Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  9        |            the prevention of winter infections. A number of vector-borne
  2   II,     5.  1.  1    |    low-income developing countries, infections still remain the dominant
  3   II,     5.  1.  1    |         neoplasias and with chronic infections diseases like HIV and viral
  4   II,     5.  5.  3    |            higher prevalence of HIV infections and hepatitis, osteoporosis,
  5   II,     5.  5.  3    |           depression, urinary tract infections) are often overlooked when
  6   II,     5.  5.  3    |            sun exposure, early life infections including infectious mononucleosis,
  7   II,     5.  7.  1    |            neoplasia and in chronic infections. Interpretative models are
  8   II,     5.  7.  5    |           and in those with chronic infections, screening for CKD could
  9   II,     5.  8.Acr    |      Northern Sweden~RI~Respiratory Infections~RR~Relative Risk~VC~Vital
 10   II,     5.  8.  3    |             upper respiratory tract infections have a more severe impact
 11   II,     5.  8.  3    |          pneumonia, and respiratory infections (RI). COPD patients were
 12   II,     5.  8.  4    |  cardiovascular diseases, and acute infections, will result in higher COPD
 13   II,     5.  9. FB    |          during bacterial and viral infections) to Th-2 phenotype of immune response (
 14   II,     5.  9.  4    |      reduction in the prevalence of infections in European countries that
 15   II,     5.  9.  7    |      Allergy, asthma and markers of infections among Albanian migrants
 16   II,     5. 10.  7    | relationship to Helicobacter pylori infections. Clin Exp Allergy 32: 373-
 17   II,     5. 11.  1    |             include defence against infections and infestations, protection
 18   II,     5. 11.  3    |    bacterial, viral and fungal skin infections, insect bites, dandruff (
 19   II,     5. 11.  4    |         balance and defense against infections are largely impaired.~These
 20   II,     5. 11.  5    |         such as outbreaks of fungal infections of the scalp or head lice,
 21   II,     5. 12.  7    |       exposure to hepatitis A and B infections in children in Naples, Italy.
 22   II,     6.Acr        |         HCAI~Health Care Associated Infections~HCV~Hepatitis C Virus~HIB~
 23   II,     6.Acr        |            STI~Sexually Transmitted Infections~TBE~Tick-Borne Encephalitis~
 24   II,     6.  3.  1    |         number of such asymptomatic infections; in other words, we need
 25   II,     6.  3.  2    |           and healthcare-associated infections~ ~Resistance to antibiotics
 26   II,     6.  3.  2    |          all health care associated infections (HCAI) are caused by resistant
 27   II,     6.  3.  2    |      parasitic (malaria) and fungal infections, making AMR the most serious
 28   II,     6.  3.  2    |           of all invasive S. aureus infections are caused by MRSA. Data
 29   II,     6.  3.  2    |        total S. aureus blood stream infections in selected EUGLOREH Countries.~ ~
 30   II,     6.  3.  2    |       malaria, HIV and pneumococcal infections. AMR data are currently
 31   II,     6.  3.  2    |           causing respiratory tract infections and a major microbial cause
 32   II,     6.  3.  2    |             patients with bacterial infections and have significantly contributed
 33   II,     6.  3.  2    |  unnecessarily prescribed for viral infections. Similarly, when diagnoses
 34   II,     6.  3.  2    |            2. Healthcare-associated infections~ ~HCAI also referred to
 35   II,     6.  3.  2    |           referred to as nosocomial infections, are a huge public health
 36   II,     6.  3.  2    |             1% acquired bloodstream infections.~ ~The most frequent infections
 37   II,     6.  3.  2    |     infections.~ ~The most frequent infections are urinary tract infections (
 38   II,     6.  3.  2    |        infections are urinary tract infections (28% of all HCAI), followed
 39   II,     6.  3.  2    |       followed by respiratory tract infections (25%), surgical site infections (
 40   II,     6.  3.  2    |     infections (25%), surgical site infections (17%), bacteraemia (10%),
 41   II,     6.  3.  2    |  Approximately 2030% of nosocomial infections are considered to be preventable
 42   II,     6.  3.  2    |      infection types (surgical site infections, bloodstream infections).
 43   II,     6.  3.  2    |             infections, bloodstream infections). Furthermore, several EU
 44   II,     6.  3.  2    | surveillance network for nosocomial infections, since setting up such a
 45   II,     6.  3.  3    |     infection, sexually transmitted infections (STI) and blood-borne viral
 46   II,     6.  3.  3    |          STI) and blood-borne viral infections~ ~HIV, other STI and blood-borne
 47   II,     6.  3.  3    |           STI and blood-borne viral infections remain a priority in Europe.
 48   II,     6.  3.  3    |            a steady increase in HIV infections diagnosed in people believed
 49   II,     6.  3.  3    |           largest proportion of HIV infections diagnosed overall and in
 50   II,     6.  3.  3    |          Other sexually transmitted infections (STI)~This section addresses
 51   II,     6.  3.  3    |         section addresses Chlamydia infections gonorrhoea and syphilis.~ ~
 52   II,     6.  3.  3    |            3.3.4. Blood-borne viral infections~This section addresses hepatitis
 53   II,     6.  3.  3    |         available. Up to 90% of HCV infections are asymptomatic. A high
 54   II,     6.  3.  3    |        mainly chronic, asymptomatic infections) and the relatively recent
 55   II,     6.  3.  4    |            6.3.4. Respiratory tract infections~ ~This section addresses
 56   II,     6.  3.  4    |         reactions outweighs the few infections prevented.~Guidance on interventions
 57   II,     6.  3.  5    |          are two invasive bacterial infections for which vaccines are available
 58   II,     6.  3.  5    |      pneumococcal and meningococcal infections. Rates for invasive pneumococcal
 59   II,     6.  3.  5    |                  6.3.5.1. Bacterial infections~ ~Infection due to Streptococcus
 60   II,     6.  3.  5    |         bacterial respiratory tract infections in all age groups, but is
 61   II,     6.  3.  5    |            young children. Invasive infections carry a high death rate,
 62   II,     6.  3.  5    |            of invasive pneumococcal infections over the last 10 years were
 63   II,     6.  3.  5    |           665 invasive pneumococcal infections (5.83 per 100 000 per year)
 64   II,     6.  3.  5    |           and other severe systemic infections in young children. Effective
 65   II,     6.  3.  5    |                      6.3.5.2. Viral infections~ ~Measles~ ~Measles is an
 66   II,     6.  3.  6    |            3.6. Food and waterborne infections~ ~Mass catering, intensified
 67   II,     6.  3.  6    |          However, for two important infections, salmonellosis (including
 68   II,     6.  3.  6    |        Campylobacter and Salmonella infections do not require any drug
 69   II,     6.  3.  6    |            drug treatment, invasive infections do occur. Hence the monitoring
 70   II,     6.  3.  6    |             Besides these important infections, there are several food
 71   II,     6.  3.  6    |          several food or waterborne infections that are either of regional
 72   II,     6.  3.  6    |             Norovirus and rotavirus infections are not reportable in the
 73   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  6.3.6.1. Bacterial infections~ ~Campylobacteriosis~ ~Campylobacteriosis
 74   II,     6.  3.  6    |  egg-related Salmonella enteritidis infections has heavily contributed
 75   II,     6.  3.  6    |         infection. Controls of VTEC infections at the farm level are important
 76   II,     6.  3.  6    |                      6.3.6.2. Viral infections~ ~Hepatitis A~ ~Hepatitis
 77   II,     6.  3.  6    |                  6.3.6.3. Parasitic infections~ ~Toxoplasmosis~ ~Toxoplasmosis
 78   II,     6.  3.  6    |     immuno-compromised individuals. Infections in pregnant women can cause
 79   II,     6.  3.  7    |           tularaemia, puumala virus infections, borreliosis and tick-borne
 80   II,     6.  3.  7    |      infected rodents. Up to 80% of infections may be asymptomatic. Clinical
 81   II,     6.  3.  7    |             an increasing number of infections have been reported since
 82   II,     6.  3.  7    |    haemorrhagic fevers~ ~Only those infections for which cases were reported
 83   II,     6.  3.  7    |              some on virus-specific infections, while others do not report
 84   II,     6.  3.  7    |         excreta. While about 80% of infections are asymptomatic, the remaining
 85   II,     6.  4.  5    |             preventing and treating infections, and on the development
 86   II,     8.  2.  1    |             Prader-Willi syndrome), infections (such as congenital cytomegalovirus),
 87   II,     8.  2.  1    |          injury, stroke, or certain infections such as meningitis, or exposure
 88   II,     9            |      activity, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human papilloma
 89   II,     9            |        2005c). Sexually transmitted infections are an important health
 90   II,     9            |        diseases such as respiratory infections. Poor housing structure
 91   II,     9.  2.  1    |            and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Major initiatives
 92   II,     9.  2.  3    |                Sexually transmitted infections: Sexually transmitted infections
 93   II,     9.  2.  3    |    infections: Sexually transmitted infections are an important health
 94   II,     9.  2.  4    |      activity, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human papilloma
 95   II,     9.  2.  4    |        2005c). Sexually transmitted infections are an important health
 96   II,     9.  2.  7    |            and sexually transmitted infections in the United Kingdom: Key
 97   II,     9.  3.  1    |         represents a rate of 68 HIV infections per million population.
 98   II,     9.  3.  1    |                Sexually Transmitted Infections . Sexually transmitted infections
 99   II,     9.  3.  1    |   Infections . Sexually transmitted infections remain an important problem
100   II,     9.  3.  1    |         common sexually transmitted infections. The incidence rate of syphilis
101   II,     9.  3.  1    |             patients with recurrent infections to prevent significant morbidity,
102   II,     9.  3.  1    |             of sexually transmitted infections in the European Union. Sex.
103   II,     9.  3.  1    |        Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections. Geneva.~ ~WHO (2002): Suicide
104   II,     9.  3.  1    |        Human immunodeficiency virus infections~HPV~Human papilloma virus~
105   II,     9.  3.  2    |          haemorrhage, hypertension, infections/sepsis, obstetrical complications,
106   II,     9.  3.  3    |          HIV, hepatitis C and other infections is directly linked to morbidity
107   II,     9.  4.  3    |                Sexually Transmitted Infections. The rates of gonorrhoea
108   II,     9.  4.  3    |          transmitted diseases. Many infections were newly acquired. Over
109   II,     9.  4.  3    |             in sexually transmitted infections among post-menopausal women.
110   II,     9.  4.  4    |        diseases such as respiratory infections. Poor housing structure
111   II,     9.  4.  7    |         1999): Sexually transmitted infections in elderly people. Sexually
112   II,     9.  4.  7    |        people. Sexually Transmitted Infections;75(6):449.~ ~Jassem J, Senkus-Konefka
113   II,     9.  4.  7    |         2003): Sexually transmitted infections after the menopause. Journal
114   II,     9.  4.  8    |        Human immunodeficiency virus infections~ICT~Information and Communications
115  III,    10.  2.  1    |       Increased rate of respiratory infections~ ~- Gastric ulcer~- Cataract~-
116  III,    10.  2.  1(10)|                       Drugs-related infections. HIV surveillance among
117  III,    10.  2.  1    |            transmission group~ ~HIV infections have overall remained low
118  III,    10.  2.  1    |      several countries. Hepatitis C infections among injecting drug users
119  III,    10.  2.  1    |             users~ ~Among the other infections prevalent in IDUs there
120  III,    10.  2.  1    |       children, lower resistance to infections and decreased work performance.
121  III,    10.  2.  1    |   depression, a higher incidence of infections, male infertility and cardiovascular
122  III,    10.  2.  4    |        including human carcinogenic infections (Kononen et al., 1998).
123  III,    10.  3.  3    |           of all invasive S. aureus infections is caused by MRSA. Evidence
124  III,    10.  3.  3    |       malaria, HIV and pneumococcal infections. Resistance has also evolved
125  III,    10.  3.  3    |      parasitic (malaria) and fungal infections, making AMR the most serious
126  III,    10.  3.  3    |             Norovirus and rotavirus infections are not reportable in the
127  III,    10.  3.  3    |         bacterial respiratory tract infections in all age groups. Invasive
128  III,    10.  3.  3    |           and other severe systemic infections in young children. Pertussis
129  III,    10.  3.  3    |            food-born or water-borne infections, salmonellosis (including
130  III,    10.  3.  3    |        Campylobacter and Salmonella infections do not require any drug
131  III,    10.  3.  3    |            drug treatment, invasive infections do occur. Zoonoses are diseases
132  III,    10.  3.  3    |            Zoonoses are diseases or infections, which are transmissible
133  III,    10.  3.  4    |             and treatment of winter infections have played a more significant
134  III,    10.  4.  1    |           augment acute respiratory infections in children and disturb
135  III,    10.  4.  2    |          Mycobacterium bovis; and~• infections caused by verotoxigenic
136  III,    10.  4.  2    |            Zoonoses are diseases or infections, which are transmissible
137  III,    10.  4.  2    |             the main sources of the infections. For this purpose, information
138  III,    10.  4.  2    |            food-borne Campylobacter infections, and in line with this the
139  III,    10.  4.  2    |            of food-borne Salmonella infections are eggs as well as poultry
140  III,    10.  4.  2    |            from poultry. Food-borne infections caused by these resistant
141  III,    10.  4.  2    |             Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections and yersiniosis are also
142  III,    10.  4.  2    |         species as sources of human infections. There is a need for more
143  III,    10.  4.  2    |            source of the food-borne infections. Among the large number
144  III,    10.  4.  2    |           human cases of Toxoplasma infections was available for 2005.
145  III,    10.  4.  3    |        Working Group for Legionella Infections~SGU~Sveriges Geologiska
146  III,    10.  4.  3    |        Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI) at http ~ ~Waste
147  III,    10.  4.  5    |            new regime, we hope that infections linked to recreational activity
148  III,    10.  5.  1    |           reactions and respiratory infections. In particular, moulds have
149  III,    10.  5.  1    |         reactions, inflammations or infections.~ ~Residential behaviour~ ~
150  III,    10.  5.  1    |          symptoms, increased airway infections and impaired learning ability (
151  III,    10.  5.  1    |         increase the number of tick infections (encephalitis etc.) and
152  III,    10.  5.  2    |             of trauma, pregnancies, infections, chronic diseases, acute
153  III,    10.  5.  2    |           below indicates that many infections tend to be more prevalent
154  III,    10.  5.  2    |           increased levels of these infections. However, for some animal-triggered
155  III,    10.  5.  2    |             of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A large Dutch survey (
156  III,    10.  5.  2    |             as sexually transmitted infections or road accident injuries (
157  III,    10.  5.  2    |           STI~ Sexually transmitted infections~TACIS~Technical Aid to the
158   IV,    11.  1.  5    |        years the rate of nosocomial infections should be reduced by 30%.
159   IV,    11.  1.  5    |            43 less catheter-related infections annually, saving eight lives.
160   IV,    12.  5        |           resistance and nosocomial infections.~2. Promote health~2.1.
161   IV,    12. 10        |        campylobacter and salmonella infections~ ~Number of reported outbreaks
162   IV,    13.  2.  2    |           depression, urinary tract infections) are often overlooked when
163   IV,    13.  2.  2    |             lower respiratory tract infections attributable to indoor air
164   IV,    13.  2.  3    |             lower respiratory tract infections due to indoor air pollution
165   IV,    13.  2.  3    |             Upper respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS (5), stomach and