Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|             Mood/anxiety disorders and suicide~The following are main causes
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|           following are main causes of suicide: mental illness (including
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|                 and access to means of suicide.~ ~· Eating disorders~Social
  4   II,     5.  5.Int|                 There is evidence that suicide can be prevented through
  5   II,     5.  5.Int|             illnesses can prevent both suicide and attempted suicide. Behavioural
  6   II,     5.  5.Int|             both suicide and attempted suicide. Behavioural therapies have
  7   II,     5.  5.Int|             reducing the repetition of suicide attempts.~The Community’
  8   II,     5.  5.  1|                increased mortality for suicide. For example in 2004 the
  9   II,     5.  5.  1|                loss of productivity.~ ~Suicide. 90% of completed suicides
 10   II,     5.  5.  1|                60% of those who commit suicide. Several factors interact
 11   II,     5.  5.  1|           individual at higher risk of suicide including psychiatric conditions,
 12   II,     5.  5.  1|             and 14 000 women committed suicide in 2006 (Eurostat). This
 13   II,     5.  5.  1|             each other considerably in suicide rates. Seven of the 27 EU
 14   II,     5.  5.  1|               top 15 countries in male suicide rates, and five in female
 15   II,     5.  5.  1|              rates, and five in female suicide rates (WHO, most recent
 16   II,     5.  5.  1|          Latvia have the highest total suicide rates (standardised death
 17   II,     5.  5.  1|                 In most Member States, suicide rates are higher for people
 18   II,     5.  5.  1|         eurostat.ec.europa.eu). Still, suicide is an important contributor
 19   II,     5.  5.  1|             young people. In addition, suicide is one of the leading causes
 20   II,     5.  5.  1|              age group for both sexes. Suicide methods vary from a country
 21   II,     5.  5.  1|       self-poisoning are the most used suicide means (Värnik et al., 2008).~ ~
 22   II,     5.  5.  1|              80% of cases of completed suicide. Furthermore, one study
 23   II,     5.  5.  1|                of people who committed suicide had had health care within
 24   II,     5.  5.  1|               that economic costs from suicide in Ireland at the beginning
 25   II,     5.  5.  1|                behaviour and completed suicide (e.g. Owens et al, 2002).
 26   II,     5.  5.  1|               than that of a completed suicide, especially among women (
 27   II,     5.  5.  1|         statistics on mortality due to suicide are not totally reliable
 28   II,     5.  5.  1|                process for determining suicide rates. ~ ~Routinely collected
 29   II,     5.  5.  1|              is heavily compromised.~ ~Suicide. HfA offers data on age-standardised
 30   II,     5.  5.  1|       age-standardised death rate from suicide and self-inflicted injury
 31   II,     5.  5.  1|               the year.~ ~· Eurostat~ ~Suicide. Eurostat contains annual
 32   II,     5.  5.  1|             based on ICD-10, including suicide and intentional self-harm.
 33   II,     5.  5.  1|             and intentional self-harm. Suicide data is available for five
 34   II,     5.  5.  1|            suicidal thoughts. Lifetime suicide attempts were higher among
 35   II,     5.  5.  1|                 The mortality rate for suicide and intentional self-harm
 36   II,     5.  5.  1|             highest mortality rates of suicide and intentional self-harm
 37   II,     5.  5.  1|           Figure 5.5.1.5. Death due to suicide and intentional self-harm
 38   II,     5.  5.  1|        adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self inflicted accidents
 39   II,     5.  5.  1|        adjusted mortality rates due to suicide and self inflicted accidents (
 40   II,     5.  5.  1|                rates and trends due to suicide and self inflicted accidents (
 41   II,     5.  5.  1|            most impressive declines in suicide and self inflicted accidents
 42   II,     5.  5.  1|              group (Table 5.5.1.8) the suicide rates were considerably
 43   II,     5.  5.  1|                64 age group the lowest suicide rates were found in Greece,
 44   II,     5.  5.  1|             Croatia whereas the lowest suicide rates were in Greece, United
 45   II,     5.  5.  1|             last 3 available years for suicide and self inflicted accidents
 46   II,     5.  5.  1|              countries have much lower suicide mortality rates compared
 47   II,     5.  5.  1|             men.~ ~Mortality rates for suicide are higher in EU27 for both
 48   II,     5.  5.  1|          highest rate of mortality for suicide in the world with 14 per
 49   II,     5.  5.  1|              2001 as a risk factor for suicide.~ ~A special reportActions
 50   II,     5.  5.  1|           prevention of depression and suicide and combating stigma (European
 51   II,     5.  5.  1|              mental/mood disorders and suicide~ ~The first mental health
 52   II,     5.  5.  1|                anxiety, depression and suicide and related disorders.~·
 53   II,     5.  5.  1|               o The European Review of Suicide and Violence Epidemiology (
 54   II,     5.  5.  1|              statistics on deaths from suicide and results from studies
 55   II,     5.  5.  1|              mental/mood disorders and suicide~ ~Several initiatives under
 56   II,     5.  5.  1|             macroeconomic variables on suicide. Psychol Med 36(2):181-9.~ ~
 57   II,     5.  5.  1|                2003). Unemployment and suicide. Evidence for a causal association?
 58   II,     5.  5.  1|            2007). The economic cost of suicide in Ireland. Crisis 28(2):
 59   II,     5.  5.  1|          primary care providers before suicide: a review of the evidence.
 60   II,     5.  5.  1|      Feltz-Cornelius CM, Mar , (2008). Suicide methods in Europe: a gender-specific
 61   II,     5.  5.  3|              such as mortality (death, suicide), diagnostic, personality
 62   II,     5.  5.  3|              of affected people commit suicide. Thus, suicide accounts
 63   II,     5.  5.  3|           people commit suicide. Thus, suicide accounts for 28% of the
 64   II,     5.  5.  3|                co-morbid disorders and suicide (Saha et al, 2007). Databases
 65   II,     5.  5.  3|          prevalence, such as recovery, suicide or other forms of early
 66   II,     5.  5.  3|          factor of 2.5 (median value). Suicide was associated with the
 67   II,     5.  5.  3|            deaths assignment.~Lifetime suicide rates for schizophrenia
 68   II,     5.  5.  3|        published estimates of lifetime suicide prevalence in schizophrenia
 69   II,     5.  5.  3|             schizophrenics will commit suicide during their lifetime, usually
 70   II,     5.  5.  3|                 2005), a comparison of suicide rates from the pre-community
 71   II,     5.  5.  3|        Currently available statistical suicide data - if not based on psychiatric
 72   II,     5.  5.  3|        premature deaths not related to suicide. According to a recent review
 73   II,     5.  5.  3|            Roberts AP (2006): Lifetime suicide rates in treated schizophrenia:
 74   II,     5.  5.  3|            2005): The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a re-examination.
 75   II,     5.  5.  3|                to be at higher risk of suicide than the general population.
 76   II,     5.  5.  3|              25-fold increased risk of suicide (Barraclough, 1987). Suicide
 77   II,     5.  5.  3|           suicide (Barraclough, 1987). Suicide rates may be even higher (
 78   II,     5.  5.  3|                increase in the risk of suicide in a Swedish case-control
 79   II,     5.  5.  3|          explain the increased risk of suicide in patients with epilepsy.
 80   II,     5.  5.  3|             Barraclough BM (1987): The suicide rate of epilepsy. Acta Psychiatrica
 81   II,     5.  5.  3|              EC, Barraclough B (1997): Suicide as an outcome for mental
 82   II,     5.  5.  3|                2002): Risk factors for suicide in epilepsy: a case control
 83   II,     7.  3.  5|                  Intentional injuries (suicide and homicide, assault, other
 84   II,     7.  3.  5|               cases (See Table 7.1).~ ~Suicide and self harm~ ~Suicides
 85   II,     7.  3.  5|             see Figure 7.2 ) In Europe suicide rates vary from about 2
 86   II,     7.  3.  5|                15.A).~ ~Figure 7.15.a. Suicide and self harm in the EU27~ ~ ~
 87   II,     7.  3.  5|             More men than women commit suicide in the European Union (Figure
 88   II,     7.  3.  5|         European Union (Figure 7.15.b. Suicide and intentional self-harm
 89   II,     7.  3.  5|         whereas more women commit more suicide attempts (Figure 7.16).~ ~
 90   II,     7.  3.  5|                7.16).~ ~Figure 7.15.b. Suicide and intentional self-harm
 91   II,     7.  3.  5|              professionals involved in suicide prevention agree that suicide
 92   II,     7.  3.  5|          suicide prevention agree that suicide is associated with a complex
 93   II,     7.  3.  5|          social isolation~· a previous suicide attemptphysical illness~·
 94   II,     7.  3.  5|          violenceaccess to means of suicide.~ ~Research has shown that
 95   II,     7.  3.  5|               90% of people who commit suicide had depression or another
 96   II,     7.  3.  5|               be a sufficient cause of suicide (Guo and Harstall, 2004).~ ~
 97   II,     7.  3.  5|           still a lack of awareness of suicide as a major health problem.
 98   II,     7.  3.  5|            manner.~ ~Morbidity data on suicide attempts and self harms
 99   II,     7.  3.  5|         background and risk factors of suicide attempts and self-harm.~ ~
100   II,     7.  3.  5|           deaths and discharges due to suicide and suicide attempts by
101   II,     7.  3.  5|          discharges due to suicide and suicide attempts by sex, selected
102   II,     7.  3.  5|                tackling the problem of suicide and self harm requires a
103   II,     7.  4.  6|              self-harm~ ~Self-harm and suicide are other important causes
104   II,     7.  4.  6|              traits (family history of suicide);~· life events (loss of
105   II,     7.  4.  6|           availability of the means of suicide (firearms, toxic gases,
106   II,     7.  4.  6|         factors may reduce the risk of suicide. Protective factors are
107   II,     7.  4.  6|                Health which emphasised suicide prevention. In this context,
108   II,     7.  4.  6|             general school population, suicide prevention programmes based
109   II,     7.  4.  6|                high risk, school-based suicide prevention programmes based
110   II,     7.  4.  6|            patients who have attempted suicide or deliberate self-harm,
111   II,     7.  4.  6|               medicinal products.~ ~As suicide is an outcome of complex
112   II,     7.  4.  6|        suggested that a broad array of suicide preventive interventions
113   II,     7.  4.  6|            reduction in the population suicide rate in the long term. Consequently,
114   II,     7.  4.  6|      establishing national or regional suicide prevention strategies (Guo
115   II,     7.  4.  7|           searching policy guidance on suicide prevention and the prevention
116   II,     7.  5    |             during leisure activities, suicide and self-harm. Many measures
117   II,     7.  5    |                 products and services, suicide & self-harm, interpersonal
118   II,     7.  6    |               leisure activities or of suicide and self-harm. The potential
119   II,     7.  7    |               of eligible HDD that are suicide and suicide attempts. BG,
120   II,     7.  7    |               HDD that are suicide and suicide attempts. BG, CZ, ES, FI,
121   II,     7.  7    |              per 100 000 inhabitants), Suicide and intentional self-harm (
122   II,     7.  7    |                For which strategies of suicide prevention is there evidence
123   II,     7.  7    |           Conference on Mental Health, Suicide prevention. Copenhagen,
124   II,     9.  2.  2|               the valuable analysis of suicide rates in Europe has 15-24
125   II,     9.  2.  3|            measure of service failure, suicide data are available from
126   II,     9.  2.  3|              help when they need it.~ ~Suicide: Suicide can be seen as
127   II,     9.  2.  3|               they need it.~ ~Suicide: Suicide can be seen as an ultimate
128   II,     9.  2.  3|             complex social phenomenon. Suicide rates among people under
129   II,     9.  2.  3|           reporting, the true rates of suicide are difficult to establish.~ ~
130   II,     9.  2.  3|              establish.~ ~School based suicide prevention programmes are
131   II,     9.  2.  3|          associated to a lower rate of suicide attempts but no single intervention
132   II,     9.  2.  3|              effective in reducing the suicide rate. Services and staff
133   II,     9.  3.  1|           cancer, accidents, violence, suicide and alcohol, the overall
134   II,     9.  3.  1|        cardiovascular disease, cancer, suicide, addiction to smoking and
135   II,     9.  3.  1|               Forsgren et al, 2005).~ ~Suicide. As suicide has important
136   II,     9.  3.  1|               al, 2005).~ ~Suicide. As suicide has important negative cultural,
137   II,     9.  3.  1|              citizens each year commit suicide, a number that is greater
138   II,     9.  3.  1|              toll from road accidents. Suicide is an important contributor
139   II,     9.  3.  1|             all age groups (EUROSTAT). Suicide rates are generally higher
140   II,     9.  3.  1|              among women, but rates of suicide attempts are higher among
141   II,     9.  3.  1|        Depression is the main cause of suicide. The World Bank has found
142   II,     9.  3.  1|      Infections. Geneva.~ ~WHO (2002): Suicide Prevention in Europe. WHO
143   II,     9.  4.  3|           actions against violence and suicide. The individual approach
144   II,     9.  4.  3|                2007).~ ~Depression and Suicide: Only cardiovascular disease
145   II,     9.  4.  3|       Depression is the major cause of suicide in elderly Europeans. Rates
146   II,     9.  4.  3|            elderly Europeans. Rates of suicide and self harm are approximately
147   II,     9.  4.  3|            2003). The highest rates of suicide are found among males in
148   II,     9.  4.  3|               90% of EU countries, the suicide rate is higher in those
149   II,     9.  5.  3| epidemiological studies~ ~Table 9.5.3. Suicide Rates~ ~Gender differences
150   II,     9.  5.  4|              well as for prevention of suicide among older men. The Finnish
151   II,     9.  5.  4|              programmes to tackle male suicide and accidental death.~ ~ ~
152  III,    10.  1.  3|                of alcohol in late-life suicide. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28(
153  III,    10.  1.  3|           Giannini AJ, Gold MS (1992): Suicide risk associated with drug
154  III,    10.  1.  3|             Mahler JC, Gold MS (1991): Suicide risk associated with drug
155  III,    10.  2.  1|                a major risk factor for suicide and suicidal behaviour among
156  III,    10.  2.  1|            consumption and the risk of suicide and attempted suicide, which
157  III,    10.  2.  1|               of suicide and attempted suicide, which is stronger for intoxication
158  III,    10.  2.  1|                 psychosis, depression, suicide) or physical health (infectious
159  III,    10.  3.  4|         studies suggest an increase in suicide after a flood, although
160  III,    10.  5.  2|                for rural settings, and suicide rates have increased (Wood,
161   IV,    12. 10    |        National Strategy for Action~on Suicide Prevention~http ~ ~Establishment
162   IV,    12. 10    |                the National Office for~Suicide Prevention (2005)~ ~Obesity~
163   IV,    12. 10    |                and to reduce levels of suicide and deliberate self harm
164   IV,    12. 10    |     recommendations of Reach Out - the Suicide Prevention Strategy published
165  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|   streptococcus~stress~stroke~suicidal~suicide~suicides~sulfonate~sulphide~