Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1    I,     2.  2    |             The still existing gaps in income can be seen in the rapid
  2    I,     2.  4    |              per capita Gross National Income and the per capita Gross
  3    I,     2.  4    |                terms of gross national income and gross domestic product
  4    I,     2.  4    |             Product and Gross National Income per capita in EUGLOREH Countries,
  5    I,     2.  4    |               not pay sufficiently and income support is inadequate to
  6    I,     2.  4    |             adequate and well-designed income support and the provision
  7    I,     2.  4    |         education, occupational class, income level, or other groups such
  8    I,     2.  4    |                 occupational class, or income;~· inequalities in mortality
  9    I,     2.  4    |           level, occupational class or income level:~· substantial inequalities
 10    I,     2.  4    |               lead to a slight rise in income inequality in Europe in
 11    I,     2.  5    |               lead to a slight rise in income inequality in Europe in
 12    I,     2. 11    |                on Social Inclusion and Income Distribution Final Report”.
 13   II,     4.  1    |                using the Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (SILC
 14   II,     5.  1.  1|             countries and lower/middle income developing countries, cardiovascular
 15   II,     5.  5.Int|       Similarly, women living on a low income for an extended period can
 16   II,     5.  5.  3|           countries with high national income and healthcare expenditure
 17   II,     5.  5.  3|             disease onset after 60, no income loss was observed. In patients
 18   II,     5.  5.  3|                disease onset a reduced income was observed, mainly due
 19   II,     5.  6.  3|              burden of disease in high income countries in 2001 measured
 20   II,     5. 14.  1|       indicates that children from low income households have higher caries
 21   II,     5. 14.  1|                needs than their higher income counterparts. A concern
 22   II,     5. 14.  3|        indicate that children from low income households have higher caries
 23   II,     5. 14.  3|                needs than their higher income counterparts.~ ~Despite
 24   II,     5. 14.  3|              socio-economic level, low income being a strong predictor
 25   II,     5. 14.  3|             Europe, especially for low income populations. Poor children
 26   II,     5. 14.  3|                of education and family income.~ ~The oral health care
 27   II,     8.  1.  2|                   The EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC)
 28   II,     8.  1.  2|               analysis of earnings and income levels reported.~ ~The results
 29   II,     8.  1.  3|              than that in transport.~ ~Income~ ~The earnings of people
 30   II,     8.  1.  3|         working age (16-64 years) with income below the poverty line was
 31   II,     8.  1.  3|             limited to some extent had income below the poverty line.
 32   II,     8.  1.  3|               were not limited and had income below the poverty line.~ ~
 33   II,     8.  2.  2|           European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) (
 34   II,     8.  2.  3|           European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) (
 35   II,     8.  2.  3|           European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) (
 36   II,     9        |           appropriate heating), family income, and maternal education (
 37   II,     9        |             that great inequalities in income remain, and indeed are increasing.
 38   II,     9.  2.  4|          education, housing and family income, advertising as well as
 39   II,     9.  2.  4|           appropriate heating), family income, and maternal education (
 40   II,     9.  2.  4|             that great inequalities in income remain, and indeed are increasing.
 41   II,     9.  3.  1|       Similarly, women living on a low income for an extended period of
 42   II,     9.  3.  1|       perspectives from low and middle income countries. World Health
 43   II,     9.  4.  2|               by age group, gender and income levels, which can improve,
 44   II,     9.  4.  5|             benefits to replace earned income in the event of unemployment,
 45   II,     9.  4.  5|           access for all regardless of income or wealth;~· a high level
 46   II,     9.  4.  5|               level, and by subsequent income, social roles and expectations
 47   II,     9.  5.  3|           education will influence the income, social role, expectations
 48   II,     9.  5.  3|            source of an older person’s income. An adequate standard of
 49   II,     9.  5.  3|               may be affected by lower income, women are particularly
 50   II,     9.  5.  4|                Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC).~
 51   II,     9.  5.  6|        Sandström S (2005): Poverty and Income Maintenance in Old Age:
 52   II,     9.  5.  6|             Cross-National View of Low Income Older Women. Income Study
 53   II,     9.  5.  6|                Low Income Older Women. Income Study Working Paper Series.
 54   II,     9.  5.  6|       perspectives from low and middle income countries. World Health
 55  III,    10.  2.  1|          productivity losses, foregone income taxes and contributions
 56  III,    10.  2.  1|         shifting its focus towards low income population, youth and women –
 57  III,    10.  2.  1|             relate very closely to the income from alcohol taxes.~ ~Figure
 58  III,    10.  2.  1|      population groups categorized per income level, occupational level
 59  III,    10.  2.  1|            1989). For instance, in low income countries, obesity increased
 60  III,    10.  2.  1|        deprivation and lower household income (Jotangia et al, 2005).~ ~
 61  III,    10.  3.  4|          burden on the already limited income of rural families. The mass
 62  III,    10.  4.  3|             diseases are higher in low income groups or countries with
 63  III,    10.  5.  1|          Housing problems by household income group in EU15~ ~However,
 64  III,    10.  5.  1|             not only the impact of the income category, but especially
 65  III,    10.  5.  1|            household situation than by income, and thereby shows that
 66  III,    10.  5.  1|             even if we analyse data by income or social group we do not
 67  III,    10.  5.  1|           Figure 10.5.1.4. Crowding by income and household situation,
 68  III,    10.  5.  3|             such as employment status, income, gender and race, as well
 69  III,    10.  6.  2|     occupational standing and/or small income. Apart from age, sex and
 70  III,    10.  6.  2|                 occupational class, or income;~· inequalities in mortality
 71  III,    10.  6.  2|           level, occupational class or income level:~· substantial inequalities
 72  III,    10.  6.  2|               lead to a slight rise in income inequality in Europe in
 73  III,    10.  6.  2|         education, occupational class, income level, or other groups such
 74   IV,    11.  1.  3|             more quickly than national income due to the limited constraints
 75   IV,    11.  1.  4|                financial burden across income groups and the distribution
 76   IV,    11.  1.  4|             unrelated to need, such as income, region, and socio-economic
 77   IV,    11.  1.  4|                system may allow higher income groups with private insurance
 78   IV,    11.  1.  4|      population groups, such as higher income earners, which is indicative
 79   IV,    11.  1.  4| disproportionately in favour of higher income and wealthier individuals
 80   IV,    11.  1.  5|                and may have a targeted income beyond which they are no
 81   IV,    11.  1.  6|                Blended payment (63% of income from fee-for-service, 28%
 82   IV,    11.  1.  6|              Fee-for-service if higher income, patient capitation if lower
 83   IV,    11.  1.  6|            capitation if lower patient income.~ ~Salary. Fee-for-service
 84   IV,    11.  1.  6|      Fee-for-service if higher patient income,~capitation if lower patient
 85   IV,    11.  1.  6|            capitation if lower patient income.~ ~ ~Blended payment (salary
 86   IV,    11.  1.  6|                Blended payment (70% of income from fee-for-service and
 87   IV,    11.  1.  6|                Blended payment (85% of income from salary~and 15% from
 88   IV,    11.  6.  1|            spends more than 10% of its income on health.~ ~During the
 89   IV,    11.  6.  2|              potential to redistribute income between rich and poor people.
 90   IV,    11.  6.  2|             people. Moreover, personal income taxes, a form of direct
 91   IV,    11.  6.  2|               the same rate across the income spectrum (a ‘flattax).
 92   IV,    11.  6.  2|              occur in situations where income tax rates vary geographically,
 93   IV,    11.  6.  2|          geographically, some forms of income are exempt from income tax (
 94   IV,    11.  6.  2|              of income are exempt from income tax (e.g. savings), or some
 95   IV,    11.  6.  2|          relate to consumption and not income, therefore placing a relatively
 96   IV,    11.  6.  2|              financial burden on lower income groups (Hills, 2000). The
 97   IV,    11.  6.  2|           fairness (progressivism) and income redistribution.~ ~Taxes
 98   IV,    11.  6.  2|                across the whole of the income distribution in a country
 99   IV,    11.  6.  2|               individual and corporate income, unlike social insurance
100   IV,    11.  6.  2|                on non-earnings-related income through tax allocations (
101   IV,    11.  6.  2|   contributions directly to employment income. For instance, since employers
102   IV,    11.  6.  2|              insurance is dependent on income or employment, there may
103   IV,    11.  6.  2|        contributions to a tax on total income rather than salary alone
104   IV,    11.  6.  2|      tax-financed model based on total income, making health insurance
105   IV,    11.  6.  2|       regressive (i.e. benefits higher income earners disproportionately),
106   IV,    11.  6.  2|          should be highlighted. Higher income earners are benefiting disproportionately
107   IV,    11.  6.  2|          access for individuals on low income. Moreover, the negative
108   IV,    11.  6.  2|                France, Ireland (higher income or Category II patients),
109   IV,    11.  6.  2|            Clinical condition~Level of income~Age~Type of drug~ ~Pregnancy
110   IV,    11.  6.  2|               Spain~- UK~ ~Certain low income persons:~- Austria~- Belgium~-
111   IV,    11.  6.  2|              people with below average income paid unofficial fees or
112   IV,    11.  6.  3|              are progressive if higher income groups pay disproportionately
113   IV,    11.  6.  3|               more than those on lower income (De Graeve and Van Ourti,
114   IV,    11.  6.  3|               system will redistribute income from higher to the lower
115   IV,    11.  6.  3|               from higher to the lower income groups depends on both the
116   IV,    11.  6.  3|            spending benefits the lower income groups disproportionately
117   IV,    11.  6.  3|      constitute a larger proportion of income of poor people than wealthier
118   IV,    11.  6.  3|               be seen in the UK. Lower income households pay a greater
119   IV,    11.  6.  3|            greater proportion of their income on indirect taxes (32%)
120   IV,    11.  6.  3|                taxes (32%) than higher income households (11.3%) (Glennerster,
121   IV,    11.  6.  3|        indirect taxes, with the lowest income quintile paying 40% of income
122   IV,    11.  6.  3|          income quintile paying 40% of income in taxes, while the highest
123   IV,    11.  6.  3|               taxes, while the highest income quintile paid 36% of their
124   IV,    11.  6.  3|             quintile paid 36% of their income on taxes (Commission on
125   IV,    11.  6.  3|                This not only increases income inequality but also reduces
126   IV,    11.  6.  3|                personal and corporate) income tax (OECD 2007, as cited
127   IV,    11.  6.  3|           extent of progressiveness of income taxation also depends on
128   IV,    11.  6.  3|            create a regressive system. Income tax in France, Germany,
129   IV,    11.  6.  3|                to be progressive, with income being transferred from the
130   IV,    11.  6.  3|           transferred from the highest income quintile to the rest of
131   IV,    11.  6.  3|              the average rate of local income taxes led to a decline in
132   IV,    11.  6.  3|    contribution basis to include total income of employees, there is a
133   IV,    11.  6.  3|       redistributed the most, reducing income inequality by 50%, followed
134   IV,    11.  6.  3|       tax-funded system due to limited income equalization through social
135   IV,    11.  6.  3|           appear to be proportional to income in Finland and even progressive
136   IV,    11.  6.  3|        encouraging (or mandating) high income individuals to purchase
137   IV,    11.  6.  3|          services to favour the higher income groups.~ ~While studies
138   IV,    11.  6.  3|              households, regardless of income, health status and utilization;
139   IV,    11.  6.  3|              of their total disposable income), countries faring particularly
140   IV,    11.  6.  3|           former is based on household income data, the latter on aggregated
141   IV,    11.  6.  4|               mortality, urbanization, income~Bulgaria~National Revenue
142   IV,    11.  6.  4|             funds~Age, sex (and fund’s income base)~Greece~30 social health
143   IV,    11.  6.  4|               urbanization (and fund’s income base)~Northern Ireland~HM
144   IV,    11.  6.  4|       Equalization fundage, average income~Portugal~Ministry of Finance~
145   IV,    11.  6.  4|                sex, region (and fund’s income base)~Turkey~Ministry of
146   IV,    11.  6.  4|               would see a reduction in income, being defined by benefit
147   IV,    11.  6.  4|            e.g., socio-economic level, income) in, for example, a given
148   IV,    11.  6.  5|      gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung [Income redistribution under Germany'
149   IV,    11.  6.  5|               D (1996): "Is the target income hypothesis an economic heresy?"
150   IV,    11.  6.  5|                  Zandvakili S (1994): "Income distribution and redistribution
151   IV,    12.  2    |             relate very closely to the income from alcohol taxes.~ ~Managing
152   IV,    12.  5    |              survey, the Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (SILC)
153   IV,    12. 10    |           regulation is to enhance the income of natural entities and
154   IV,    12. 10    |             Greece, which their annual income is below the national per
155   IV,    12. 10    |            uninsured citizens with low income in the public hospitals
156   IV,    12. 10    |              areas~Economic conditions~Income inequality~ ~Proportion
157   IV,    13.  2.  2|         socio-economic aspects such as income, the share generally being
158   IV,    13.  3    |         million people, are at risk of income poverty, with women more
159   IV,    13.  3    |         million people, are at risk of income poverty, with women more
160   IV,    13.  5    |             regular employment, higher income levels and, consequently,
161  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|              incineration~incinerators~income~incomes~incontinence~indoor~