Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

   1    -,     1            |                        health on behalf of the European Commission and/or Member
   2    -,     1            |                        status of health in the European Union, the nature of health
   3    -,     1            |                       The Health Status of the European Union - Narrowing the Health
   4    -,     1            |                     The State of Health in the European Community”.~However, this
   5    -,     1            |                      overall population of the European Union has remarkably increased
   6    -,     1            |                   Health and Consumers" of the European Commission (Grant Agreement
   7    -,     1            |                      than 60 experts from most European Member States and of several
   8    -,     1            |                     while this Report adopts a European comparative perspective,
   9    -,     1            |                    interpreted with caution. A European public health goal should
  10    -,     1            |                        previously collected by European, Intergovernmental and International
  11    -,     1            |                        status of health in the European Union as it provides for
  12    -,     1            |                      and Health Authorities of European Countries for fulfilling
  13    -,     1            |                     Member States and with the European Commission. Furthermore,
  14    -,     1            |                  linked to the homepage of the European Commission D. G. Health
  15    -,     1            |                    World Health Organization - European Regional Office, in the
  16    -,     1.  0.  0(1) |                  official order adopted by the European Union.~
  17    I,     2            |                      CONTEXT FOR HEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION~ ~ ~
  18    I,     2.Acr        |                     Framework Programme~EURIPA~European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
  19    I,     2.  1        |                     regional variations in the European Community and Union during
  20    I,     2.  1        |                       policies and services of European countries have evolved to
  21    I,     2.  1        |               challenges and health needs; the European (Economic) Community and,
  22    I,     2.  1        |                       Community and, then, the European Union were established to
  23    I,     2.  1        |                   health and well being of the European population. Social policies,
  24    I,     2.  2        |                   Leidner (2007) entitled “The European Tourism industry in the
  25    I,     2.  2        |                        s first analysis of the European tourism sector and extends
  26    I,     2.  2        |                   results in a regular flow of European professionals from different
  27    I,     2.  3        |                     the past 25 years. For the European population at large, the
  28    I,     2.  3        |                      population growth. In the European Union, there are about 25
  29    I,     2.  3        |                   people will immigrate in the European Union between now and 2050.
  30    I,     2.  3        |                        age distribution of the European population.~In relation
  31    I,     2.  3        |                    higher for foreign than for European women.~Female Genital Mutilation (
  32    I,     2.  3        |                      FGM has now also become a European concern. It is estimated
  33    I,     2.  3        |                       is estimated that in the European Union alone, 500 000 girls
  34    I,     2.  4        |                      persist, not only between European countries, but also within
  35    I,     2.  4        |               Protection and Social Inclusion (European Commission, 2008), social
  36    I,     2.  4        |                      persist, not only between European countries, but also within
  37    I,     2.  4        |                       found inside the biggest European cities. Some 15% of European
  38    I,     2.  4        |                   European cities. Some 15% of European Union citizens are regarded
  39    I,     2.  4        |                        women). In many Western European countries, mortality differences
  40    I,     2.  4        |                      diseases. In many Western European countries, the 1980s and
  41    I,     2.  4        |                      cent in the three Eastern European countries, as compared to
  42    I,     2.  4        |                      cent in the three Western European countries. Among women,
  43    I,     2.  4        |                        from some other Eastern European countries suggests a similar
  44    I,     2.  4        |                        groups.~ ~Moreover, the European Commission also released
  45    I,     2.  4        |                       Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. DG Employment
  46    I,     2.  5        |                       are working on one site (European Agency for Safety and Health
  47    I,     2.  5        |                    member states (i.e. Eastern European countries). In many of these
  48    I,     2.  5.  0(2) |                                                European Agency for Safety and Health
  49    I,     2.  5.  0(2) |                      some Member States of the European Union, 2002. Available at:
  50    I,     2.  5        |                  Changes in the workforce. The European workforce has changed in
  51    I,     2.  5        |                       of the workforce. In all European countries, the average age
  52    I,     2.  5        |                        the law.~ ~In 2004, the European Commission, DG Employment
  53    I,     2.  5        |                       Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. As retired people
  54    I,     2.  5        |                        The 15th edition of the European Commission’s Employment
  55    I,     2.  5        |                      of recent developments in European labour markets. The report
  56    I,     2.  5        |                 immigration of new groups into European Member States.~Migrant workers
  57    I,     2.  5        |                    year.~ ~According to recent European Commission’s figures, there
  58    I,     2.  5        |                       self-employed from home (European Agency for Safety and Health
  59    I,     2.  5        |                     enterprises has increased. European figures from Eurostat show
  60    I,     2.  5        |                  change over the next decades. European Member States will need
  61    I,     2.  6        |                   education can be achieved in European countries after varying
  62    I,     2.  6        |                    research programmes in most European countries. In the EU25 as
  63    I,     2.  6        |                    about 10 percentage points (European Commission, 2006).~While
  64    I,     2.  6        |                     lower than at lower level (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Considering
  65    I,     2.  7        |                   EUROSTAT, 2003). EURIPA, the European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
  66    I,     2.  7        |                estimates that about 20% of the European population is living in
  67    I,     2.  7        |                    humanistic tradition of the European city, reworking the principles
  68    I,     2.  7        |                        80s and 90s, many large European cities experienced an extreme
  69    I,     2.  8        |                     been increasing in the pan European region, despite energy efficiency
  70    I,     2.  8        |                    several central and Eastern European countries, both in district
  71    I,     2.  9        |                 global warming (1.84.0 °C).~ ~European glaciers are melting rapidly:
  72    I,     2.  9        |                      uniform but varies across European seas. Projections suggest
  73    I,     2.  9        |                    surface temperature of some European seas could rise more than
  74    I,     2.  9        |                    distribution shifts of many European plant species and of birds,
  75    I,     2.  9        |                       are occurring in several European countries and there is a
  76    I,     2. 10.  3    |                       Lisbon strategy to boost European competitiveness. The i2010
  77    I,     2. 10.  3    |                        and enterprise: linking European Policies, 2006). From a
  78    I,     2. 10.  3    |                   support modernisation of the European public sector.~ ~The developments
  79    I,     2. 10.  3    |                     agreement at the Barcelona European Council that a European
  80    I,     2. 10.  3    |                        European Council that a European health insurance card should
  81    I,     2. 10.  4    |                   million items were seized by European Customs, a 384% growth versus
  82    I,     2. 10.  4(14)|                        at the EU Border 2006”, European Commission, May 2007.~
  83    I,     2. 10.  4(16)|                                            The European Health Management Association~
  84    I,     2. 10.  4    |                        update the National and European legislative framework to
  85    I,     2. 11        |                    prepared by APPLICA for the European Observatory on the Social
  86    I,     2. 11        |                publications/eea_report_2008_4]~European Agency for Safety and Health
  87    I,     2. 11        |                      some Member States of the European Union, 2002. Available at: htt s.~
  88    I,     2. 11        |                     2002. Available at: htt s.~European Agency for Safety and Health
  89    I,     2. 11        |                            accessed 21.11.06).~European Commission (2006): European
  90    I,     2. 11        |                    European Commission (2006): European Economy. Directorate-general
  91    I,     2. 11        |                     2006. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2008): Joint
  92    I,     2. 11        |                        joint_report_en.pdf].~ ~European foundation for the improvement
  93    I,     2. 11        |                   health to the economy in the European Union. DG Health and Consumer
  94    I,     3.Acr        |                        EUROPOP 2004 2004-based European Population Projections,
  95    I,     3.  1        |              replacement; Southern and Eastern European fertility decline occurred
  96    I,     3.  1        |                       Scandinavian and Western European countries in the early 1970s;
  97    I,     3.  1        |                     characteristic for Eastern European countries. Opposite is the ‘
  98    I,     3.  2        |                   years, the population of the European Union with 27 Member States,
  99    I,     3.  2        |               Migration and Integration of the European Commission points out that
 100    I,     3.  2        |                international migrants. For the European population at large, the
 101    I,     3.  2        |                      population growth. In the European Union, there are about 25
 102    I,     3.  2        |                   people will immigrate in the European Union between now and 2050.
 103    I,     3.  2        |                        age distribution of the European population.~ ~
 104    I,     3.  3        |                       in 2006~ ~Currently, all European countries are facing population
 105    I,     3.  3        |                         15 to 64)— rose in the European Union from 21.6 in 1980
 106    I,     3.  3        |                    dependency ratio within the European Union was 1.5% during the
 107    I,     3.  4        |                    Position:~Evidence from the European Labour Force Survey and
 108   II,     4.Acr        |                  DFLE65 at 65 years etc.)~ECHP~European Community Household Panel~
 109   II,     4.Acr        |                Community Household Panel~EHEMU~European Health Expectancy Monitoring
 110   II,     4.Acr        |                Expectancy Monitoring Unit~EHIS~European Health Interview Survey~
 111   II,     4.Acr        |                   Health Interview Survey~EHSS~European Health Survey System~EUROPOP
 112   II,     4.Acr        |                        EUROPOP 2004~2004-based European Population Projections,
 113   II,     4.Acr        |                    Long Term Care~MEHM~Minimum European Health Module~NCHS~National
 114   II,     4.  1        |                     the Lisbon Strategy by the European Council, which, among others,
 115   II,     4.  1        |                  should reach 50% by 2010, the European Commission introduced in
 116   II,     4.  1        |                    annual report to the Spring European Council, the Commission
 117   II,     4.  1        |                  employment (Commission of the European Communities, 2005).~ ~However,
 118   II,     4.  1        |                   performed online through the European Health Expectancy Monitoring
 119   II,     4.  1        |                      SILC contains the Minimum European Health Module (MEHM) which
 120   II,     4.  1        |                       the health module in the European Health Interview Survey (
 121   II,     4.  1        |                     were carried out using the European Community Household Panel (
 122   II,     4.  1        |                      Relevant questions in the European Community Household Panel (
 123   II,     4.  1        |                    shows estimates for 2005 at European level (EU25) per gender:
 124   II,     4.  1        |                        at 50 and at 65, in the European Union (EU25), in 2005, per
 125   II,     4.  1        |                      yet available because the European Health Survey System (EHSS)
 126   II,     4.  1        |              expectancy at birth (LE0), in the European Union (EU27), from 1995
 127   II,     4.  1        |                       the Member States of the European Union (EU25), in 2005, per
 128   II,     4.  1        |                       the Member States of the European Union in 2005 (EU25), for
 129   II,     4.  1        |                      The calculation of HLY at European level (EU25) and for all
 130   II,     4.  1        |                      the main criteria for the European Structural Indicators is
 131   II,     4.  1        |               expectancy at birth (LE0) in the European Union (EU27), in the United
 132   II,     4.  1        |                       significantly throughout European health strategies and the
 133   II,     4.  1        |                      which improving health of European citizens are measured. Thus
 134   II,     4.  1        |                       increasing the health of European citizens. The White Paper “
 135   II,     4.  1        |                        improving the health of European citizens has wider repercussions
 136   II,     4.  2        |                    several Central and Eastern European (i.e. Bulgaria, the Czech Republic,
 137   II,     4.  2        |                   expectancy has risen in most European countries during the last
 138   II,     4.  2        |                      in life expectancy across European countries has become smaller
 139   II,     4.  2        |                       However, in the Southern European countries Spain, Portugal,
 140   II,     4.  2        |                       the other three Southern European countries. In the 1990s,
 141   II,     4.  2        |                        eighties. Among Western European countries Denmark showed
 142   II,     4.  2        |                    across the countries of the European Union.~ ~Table 4.2.3. Arriaga
 143   II,     4.  2        |                      expectancy in the Eastern European countries. There are remarkable
 144   II,     4.  2        |                    cause 14 in table 3) across European countries. For example,
 145   II,     4.  2        |                        in Southern and Eastern European countries and relatively
 146   II,     4.  2        |                   relatively small in Northern European countries. It is not clear
 147   II,     4.  2        |                       these differences across European countries, the overall patterns
 148   II,     4.  2        |             projections of life expectancy for European countries is whether differences
 149   II,     4.  2        |                     expectancy at birth across European countries in 1970 with the
 150   II,     4.  2        |                   mortality for men in Eastern European countries.~ ~Figure 4.2.
 151   II,     4.  2        |                        1970, men.~ ~If Eastern European countries are excluded,
 152   II,     4.  2        |                        1970, excluding Eastern European Countries, men.~ ~If we
 153   II,     4.  2        |                          If we exclude Eastern European countries for women as well,
 154   II,     4.  2        |                        1970, excluding Eastern European Countries, women.~ ~Thus
 155   II,     4.  2        |                        Thus apart from Eastern European countries we may conclude
 156   II,     4.  3        |                        80.~ ~Commission of the European Communities (2005): 2005
 157   II,     4.  3        |                    Communication to the Spring European Council: Working together
 158   II,     4.  3        |                         Jagger, et al. (2002): European perspectives on healthy
 159   II,     4.  3        |                      the Euro-REVES 2 project. European Journal of Public Health
 160   II,     4.  3        |                      The Euro-REVES 2 project. European Journal of Public Health
 161   II,     4.  3        |                       life expectancies in the European Union countries: calculation
 162   II,     4.  3        |                      in life expectancy in the European Union since 1995: similarities
 163   II,     5.  1.  1    |                       and morbidity within the European Union as a whole as well
 164   II,     5.  1.  1    |                 incidence is decreasing in all European macro-areas, lung cancer
 165   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                   Diastolic Blood Pressure~ESC~European Society of Cardiology~EU~
 166   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                       Society of Cardiology~EU~European Union~EUROASPIRE~European
 167   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                      European Union~EUROASPIRE~European action on secondary prevention
 168   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                      to reduce events~EUROCISS~European Cardiovascular Indicators
 169   II,     5.  2.Acr    |                      Statistical Office of the European Community~HDL~High-density
 170   II,     5.  2.  1    |                    deaths each year within the European Union (EU) (Allender et
 171   II,     5.  2.  1    |                       productive life.~In most European countries CVD mortality
 172   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      of the EUROCISS Project - European Cardiovascular Indicators
 173   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       years using the EUROSTAT European population as standard.
 174   II,     5.  2.  2    |                        structure differs among European countries. Moreover, among
 175   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       1989; Thom et al, 1985), European Society of Cardiology (Sans
 176   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   available (2001-2003) in the European Union (EU) and the proportion
 177   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    Latvia, Lithuania), Eastern European countries, distinguished
 178   II,     5.  2.  2    |               distinguished in Central Eastern European countries (Czech Republic,
 179   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    Germany) and Balkan Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary,
 180   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    Hungary, Romania), Northern European countries (Denmark, Ireland,
 181   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       United Kingdom), Central European countries (Belgium, Germany,
 182   II,     5.  2.  2    |                         Slovenia) and Southern European countries (Greece, Spain,
 183   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       in the group of Southern European countries. The country with
 184   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       of countries send to the European organizations (EUROSTAT,
 185   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      Data are published by the European Heart Network and come from
 186   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      Network and come from the European Society of Cardiology, year
 187   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      of the EUROCISS Project - European Cardiovascular Indicators
 188   II,     5.  2.  2    |                      Baltic countries, Eastern European countries (distinguished
 189   II,     5.  2.  2    |               distinguished in Central Eastern European countries and Balkan Eastern
 190   II,     5.  2.  2    |                   countries and Balkan Eastern European countries), Northern European
 191   II,     5.  2.  2    |                  European countries), Northern European countries, Central European
 192   II,     5.  2.  2    |                    European countries, Central European countries and Southern European
 193   II,     5.  2.  2    |                European countries and Southern European countries. Malta is included
 194   II,     5.  2.  2    |                       in the group of Southern European countries. The country with
 195   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     Age-standardized (standard European population) mortality rates
 196   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     are those collected by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
 197   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       the mid 1970s in Western European countries. IHD continued
 198   II,     5.  2.  3    |                increase was noticed in Eastern European countries up to the 1990s.
 199   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       decrease also in Eastern European countries (approximately
 200   II,     5.  2.  3    |                       years later than Western European countries). The decline
 201   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     Age-standardized (standard European Population) cerebrovascular
 202   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     Age-standardized (standard European population) mortality rates
 203   II,     5.  2.  3    |                     Age-standardized (standard European population) mortality rates
 204   II,     5.  2.  4    |                       stress (see the attached European Heart Health Charter Annex
 205   II,     5.  2.  4    |               confirmed by the results of the ‘European action on secondary prevention
 206   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      surveys, presented by the European Society of Cardiology during
 207   II,     5.  2.  4    |                        and 2005-6 in different European countries to describe the
 208   II,     5.  2.  4    |                      and determine whether the European guidelines on CVD prevention
 209   II,     5.  2.  5    |                      from 2004 (Council of the European Union - 950/04 – 2586 Council
 210   II,     5.  2.  5    |                      control, spelt out in the European Heart Health Charter and
 211   II,     5.  2.  5    |                      Council conclusions~· The European Union Council Conclusions,
 212   II,     5.  2.  5    |                    Presidency, called upon the European Commission as well as the
 213   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 National Ministries of Health, European and National representatives
 214   II,     5.  2.  5    |              interventions are in place in all European countries.~· Several WHO
 215   II,     5.  2.  5    |                    conference organised by the European Society of Cardiology and
 216   II,     5.  2.  5    |                  Society of Cardiology and the European Heart Network, with a special
 217   II,     5.  2.  5    |                     the quality of life in the European population by reducing the
 218   II,     5.  2.  5    |                      by the conclusions of the European Council of the 30 November
 219   II,     5.  2.  5    |                     and 1 December 2006)~· The European Heart Health Charter was
 220   II,     5.  2.  5    |                        with the support of the European Commission, the World Health
 221   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 Organization (WHO-Europe), the European Heart Network and the European
 222   II,     5.  2.  5    |                 European Heart Network and the European Society of Cardiology.~·
 223   II,     5.  2.  5    |                   Society of Cardiology.~· The European Heart Health Charter was
 224   II,     5.  2.  5    |                        12 June 2007 before the European Parliament in Brussels.~ ~
 225   II,     5.  2.  6    |                    overall population. The WHO European Action Plan for Food and
 226   II,     5.  2.  6    |                       89, largely prevalent in European countries, is about 2 times
 227   II,     5.  2.  7    |                    Peto V and Rayner M (2008): European cardiovascular disease statistics.
 228   II,     5.  2.  7    |                        Public Health 13: 55-60~European society of cardiology (2006):
 229   II,     5.  2.  7    |                Luxembourg1 and 2 June 2006. European Journal of Cardiovascular
 230   II,     5.  2.  7    |                       163(10): 893-902.~Gra ). European guidelines on cardiovascular
 231   II,     5.  2.  7    |          Luengo-Fernandez R and Gray A (2005): European cardiovascular disease statistics.
 232   II,     5.  2.  7    |                      Europe. Task force of the European Society of Cardiology on
 233   II,     5.  2.  7    |                  Europe (2007): The Second WHO European Action Plan for Food and
 234   II,     5.  3.Acr    |                        CR~Cancer Registry~ENCR~European Network of Cancer Registries~
 235   II,     5.  3.Acr    |                      of Cancer Registries~ESMO~European Society for Medical Oncology~
 236   II,     5.  3.Acr    |                      Medical Oncology~EUROCHIP~European Cancer Health Indicator
 237   II,     5.  3.  1    |                        of older age. The LE of European countries is still increasing,
 238   II,     5.  3.  2    |                      States do not have yet an European recognised cancer registry (
 239   II,     5.  3.  2    |                     regional registries. While European cancer survival figures
 240   II,     5.  3.  2    |                      Project gave voice to the European scientific community in
 241   II,     5.  3.  2    |                      document addresses to the European Commission Network of Competent
 242   II,     5.  3.  2    |                      Information System in the European Union;~· cancer registries
 243   II,     5.  3.  2    |                    Institutes of Statistics;~· European projects connecting cancer
 244   II,     5.  3.  2    |                              5.3.2.2 Data from European networks and projects~ ~
 245   II,     5.  3.  2    |                    http://www.iarc.fr~ ~ENCREuropean Network of Cancer Registries:
 246   II,     5.  3.  2    |                       project is funded by the European Commission to address inequalities
 247   II,     5.  3.  2    |                     Europe and is a recognised European imprimatur network helping
 248   II,     5.  3.  2    |                     project, subsidized by the European Commission and started in
 249   II,     5.  3.  2    |                        development of a common European Union Cancer Plan; evaluation
 250   II,     5.  3.  2    |            puDeliverable01.php~ ~MOSES II: The European Society for Medical Oncology (
 251   II,     5.  3.  2    |                         collected data from 34 European countries regarding teaching
 252   II,     5.  3.  2    |                      This study, looking at 19 European countries aims to determine
 253   II,     5.  3.  3    |                        different burden in the European populations. For this reason
 254   II,     5.  3.  3    |                     incidence estimates in the European countries for the year 2006 (
 255   II,     5.  3.  3    |                      is available for selected European countries from the EUROCARE
 256   II,     5.  3.  3    |                    year relative survival show European countries ordered by their
 257   II,     5.  3.  4    |                 incidence is decreasing in all European macro-areas, lung cancer
 258   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 259   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 260   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 261   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~ ~
 262   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 263   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 264   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 265   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 266   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 267   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 268   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 269   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 270   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 271   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 272   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 273   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 274   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 275   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 276   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 277   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 278   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 279   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 280   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 281   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~ ~
 282   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     per 100,000 in 2006).~Most European countries have experienced
 283   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 284   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 285   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 286   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 287   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 288   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex in 2006
 289   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex A) Men~
 290   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) by sex B) Women~ ~
 291   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2006~Figure
 292   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized incidence rates (European standard)~Figure 5.3.19.
 293   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) in 2006~Figure
 294   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~Cervical Cancer (
 295   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2002~Figure
 296   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard)~Figure 5.3.23.
 297   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) in the age class
 298   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) in the age class
 299   II,     5.  3.  5    |                       prostate cancer rates in European populations should take
 300   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard) in 2006~Figure
 301   II,     5.  3.  5    |                     incidence estimated rates (European standard)~Figure 5.3.27.
 302   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard) in 2006~Figure
 303   II,     5.  3.  5    |                  standardized mortality rates (European standard)~ ~
 304   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   patients survival in various European countries. The EUROCARE
 305   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       although still under the European average. These improvements
 306   II,     5.  3.  6    |                consider that the prevalence of European adults with a history of
 307   II,     5.  3.  6    |                        UK, Denmark and Eastern European countries, i.e those with
 308   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     Sweden and in most Western European countries (France, Germany,
 309   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       improved steadily in all European countries, but at different
 310   II,     5.  3.  6    |                      relative to other Western European countries. Conversely, improvements
 311   II,     5.  3.  6    |                        less evident in Eastern European countries; actually , the
 312   II,     5.  3.  6    |                    between Eastern and Western European countries has increased (
 313   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  countries, but not in Eastern European countries, where it has
 314   II,     5.  3.  6    |                        in Northern and Western European countries with effective
 315   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   still higher than in Eastern European countries where there are
 316   II,     5.  3.  6    |              EUROCARE-3 found that the overall European relative survival for prostate
 317   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       55%) (Sant et al, 2003). European 5-year relative survival
 318   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  incidence levels, whereas the European countries with the highest
 319   II,     5.  3.  6    |                        cancer registries in 23 European countries on 2 699 086 adult
 320   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       survival for colorectal (European mean: 54%), lung (European
 321   II,     5.  3.  6    |                     European mean: 54%), lung (European mean: 12%), breast (European
 322   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   European mean: 12%), breast (European mean: 79%), prostate (European
 323   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 European mean: 79%), prostate (European mean: 76%) cancer was higher
 324   II,     5.  3.  6    |                       collected from 47 of the European cancer registries participating
 325   II,     5.  3.  6    |                  breast, prostate cancers. The European mean 5-year relative survival
 326   II,     5.  3.  6    |                   generally higher in Northern European countries and lower in Eastern
 327   II,     5.  3.  6    |                 countries and lower in Eastern European countries, although, patients
 328   II,     5.  3.  7    |                        recommended by the 2003 European Code Against Cancer as ways
 329   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  priorities to be addressed at European level. Pap smear test is
 330   II,     5.  3.  7    |                 colorectal cancer. In 2003 the European Council published recommendations
 331   II,     5.  3.  7    |                   published recommendations to European Member States for the implementation
 332   II,     5.  3.  7    |                organised screening programmes (European Council, 2003). Recommendations
 333   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  spread of best practice among European countries and pressure to
 334   II,     5.  3.  7    |                  Competent Authorities in most European countries define, mainly
 335   II,     5.  3.  7    |                     when survival increases.~ ~European Union activities on cancer
 336   II,     5.  3.  7    |                        Member States and other European States in 2007~ ~ ~BELGIUM~
 337   II,     5.  3.  7    |                   stakeholders at national and European level. EUROCAN+PLUS aim
 338   II,     5.  3.  7    |                      trans-national level is a European added value for each NCP
 339   II,     5.  3.  7    |                           A Declaration of the European Parliament (October 2007)
 340   II,     5.  3.  7    |                       of a light but permanent European Cancer Initiative, which
 341   II,     5.  3.  8    |                       also increasing, because European increase of life expectancy
 342   II,     5.  3.  8    |                        Member States under the European recommendations)~The two
 343   II,     5.  3.  8    |                  Europe (especially in Eastern European countries)~ ~Medium and
 344   II,     5.  3.  8    |                        Member States. Needs of European directives)~· Reduce incidence:
 345   II,     5.  3.  8    |                        next 10-20 years (i.e.: European implementation of the “Gaining
 346   II,     5.  3.  8    |                  objectives (responsibility of European Union)~European guidelines
 347   II,     5.  3.  8    |              responsibility of European Union)~European guidelines for cancer research:
 348   II,     5.  3.  8    |                     long term objective of the European Union should be to address
 349   II,     5.  3.  8    |                       unable to meet. Only the European Union can promote a wide-range
 350   II,     5.  3.  9    |                       all cancers combined for European adults diagnosed in 1995–
 351   II,     5.  3.  9    |                     Bartelink H, et al (2003): European Code Against Cancer and
 352   II,     5.  3.  9    |                  accessed on 9th June 2008).~ ~European Council (2003): Council
 353   II,     5.  3.  9    |                      Europe: a proposed set of European cancer health indicators.
 354   II,     5.  3.  9    |                       2008).~ ~WHO (2006): The European Strategy for the Prevention
 355   II,     5.  4.Acr    |                  Diagnosis Related Groups~ECHI~European Community Health Indicators~
 356   II,     5.  4.Acr    |                    Stage Renal Failure~EUBIROD~European Best Information Through
 357   II,     5.  4.Acr    |                     Outcomes in Diabetes~EUCID~European Core Indicators for Diabetes
 358   II,     5.  4.Acr    |                    Mellitus~FEND~Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes~HIS~Health
 359   II,     5.  4.  1    |                     diabetes prevalence in the European Region is around 7.8% (about
 360   II,     5.  4.  1    |                        by Member States of the European Union. More effective solutions
 361   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     Offices for Europe and the European Region of the International
 362   II,     5.  4.  2    |                     Diabetes Federation (IDF), European Region, to agree on a set
 363   II,     5.  4.  2    |                mellitus is a major and growing European health problem, a problem
 364   II,     5.  4.  2    |                       threatens at ten million European citizens.~It is within the
 365   II,     5.  4.  2    |              formulated at local, national and European levels.~ ~Investments now
 366   II,     5.  4.  2    |                finalise a series of HES at the European level are still in their
 367   II,     5.  4.  2    |                   EUDIP project, funded by the European Commission, has delivered
 368   II,     5.  4.  2    |                       population, adjusted for European Standard Population~12~National
 369   II,     5.  4.  3    |                       an average of 9% for the European Region for ages between
 370   II,     5.  4.  4    |                   should be rather obvious for European Governments: we know from
 371   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  national health policies.~The European Commission, through this
 372   II,     5.  4.  6    |                        field of diabetes, the “European Diabetes Indicator Project” (
 373   II,     5.  4.  6    |               straightforward. The subsequentEuropean Core Indicators in Diabetes” (
 374   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       available throughout the European Union”. The project involved
 375   II,     5.  4.  6    |                 collect EUDIP indicators in 20 European countries, confirming the
 376   II,     5.  4.  6    |                services in each country of the European Union. Benchmarking here
 377   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       27 EU Member States (IDF European Region 2008) had established
 378   II,     5.  4.  6    |                     developed. Action from the European Union to provide a better
 379   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       developing a coordinated European strategy for diabetes;~·
 380   II,     5.  4.  6    |                      Presidency in 2006;~· the European Parliament, in April 2006,
 381   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       in April 2006, urged the European Commission and the European
 382   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    European Commission and the European Council to make care and
 383   II,     5.  4.  6    |                       a priority and develop a European wide strategy to tackle
 384   II,     5.  4.  6    |            International Diabetes FederationEuropean Region (IDF Europe) and
 385   II,     5.  4.  6    |                  Europe) and the Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes (FEND)
 386   II,     5.  4.  6    |                      to the future work of the European Commission.~· The Council
 387   II,     5.  4.  6    |               Commission.~· The Council of the European Union (2006) endorsed IDF
 388   II,     5.  4.  6    |                        professionals.~ ~To the European Commission:~ ~· Identifying
 389   II,     5.  4.  6    |                    Facilitating and supporting European diabetes research in basic
 390   II,     5.  4.  6    |                      to health determinants at European level, including a coherent
 391   II,     5.  4.  7    |           collaborative projects funded by the European Commission. In the field
 392   II,     5.  4.  7    |            standardised information within the European regions~The “Best Information
 393   II,     5.  4.  7    |                  project is to build “a common European infrastructure for standardized
 394   II,     5.  4.  7    |                     into a common initiative, “European Best Information through
 395   II,     5.  4.  7    |                       wider perspective of the European Union, there is a need for
 396   II,     5.  4.  7    |                         Approaches proposed by European projects may be useful in
 397   II,     5.  4.  8    |                    2008 Sep 25.~Council of the European Union (2006), Council Conclusions
 398   II,     5.  4.  8    |                         De Beaufort CE (2003): European Union diabetes indicators.
 399   II,     5.  4.  8    |                     Union diabetes indicators. European Journal of Public Health.~Dia A (
 400   II,     5.  4.  8    |                        October 2008)~FEND, IDF European Region (2006):Diabetes:
 401   II,     5.  4.  8    |                       Atlas Third Edition.~IDF European Region (2008): Diabetes.
 402   II,     5.  5.Acr    |                     Alzheimer’s Disease~ESEMeD~European Study of the Epidemiology
 403   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      of mental health problem (European Commission 2003), which
 404   II,     5.  5.Int(8) |                                                European Commission (2004): The State
 405   II,     5.  5.Int(8) |                        of Mental Health in the European Union. Directorate General
 406   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    Health Organisation and the European Commission. One in four
 407   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      example, countries in the European Region spend on average
 408   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      of people in some Eastern European countries, but also in Belgium
 409   II,     5.  5.Int    |                          ii) Actions under the European Year for People with Disabilities
 410   II,     5.  5.Int    |                         iii) The adoption of a European Framework Agreement on work-related
 411   II,     5.  5.Int    |                important source of funding for European research on mental health21.
 412   II,     5.  5.Int(20)|                                                European Commission (2004): Action
 413   II,     5.  5.Int(20)|                      Activities co-funded from European Community Public health
 414   II,     5.  5.Int    |                   project, which carried out a European assessment of mental health
 415   II,     5.  5.Int    |                      of the results of the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
 416   II,     5.  5.Int    |                 implementation.~ ~In 2005, the European Commission launched a Green
 417   II,     5.  5.Int    |                     2006; in December 2006 the European Commission issued a report
 418   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|                 Decision No 182/1999/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 419   II,     5.  5.Int(21)|                Decision  1513/2002/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 420   II,     5.  5.Int    |                    Paper22.~ ~In the meantime, European networks of patientsorganizations (
 421   II,     5.  5.Int    |                     efforts and act jointly at European level.~· Strengthening and
 422   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 suicides has a major impact on European competitiveness through
 423   II,     5.  5.  1    |                        age distribution as the European standardised population.
 424   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       availability from the 27 European Member States varies according
 425   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       grouped according to the European shortlist based on ICD-10,
 426   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    careful weighting. Thus, on European level, comparison of relative
 427   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   SHARE study, a collaborative European survey on people aged 50
 428   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       some Central and Eastern European countries (Romania, Bulgaria,
 429   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       been acknowledged by the European Council recommendation already
 430   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       treatment of depression (European Commission, 2004a)~ ~The
 431   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  suicide and combating stigma (European Commission, 2008). The next
 432   II,     5.  5.  1    |                        disorders and suicides (European Commission, 2004b):~ ~Mental
 433   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      projects co-funded by the European Commission Public Health
 434   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   Putting Mental Health on the European Agenda (1998-2000).~o Integrating
 435   II,     5.  5.  1    |                   Mental Health Indicators for European Union (1999-2001) provided
 436   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      and health systems.~o The European Review of Suicide and Violence
 437   II,     5.  5.  1    |                        of Mental Health in the European Union (2002-4), included
 438   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       and Determinants for the European level (2004-6), provided
 439   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       of mental health in many European countries, there are still
 440   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       should be addressed by a European strategy, referring mainly
 441   II,     5.  5.  1    |                 inter-sectoral approaches. The European Mental Health Pact offers
 442   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology
 443   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology
 444   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Overview of key data from the European Study of the Epidemiology
 445   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      North Am. 31(2):247-69.~ ~European Commission (2008). European
 446   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    European Commission (2008). European Pact for mental Health.
 447   II,     5.  5.  1    |                       mental Health. Brussels: European Commission, 2008. Available
 448   II,     5.  5.  1    |                     2008. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2004a). Action
 449   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  Activities co-funded from the European Community Public Health
 450   II,     5.  5.  1    |                        1997-2004). Luxembourg: European Communities and STAKES,
 451   II,     5.  5.  1    |                Communities and STAKES, 2004.~ ~European Commission (2004b). Actions
 452   II,     5.  5.  1    |                    Actions against depression. European Communities, 2004. Also
 453   II,     5.  5.  1    |                  mental health problems in six European countries. Psychiatric Services
 454   II,     5.  5.  1    |                      disorders: results from 3 European studies. J Clin Psychiatry
 455   II,     5.  5.  1    |                countries participating in the "European Alliance Against Depression".
 456   II,     5.  5.  2    |                             Acronyms~ ~EURODEM~European Community Concerted Action
 457   II,     5.  5.  2    |               Prevention of Dementia.~EuroCoDe~European Collaboration on Dementia~ ~ ~
 458   II,     5.  5.  2    |                        burden for families and European long term care. The risk
 459   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     study~ ~EURODEM stands for European Community Concerted Action
 460   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     severe dementia in several European countries and came up with
 461   II,     5.  5.  2    |                        27 member states of the European Union indicate an estimated
 462   II,     5.  5.  2    |                        also be compiled of all European epidemiological studies
 463   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  collaboration with a group of European experts, is expected to
 464   II,     5.  5.  2    |                       the member states of the European Union as well as in Norway,
 465   II,     5.  5.  2(24)|                       project, financed by the European Commission with additional
 466   II,     5.  5.  2    |                       3 year project entitledEuropean Collaboration on Dementia –
 467   II,     5.  5.  2    |                          In 1996 and 1998, the European Parliament dedicated two
 468   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     the call for action of the European Parliament expressed in
 469   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     other member states of the European Union, situations are likely
 470   II,     5.  5.  2    |                organisations therefore call on European countries to ratify the
 471   II,     5.  5.  2    |                      and calls on national and European policy makers to consider
 472   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   reality by:~ ~· Ensuring the European health strategy guarantees
 473   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     the Paris declaration, the European Alzheimer’s Alliance was
 474   II,     5.  5.  2    |                        together Members of the European Parliament committed to
 475   II,     5.  5.  2    |                     health priority in Europe (European Parliament, 1996).~ ~
 476   II,     5.  5.  2    |                    political priorities of the European Alzheimer movement. Available
 477   II,     5.  5.  2    |                  Psychiatry, 17(10): 895-906~ ~European Public Health Alliance (
 478   II,     5.  5.  2    |                accessed on 30 November 2007)~ ~European Parliament (1996): Resolution
 479   II,     5.  5.  2    |                   functions in the elderly and European Parliament (1998): Resolution
 480   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    Ganglionic Degeneration~EBC~European Brain Council~GP~General
 481   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   several Western and northern European countries (Sweden, United
 482   II,     5.  5.  3    |                        are surveyed in certain European countries, but a European
 483   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      European countries, but a European Union-wide data analysis
 484   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      on national as well as at European/international level (Alexander
 485   II,     5.  5.  3    |                     2002 (WHO, 2004). A lot of European Union (EU) Member States,
 486   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 collected data in participated European countries. The overview
 487   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      anorexia and bulimia. The European project provides information
 488   II,     5.  5.  3    |                        anorexia and bulimia in European countries~(taken from: Alexander,
 489   II,     5.  5.  3    |                  Children in Europe)~ ~A third European study titled Healthy Lifestyle
 490   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    priority health problems of European adolescents between 13 and
 491   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   several Western and northern European countries (Sweden, United
 492   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   explain the results for some European countries (Sweden, United
 493   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       Member States in the WHO European Region. The strategy aims
 494   II,     5.  5.  3    |              increasing problem in Western and European countries, actions and initiatives
 495   II,     5.  5.  3    |                      2005).~In the future, the European Commission should support
 496   II,     5.  5.  3    |                    health monitoring system at European Union level. We must bear
 497   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Organization (WHO) (2005): The European Health Report 2005Part
 498   II,     5.  5.  3    |                 Disorders, Fourth Edition~ECED~European Council on Eating Disorders~
 499   II,     5.  5.  3    |                   Examination Questionnaire~EU~European Union~EUFIC~The European
 500   II,     5.  5.  3    |                       European Union~EUFIC~The European Food Information Council~