was 5.3%, moderate 2.2%,
 32   II,     5.  8.  3    |             All subjects with severe COPD were symptomatic.~ ~Prevalence (
 33   II,     5.  8.  3    |              and 0.6 for very severe COPD (Hoogendoorn et al, 2005)
 34   II,     5.  8.  3    |            regarding the accuracy of COPD mortality data, the limited
 35   II,     5.  8.  3    |       indicate that mortality due to COPD increases with age and is
 36   II,     5.  8.  3    |           Moreover, it is clear that COPD is one of the most important
 37   II,     5.  8.  3    |             1997) has estimated that COPD, which was the sixth cause
 38   II,     5.  8.  3    |          some important information. COPD mortality trends generally
 39   II,     5.  8.  3    |          1970 through 2002 show that COPD mortality increased over
 40   II,     5.  8.  3    |             instance, in the case of COPD, other smoking-related diseases~•
 41   II,     5.  8.  3    |  pre-existing disease—in the case of COPD, pulmonary hypertension
 42   II,     5.  8.  3    |     unrelated pathogenesis that make COPD management more difficult.~•
 43   II,     5.  8.  3    |          treatment for patients with COPD (Rea et al 2004; GOLD 2006)~ ~
 44   II,     5.  8.  3    |          study exploring deaths from COPD and the multiple underlying
 45   II,     5.  8.  3    |       underlying cause of death when COPD was mentioned as an associated
 46   II,     5.  8.  3    |            of death in patients with COPD in a study by Calverley
 47   II,     5.  8.  3    |      well-known risk factor for both COPD and CVD, CVD in patients
 48   II,     5.  8.  3    |            CVD, CVD in patients with COPD is likely to be due to other
 49   II,     5.  8.  3    |             analysis of mortality in COPD patients discharged from
 50   II,     5.  8.  3    |       co-morbidities associated with COPD were reported also in a
 51   II,     5.  8.  3    |            also in a study of 45 966 COPD patients aged more than
 52   II,     5.  8.  3    |        Incidence of comorbidities in COPD patients with respect to
 53   II,     5.  8.  3    |             used to compare incident COPD patients (physician diagnosed,
 54   II,     5.  8.  3    |             of diagnosis of incident COPD patients related to major
 55   II,     5.  8.  3    |         respiratory infections (RI). COPD patients were at high risk
 56   II,     5.  8.  3    |            apart from observing that COPD was present in 10.4% of
 57   II,     5.  8.  3    |          population of patients with COPD (389 patients) was performed
 58   II,     5.  8.  3    |            18% and 40%) than in male COPD patients (10% and 20%).
 59   II,     5.  8.  3    |          patients affected by severe COPD was analysed and it was
 60   II,     5.  8.  3    |           screening of patients with COPD would be helpful.~ ~A study
 61   II,     5.  8.  3    |              patients with asthma or COPD proved to be at higher risk
 62   II,     5.  8.  3    |          compared to non smokers..~ ~COPD has some important negative
 63   II,     5.  8.  3    |           population of about 10 700 COPD patients, with a mean age
 64   II,     5.  8.  3    |              with reported asthma or COPD. The results demonstrate
 65   II,     5.  8.  3    |           some authors consider that COPD should no longer be judged
 66   II,     5.  8.  3    |         pathogenetical substrates of COPD and its comorbidities.~ ~
 67   II,     5.  8.  3    |            on the economic aspect of COPD. The ERS European Lung White
 68   II,     5.  8.  3    |              overall annual cost for COPD in Europe (excluding mortality
 69   II,     5.  8.  3    |         Europe lost work days due to COPD are 4300. with a global
 70   II,     5.  8.  3    |                   The total costs of COPD in different countries (
 71   II,     5.  8.  3    |          total medical cost of every COPD patient was estimated at
 72   II,     5.  8.  3    |            year: 41% was directed to COPD follow-up, 25% to COPD complications
 73   II,     5.  8.  3    |            to COPD follow-up, 25% to COPD complications and exacerbations,
 74   II,     5.  8.  3    |        one-third of the total direct COPD cost was directed to hospitalisations
 75   II,     5.  8.  3    |           The total medical cost for COPD patients in France was estimated
 76   II,     5.  8.  3    |           for patients admitted with COPD diagnoses in 1998-2002 showed
 77   II,     5.  8.  3    |             directed to treatment of COPD (Bilde et al, 2007). The
 78   II,     5.  8.  3    |              2007). The net cost for COPD patients was 256 million
 79   II,     5.  8.  3    |              due to the treatment of COPD as primary diagnosis, whilst
 80   II,     5.  8.  3    |             A study on the burden of COPD and asthma was performed
 81   II,     5.  8.  3    |          Dubrovnik during 2002-2006. COPD patients (446) were treated
 82   II,     5.  8.  3    |           treatment) were higher for COPD than for asthma (Vrbica,
 83   II,     5.  8.  3(27)|        Spirometric Classification of COPD Severity:~Stage I:~Mild
 84   II,     5.  8.  4    |           are major risk factors for COPD. Occupational factors and
 85   II,     5.  8.  4    |            of chronic bronchitis and COPD were assessed at 42% and
 86   II,     5.  8.  4    |     incidence of moderate and severe COPD was 24.3 % in continuous
 87   II,     5.  8.  4    |               The risk of developing COPD decreases with the decreasing
 88   II,     5.  8.  4    |        results on the correlation of COPD with the smoking habit is
 89   II,     5.  8.  4    |              8.3. Incidence rates of COPD and smoking habit in Nordic
 90   II,     5.  8.  4    |           and socioeconomic group as COPD determinants. In the analysed
 91   II,     5.  8.  4    |           non-smokers. Prevalence of COPD reached 50% in elderly smokers.~ ~
 92   II,     5.  8.  4    |              smokers.~ ~Furthermore, COPD has usually been associated
 93   II,     5.  8.  4    |           differences decreased, and COPD spread rapidly in 20-44
 94   II,     5.  8.  4    |              Cerveri et al, 2003).~ ~COPD has been usually considered
 95   II,     5.  8.  4    |     contradicted in the ECRHS study: COPD is already present at the
 96   II,     5.  8.  4    |              10-20% to the burden of COPD (Balmes et al, 2003). Dusty
 97   II,     5.  8.  4    |              The exact prevalence of COPD is variable across the available
 98   II,     5.  8.  4    |        classification. Despite that, COPD is strongly associated with
 99   II,     5.  8.  4    |    infections, will result in higher COPD prevalence, morbidity, and
100   II,     5.  8.  4    |            global population ageing, COPD is one of several chronic
101   II,     5.  8.  5    |      policies~ ~Primary prevention~ ~COPD is a progressive disease,
102   II,     5.  8.  5    |             reduce the prevalence of COPD and its progression to more
103   II,     5.  8.  5    |            Differential diagnosis of COPD includes asthma, bronchiectasis,
104   II,     5.  8.  5    |           with the aim of overcoming COPD under-diagnosis and strengthening
105   II,     5.  8.  5    |      approach for early detection of COPD in high risk population
106   II,     5.  8.  5    |           population at high risk of COPD, i.e. smokers, can reveal
107   II,     5.  8.  5    |                 Policies~ ~Different COPD guidelines have been issued:
108   II,     5.  8.  5    |            global effort to increase COPD awareness (Bousquet et al,
109   II,     5.  8.  5    |               morbidity and costs of COPD. A second edition of the
110   II,     5.  8.  6    |   developments~ ~Higher standards of COPD care and studies on the
111   II,     5.  8.  6    |        health and economic burden of COPD.~ ~Some new broncodilators,
112   II,     5.  8.  6    |            Moreover, some aspects of COPD health care should also
113   II,     5.  8.  6    |             should be implemented in COPD patients.~ ~Previous studies
114   II,     5.  8.  6    |       obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, yet there has
115   II,     5.  8.  6    |              of life, decedents with COPD were more likely to be institutionalized
116   II,     5.  8.  6    |           lung cancer. Patients with COPD generally have limited access
117   II,     5.  8.  7    |               Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers
118   II,     5.  8.  7    |            of treating patients with COPD in Denmark -- a population
119   II,     5.  8.  7    |                a population study of COPD patients compared with non-COPD
120   II,     5.  8.  7    |       variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD study): a population-base
121   II,     5.  8.  7    |       Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular
122   II,     5.  8.  7    |           for Cardiovascular Events? COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive
123   II,     5.  8.  7    |           treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS
124   II,     5.  8.  7    |              I (2003): The burden of COPD in Italy: results from the
125   II,     5.  8.  7    |         results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med 2003;
126   II,     5.  8.  7    |             LM, Rabe KF (2007): From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory
127   II,     5.  8.  7    |        Management, and Prevention of COPDExecutive Summary, updated
128   II,     5.  8.  7    |        Janson C (2007): Mortality in COPD patients discharged from
129   II,     5.  8.  7    |         Iqbal A (2003): Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: what
130   II,     5.  8.  7    |               2006):Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis.
131   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Lundback B (2002): Costs of COPD in Sweden according to disease
132   II,     5.  8.  7    |     Prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD by disease severity and
133   II,     5.  8.  7    |              cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors for incident
134   II,     5.  8.  7    |              cumulative incidence of COPD in an age-stratified general
135   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Vestbo J (2006): Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study
136   II,     5.  8.  7    |           but 50% of smokers develop COPD? Report from the Obstructive
137   II,     5.  8.  7    |              2007): Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence,
138   II,     5.  8.  7    |       obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A review. Nord J Psychiatry
139   II,     5.  8.  7    |          spirometry and knowledge of COPD among general population.
140   II,     5.  8.  7    |    Prevalence estimates of asthma or COPD from a health interview
141   II,     5.  8.  7    |            of chronic bronchitis and COPD in relation to 30-year pulmonary
142   II,     5.  8.  7    |          Jensen RL, Buist AS (2007): COPD prevalence in Salzburg,
143   II,     5.  8.  7    |       DeLuise C, Lanes S, Eisner MD. COPD and incident cardiovascular
144   II,     5.  8.  7    |     comorbidities in newly diagnosed COPD and asthma in primary care.
145   II,     5.  8.  7    |        trends in physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the
146   II,     5.  8.  7    | self-reported diagnosis of asthma or COPD. Chest 2004; 126: 81-89.~ ~
147   II,     5.  8.  7    |            2004): Early detection of COPD in primary care: screening
148   II,     5.  8.  7    |          population of patients with COPD. Respir Med 2006; 100: 1349-
149   II,     5.  8.  7    |  epidemiology and natural history of COPD. Eur Respir J 2007; 30:
150   II,     5.  8.  7    |              1013~ ~Vrbica  (2007): COPD and Asthma: comparison of
151   II,     5.  8.  7    |              Vermeire PA. Increasing COPD awareness. Eur Respir J
152   II,     5.  9.  3    |                 A study on burden of COPD and asthma was performed
153   II,     5.  9.  3    |            treatment) was higher for COPD than for asthma.~ ~
154   II,     5.  9.  7    |           407-413~ ~Vrbica  (2007): COPD and Asthma: comparison of
155  III,    10.  2.  1    |           Smoking and Health: ASH UK~COPD~Chronic obstructive pulmonary
156  III,    10.  2.  1    |            smoking related diseases (COPD and CVD) for the EU at an
157  III,    10.  2.  1    |   Atherosclerosis*~Kidney and ureter~COPD, asthma and other respiratory
158  III,    10.  2.  1    |            Lower respiratory illness~COPD*, chronic respiratory symptoms*,
159  III,    10.  2.  1    |       obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)~- Acute respiratory illnesses,
160  III,    10.  2.  1    |              2002).~Mortality due to COPD (see Chapter 5.7) varies
161  III,    10.  2.  1    |            of 62% of all deaths from COPD in the EU-25 (Pet ~ ~Not
162  III,    10.  2.  1    |               including lung cancer, COPD and CVD. It is estimated
163  III,    10.  2.  1    |        Tobacco is strongly linked to COPD and lung cancer and is known
164  III,    10.  2.  1    |              such as CVD, cancer and COPD have one preventable risk
165  III,    10.  2.  1    |            smoking related diseases: COPD and CVD, in Europe amount
166  III,    10.  4.  1    |         chronic lung disease (sthma, COPD)~· In the general population~ ~
167  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0    |     consciousness~consumer~consumers~COPD~corynebacterium~cough~coughing~