Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|          dermatological diseases, allergic diseases and intolerances.~ ~
  2   II,     5.  1.  1| responsible for about half of all allergic reactions are fruits of
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|        nurses or hairdressers) or allergic contact dermatitis, where
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|         develop a delayed type of allergic response to certain potentially
  5   II,     5.  9    |                   5.9. Asthma and allergic rhinitis~ ~ ~ ~
  6   II,     5.  9.Acr|           AR~Atopic Rhinitis~ARIA~Allergic Rhinitis and its impact
  7   II,     5.  9. FB|                         FOCUS BOX~Allergic diseases and atopy~ ~
  8   II,     5.  9. FB|          Different expressions of allergic disorders include allergic
  9   II,     5.  9. FB|        allergic disorders include allergic rhinitis or hay fever, asthma,
 10   II,     5.  9. FB|       develop typical symptoms of allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis
 11   II,     5.  9. FB|      symptoms of allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis
 12   II,     5.  9. FB|     asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis or atopic
 13   II,     5.  9. FB|         from atopic dermatitis to allergic rhinitis and then to asthma.
 14   II,     5.  9. FB|        Figure 5.FB.1. Symptoms of allergic march~ ~Allergic diseases
 15   II,     5.  9. FB|      Symptoms of allergic march~ ~Allergic diseases can currently be
 16   II,     5.  9. FB|       missed school or work days. Allergic rhinitis is often underestimated
 17   II,     5.  9. FB|          are required to stop the allergic march.~ ~
 18   II,     5.  9. FB|           5.FB.4. Epidemiology of allergic diseases~ ~Prevalence of
 19   II,     5.  9. FB|          diseases~ ~Prevalence of allergic diseases~ ~More and more
 20   II,     5.  9. FB|        more people are developing allergic diseases and it is estimated
 21   II,     5.  9. FB|          of allergy. Furthermore, allergic diseases are often underestimated,
 22   II,     5.  9. FB|       receive adequate treatment. Allergic diseases are considered “
 23   II,     5.  9. FB|       affect the body as a whole. Allergic diseases can arise at any
 24   II,     5.  9. FB|           linked to the fact that allergic diseases require the health
 25   II,     5.  9. FB|      diagnosis is crucial as some allergic diseases can be risk factors
 26   II,     5.  9. FB|          risk factors for further allergic reactions and asthma,.~ ~
 27   II,     5.  9. FB|    enigmas in the epidemiology of allergic diseases. First of all,
 28   II,     5.  9. FB|           prevalence of atopy and allergic asthma was observed in the
 29   II,     5.  9. FB|        trend in the prevalence of allergic asthma and of bronchial
 30   II,     5.  9. FB|      reason yet to be elucidated, allergic patients produce an excess
 31   II,     5.  9. FB|        elicit any response in non allergic individuals.~Allergic diseases
 32   II,     5.  9. FB|         non allergic individuals.~Allergic diseases have a multifactorial
 33   II,     5.  9. FB|      increase of the incidence of allergic diseases in Europe seen
 34   II,     5.  9. FB|           increasing incidence of allergic diseases across Europe could
 35   II,     5.  9. FB|      increase of the incidence of allergic asthma, rhinitis and food
 36   II,     5.  9. FB|          development of atopy and allergic diseases. Exclusive breast-feeding
 37   II,     5.  9. FB|          reduces the incidence of allergic diseases at 1847 ys of
 38   II,     5.  9. FB|     increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases has become a serious
 39   II,     5.  9. FB|         the process of atopic and allergic disease is still very limited.
 40   II,     5.  9. FB|           are more susceptible to allergic sensitization, atopy and
 41   II,     5.  9. FB|       factors in the aetiology of allergic disorders. A deeper knowledge
 42   II,     5.  9. FB|    crucial for the improvement of allergic diseases. The following
 43   II,     5.  9. FB|       upper airways disease (e.g. allergic rhinitis ) to reduce the
 44   II,     5.  9. FB|           to prevent the onset of allergic diseases and finally, remove
 45   II,     5.  9. FB|   symptoms caused by occupational allergic sensitization.~ ~
 46   II,     5.  9. FB|          8. Future developments~ ~Allergic diseases can have a heavy
 47   II,     5.  9. FB|        first step in dealing with allergic diseases is their prevention,
 48   II,     5.  9. FB|       early treatment. In Europe,,allergic patients are currently underestimated,
 49   II,     5.  9.  1|           Holgate et al, 2006).~ ~Allergic rhinitis (AR) is clinically
 50   II,     5.  9.  1|    allergen exposure. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis are reversible
 51   II,     5.  9.  1|         on the prevalence of both allergic asthma and rhinitis althought
 52   II,     5.  9.  1| Nevertheless, the epidemiology of allergic disorders has recently gained
 53   II,     5.  9.  2|          asthma 493.00~(Excluded:~Allergic asthma SAI 493.9~Detergent
 54   II,     5.  9.  2|     turbinate hypertrophy 478.0Allergic rhinitis due to pollen 477.
 55   II,     5.  9.  2|    rhinitis due to pollen 477.0Allergic rhinitis due to other allergens
 56   II,     5.  9.  2|           other allergens 477.8Allergic rhinitis (non seasonal) (
 57   II,     5.  9.  2|      seasonal) (seasonal) 477.9Allergic rhinitis, cause unspecified
 58   II,     5.  9.  2| prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and
 59   II,     5.  9.  2|         diseases and investigated allergic determinants in children
 60   II,     5.  9.  2|      symptoms referred to asthma, allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and
 61   II,     5.  9.  3|   prevalence was higher than 30%, allergic rhinitis prevalence also
 62   II,     5.  9.  3|      pattern in the prevalence of allergic symptoms provided in adulthood
 63   II,     5.  9.  3|           3%) and Italy (3.2%).~ ~Allergic rhinitis is a very common
 64   II,     5.  9.  3|          2005), the prevalence of allergic rhinitis varied between
 65   II,     5.  9.  3|         in 2003 the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Italy amounted
 66   II,     5.  9.  3|          2045, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 15.9% according
 67   II,     5.  9.  3|          in trends for asthma and allergic rhinitis~ ~Most centres
 68   II,     5.  9.  3|    European Allergy White Paper” (Allergic diseases as a public health
 69   II,     5.  9.  3|          progressively aware that allergic disorders represent a major
 70   II,     5.  9.  3|        useful if costs related to allergic asthma and rhinitis were
 71   II,     5.  9.  3|          At the moment, in Europe allergic patients are underestimated,
 72   II,     5.  9.  4|  significant increase in cases of allergic respiratory disease. In
 73   II,     5.  9.  4|    guidelines, every patient with allergic rhinitis should undergo
 74   II,     5.  9.  4|          paid to the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, which is often
 75   II,     5.  9.  4|           0.38-0.65) and 0.53 for allergic sensitization (95% CI 0.
 76   II,     5.  9.  4|      linked to the development of allergic sensitization to the specific
 77   II,     5.  9.  4|     between allergen exposure and allergic sensitization is a debated
 78   II,     5.  9.  4|           decreased prevalence of allergic diseases in children having
 79   II,     5.  9.  4|          atopic sensitization and allergic symptoms depend also on
 80   II,     5.  9.  4|      information was collected on allergic diseases (asthma, atopic
 81   II,     5.  9.  4|     atopic dermatitis, hay fever, allergic contact eczema) from 2003
 82   II,     5.  9.  4|           the development of both allergic sensitization and symptoms.~ ~
 83   II,     5.  9.  4|            the risk of developing allergic disease is still unclear (
 84   II,     5.  9.  4|          fractions in relation to allergic diseases (Alberg T 2009)~ ~
 85   II,     5.  9.  4|   subjects, such as asthmatic and allergic individuals. Finally, epidemiologists
 86   II,     5.  9.  5|        costs related to the major allergic diseases were included in
 87   II,     5.  9.  5|        also reducing the costs of allergic care to society as a whole.~ ~
 88   II,     5.  9.  5|       factors in the aetiology of allergic disorders. A better implementation
 89   II,     5.  9.  6|        measures for prevention of allergic sensitization, asthma development
 90   II,     5.  9.  6|    implemented whenever possible. Allergic sensitization can occur
 91   II,     5.  9.  6|          no strategies to prevent allergic sensitization; the role
 92   II,     5.  9.  6|    Countries.~ ~For what concerns allergic rhinitis, the ARIA organization (
 93   II,     5.  9.  6|            the ARIA organization (Allergic Rhinitis and its impact
 94   II,     5.  9.  6|         improve the management of allergic rhinitis and to complement
 95   II,     5.  9.  6|          highlights the impact of allergic rhinitis on asthma, that
 96   II,     5.  9.  6|          the interactions between allergic rhinitis and asthma, increase
 97   II,     5.  9.  7|     References~ ~Alfvén T (2006): Allergic diseases and atopic sensitization
 98   II,     5.  9.  7|     Brandi S, Canonica GW (2006): Allergic diseases and their impact
 99   II,     5.  9.  7|           92~ ~Bousquet J (2003): Allergic Rhinitis and its impact
100   II,     5.  9.  7|     Baiardini I, Brandi S (2007): Allergic rhinitis and asthma ad hoc
101   II,     5.  9.  7|        788–79~ ~Bugiani M (2005): Allergic rhinitis and comorbidity
102   II,     5.  9.  7|         risk of sensitization and allergic rhinitis in Ligurian children
103   II,     5.  9.  7|         GW, Passalacqua G (2007): Allergic rhinitis in the Italian
104   II,     5.  9.  7|        1990: 11-23~ ~Sc W (2007): Allergic diseases. Results from the
105   II,     5.  9.  7|       Pets and the development of allergic sensitization. Curr Allergy
106   II,     5.  9.  7|          3):212-20.~ ~S P (2001): Allergic rhinitis: definition, epidemiology,
107   II,     5.  9.  7|               2002): Incidence of allergic rhinitis in a cohort of
108   II,     5.  9.  7|      Institute of Allergy (1997): Allergic diseases as a public health
109   II,     5.  9.  7|    prevalence of adult asthma and allergic rhinitis still increasing?
110   II,     5.  9.  7|    allergen prevents experimental allergic airways disease: development
111   II,     5. 10.  1|         for the large majority of allergic reactions reported (ILSI,
112   II,     5. 10.  1|  micrograms) may trigger a severe allergic reaction, fear of severe
113   II,     5. 10.  1|          reduce food choice among allergic consumers and even lead
114   II,     5. 10.  2|         in classical IgE-mediated allergic reactions (htt ~ ~More recently,
115   II,     5. 10.  2|       2002; EFSA, 2004). Finally, allergic reactions to foods are often
116   II,     5. 10.  2|    characterise and classify food allergic reactions across Europe (
117   II,     5. 10.  2|         for the classification of allergic reactions to food in 11
118   II,     5. 10.  2|     unspecified~495.9~Unspecified allergic alveolitis~496~Chronic airways
119   II,     5. 10.  3|    symptoms typically observed in allergic reactions to food - namely
120   II,     5. 10.  3| responsible for about half of all allergic reactions are fruits of
121   II,     5. 10.  3|         published on IgE-mediated allergic reactions to food in Europe (
122   II,     5. 10.  4|         latter. On one hand, true allergic reactions to food are often
123   II,     5. 10.  5|         that are known to trigger allergic reactions or intolerances
124   II,     5. 10.  5|           likely to be a risk for allergic peoples, Commission Directive
125   II,     5. 10.  6|        which the triggering of an allergic reaction in susceptible
126   II,     5. 10.  6|    quality of social life of food allergic individuals (de Blok et
127   II,     5. 10.  7|           admissions for systemic allergic disorders in England: analysis
128   II,     5. 10.  7|     system and register of severe allergic reactions to food - results
129   II,     5. 10.  7|         Information provision for allergic consumers -- where are we
130   II,     5. 11.  3|          to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence
131   II,     5. 11.  3|         nurses or hairdressers)~- allergic contact dermatitis, where
132   II,     5. 11.  3|         develop a delayed type of allergic response to certain potentially
133   II,     5. 11.  3|            FOCUS BOX~Piercing and allergic contact dermatitis~ ~Piercing
134   II,     5. 11.  3|     stainless steel rarely causes allergic skin reactions some stainless
135   II,     5. 11.  3|         the human body, including allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) (
136   II,     5. 11.  3|         that the risk of becoming allergic to piercing is higher depending
137   II,     5. 11.  3|         nickel ions might have an allergic response within a matter
138   II,     5. 11.  3|     percentage of European people allergic to cobalt chloride which
139   II,     5. 11.  3|           subjects living in Rome allergic to nickel contained in cheap
140   II,     5. 11.  3|           that does not induce an allergic response and does not penetrate
141   II,     5. 11.  3|           10:255263.~DV Belsito, Allergic contact dermatitis. In:
142   II,     5. 11.  3|            CG Mortz, KE Andersen, Allergic contact dermatitis in children
143   II,     5. 11.  3|          of ear piercing in metal allergic contact dermatitis, Contact
144   II,     5. 11.  3|      adults found that 15.2% were allergic to one or more~substances
145   II,     5. 11.  3|        Mennè, 1992).~Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are also
146   II,     5. 11.  5|         born from parents with an allergic disease can be prevented
147   II,     5. 11.  5|     measures intended at reducing allergic factors before or around
148   II,     5. 11.  7|       Nielsen NH, Mennè T (1992): Allergic contact sensitization in
149  III,    10.  4.  1|       problems, including cancer, allergic symptoms, distress, sleeping
150  III,    10.  4.  1|          sensitized to allergens, allergic diseases may increase in
151  III,    10.  4.  1|           number of studies found allergic disorders (including asthma)
152  III,    10.  4.  1|     indoor environment, including allergic symptoms, distress, sleeping
153  III,    10.  4.  1|          effects on children with allergic and asthmatic problems of
154  III,    10.  5.  1|      environment, and can lead to allergic reactions and respiratory
155  III,    10.  5.  1|          children and sensitive / allergic population groups (Seltzer /
156  III,    10.  5.  1|          human skin and can cause allergic reactions, inflammations
157  III,    10.  5.  1|        effects include asthma and allergic symptoms, sick building