Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|            tobacco smoke (ETS); lead; noise; stress.~ ~The risk factors
  2   II,     8.  2.  3|         hearing loss due to ageing or noise exposure, which excludes
  3   II,     8.  2.  3|              occupations with greater noise exposure. In Denmark and
  4  III,    10.  1    |            factors such as radiation, noise, magnetic fields, suspended
  5  III,    10.  1    |              ETS~carbon monoxide~lead~noise~inhalable particles~food,
  6  III,    10.  2.  1|            such bar-related issues as noise level and customer behaviour.
  7  III,    10.  3.  1|              Fields~END~Environmental Noise Directive, Directive 2002/
  8  III,    10.  3.  1|              level.~LaeqT~Exposure to noise for the duration of a given
  9  III,    10.  3.  1|              fields and environmental noise. Radiation, radon exposure
 10  III,    10.  3.  1|         Radiation, radon exposure and noise have well documented associations
 11  III,    10.  3.  1|               exposed to road traffic noise at levels exceeding 55 dB (
 12  III,    10.  3.  1|             impacts become evident.~ ~Noise is perceived among the public
 13  III,    10.  3.  1|            problems and environmental noise is probably the environmental
 14  III,    10.  3.  1|               and future magnitude of noise exposure is the growth in
 15  III,    10.  3.  1|              in cities. Environmental noise can affect people’s health
 16  III,    10.  3.  1|     accordance with the Environmental Noise Directive (European Commission,
 17  III,    10.  3.  1|        Commission, 2002), exposure to noise has recently started to
 18  III,    10.  3.  1|         common basis for tackling the noise problem across the EU. Its
 19  III,    10.  3.  1|         reduce the harmful effects of noise exposure. Not only does
 20  III,    10.  3.  1|              Member States to conduct noise mapping, action planning
 21  III,    10.  3.  1|           adopted on 21 March 2007.~ ~Noise exposure data has until
 22  III,    10.  3.  1|            OECD have gathered data on noise exposure as well as on noise
 23  III,    10.  3.  1|          noise exposure as well as on noise annoyance.~ ~At the moment
 24  III,    10.  3.  1|            annoyance.~ ~At the moment noise exposure data is produced
 25  III,    10.  3.  1|               under the Environmental Noise Directive. The directive
 26  III,    10.  3.  1|           States to produce strategic noise maps on the basis of harmonised
 27  III,    10.  3.  1|               inform the public about noise exposure and its effects,
 28  III,    10.  3.  1|               action plans to address noise issues. The areas where
 29  III,    10.  3.  1|               issues. The areas where noise mapping and action planning
 30  III,    10.  3.  1|      designated by the Member States. Noise maps will capture noise
 31  III,    10.  3.  1|               Noise maps will capture noise emissions from industry
 32  III,    10.  3.  1|           number of people exposed to noise. Based on this information
 33  III,    10.  3.  1|               the exposure limits.”~ ~Noise~ ~Since noise is a pollutant
 34  III,    10.  3.  1|              limits.”~ ~Noise~ ~Since noise is a pollutant that is persistent
 35  III,    10.  3.  1|               exposed to road traffic noise at levels exceeding 55 dB(
 36  III,    10.  3.  1|              guidelines for community noise require less than 55 dB(
 37  III,    10.  3.  1|           twelve-year-olds identified noise as a disturbance to normal
 38  III,    10.  3.  1|          Report, 2005).~ ~Compared to noise from neighbours and industry,
 39  III,    10.  3.  1|               are severely annoyed by noise from transport sources (
 40  III,    10.  3.  1|             the population exposed to noise levels > 60 dB(A) in different
 41  III,    10.  3.  1|         health risks of environmental noise, apart from hearing impairment
 42  III,    10.  3.  1|              exposure to leisure time noise in adolescents and young
 43  III,    10.  3.  1|             for hearing impairment.~ ~Noise is a potentially important
 44  III,    10.  3.  1|          pregnant mother to very high noise levels at workplaces may
 45  III,    10.  3.  1|          protect the child from major noise impacts.~ ~There are indications
 46  III,    10.  3.  1|              burden of disease due to noise exposure (Knol et al., 2005;
 47  III,    10.  3.  1|         cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure is considerable
 48  III,    10.  3.  1|          attributable to road traffic noise exposure (Babisch, 2006).~ ~
 49  III,    10.  3.  1|           burden of ill health due to noise in Europe has not yet been
 50  III,    10.  3.  1|             impairment due to leisure noise, tinnitus, annoyance and
 51  III,    10.  3.  1|              addition, the impacts of noise might be enhanced by interacting
 52  III,    10.  3.  1|               the social cost of road noise pollution is about 1% of
 53  III,    10.  3.  1|            exposure limits of traffic noise are exceeded. An ongoing
 54  III,    10.  3.  1|            started in 1986) to reduce noise exposure from traffic infrastructure,
 55  III,    10.  3.  1|             The existing estimates of noise exposure in Europe cover
 56  III,    10.  3.  1|      International comparisons of the noise levels in different countries
 57  III,    10.  3.  1|              data necessary to assess noise exposure. Improvements are
 58  III,    10.  3.  1|               under the Environmental Noise Directive although some
 59  III,    10.  3.  1|      especially in the first phase of noise mapping and reporting.~ ~
 60  III,    10.  3.  1|              mapping and reporting.~ ~Noise maps will capture noise
 61  III,    10.  3.  1|               Noise maps will capture noise emissions from industry
 62  III,    10.  3.  1|           number of people exposed to noise. Noise exposure information
 63  III,    10.  3.  1|              people exposed to noise. Noise exposure information will
 64  III,    10.  3.  1|              indicators to be used in noise mapping under END are also
 65  III,    10.  3.  1|           time period of 8 hours. The noise indicator for the night
 66  III,    10.  3.  1|           evidence that environmental noise is associated with an increased
 67  III,    10.  3.  1| epidemiological studies reported that noise is associated to adverse
 68  III,    10.  3.  1|           exposures to vibrations and noise as well as forced body positions,
 69  III,    10.  3.  1|           exposures to vibrations and noise which were reported by approximately
 70  III,    10.  3.  1|             The Green Paper on Future Noise Policy (COM(96) 540) adopted
 71  III,    10.  3.  1|               in the development of a noise policy with the aim that
 72  III,    10.  3.  1|           person should be exposed to noise levels which endanger health
 73  III,    10.  3.  1|           life.~The implementation of Noise Directive 153 (2002) is
 74  III,    10.  3.  1|      instrument for reaching the 6EAP noise objectives. In 2004, the
 75  III,    10.  3.  1|       existing Community framework on noise and the need for future
 76  III,    10.  3.  1|           management of Environmental noise ( ht ),whose main aim is
 77  III,    10.  3.  1|         common basis for tackling the noise problem across the EU. The
 78  III,    10.  3.  1|           consulting the public about noise exposure, its effects, and
 79  III,    10.  3.  1|        measures considered to address noise,~· Addressing local noise
 80  III,    10.  3.  1|             noise,~· Addressing local noise issues, and~· Developing
 81  III,    10.  3.  1|           safely.~ ~The Environmental Noise Directive will provide a
 82  III,    10.  3.  1|          Community measures to reduce noise emitted by the major sources.
 83  III,    10.  3.  1|             by the major sources. The noise exposure information from
 84  III,    10.  3.  1|              information on strategic noise maps and publish a summary
 85  III,    10.  3.  1|         report of data from strategic noise maps and action plans. (
 86  III,    10.  3.  1|              W (2006): Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk.
 87  III,    10.  3.  1|        Babisch W (2008): Road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk.
 88  III,    10.  3.  1|              and cardiovascular risk. Noise Health 10(38),27-33.~Barns
 89  III,    10.  3.  1|              2006. Risk assessment of noise exposure - the Swiss perspective.
 90  III,    10.  3.  1|           European Commission (2002): Noise directive (htt )~European
 91  III,    10.  3.  1|             Acoustics – Assessment of noise annoyance by means of social
 92  III,    10.  3.  1|               The association between noise exposure and blood pressure
 93  III,    10.  3.  1|            World Health OrganizationNoise and health”. Visited at
 94  III,    10.  3.  1|        Guidelines for the exposure to noise at night. Edited by: Berg
 95  III,    10.  3.  1|              Guidelines for community noise. Edited by: Berglund B,
 96  III,    10.  3.  2|              ETS~carbon monoxide~lead~noise~inhalable particles~food,
 97  III,    10.  4.  5|               due to nuisance (smell, noise, litter, effect on property
 98  III,    10.  5.  1|         problems linked to transport (noise and air pollutants), household
 99  III,    10.  5.  1|              air quality problems and noise exposure in many rural places
100  III,    10.  5.  1|          windows but – in the case of noise – also through the building
101  III,    10.  5.  1|      traffic-related (air pollutants, noise), or stem from industrial
102  III,    10.  5.  1|                   Moreover, classroom noise can cause physiological
103  III,    10.  5.  1|             spaces can help to reduce noise and air exposure and also
104  III,    10.  5.  1|            major health determinants: noise, air pollution and modal
105  III,    10.  5.  1|              for physical activity.~ ~Noise is one of the most commonly
106  III,    10.  5.  1|     settlement areas. Main sources of noise include road, rail and air
107  III,    10.  5.  1|                but also neighbourhood noise from playgrounds and gardens (
108  III,    10.  5.  1|      population is exposed to traffic noise levels of 55 dBA, and in
109  III,    10.  5.  1|               suffer from exposure to noise levels of 65 dBA. The European
110  III,    10.  5.  1|              living with unacceptable noise exposure conditions, while
111  III,    10.  5.  1|             another 170 millions, the noise conditions are defined as
112  III,    10.  5.  1|               Audit project show that noise exposure is a key problem
113  III,    10.  5.  1|             the exposure to increased noise levels often affects more
114  III,    10.  5.  1|         residents exposed to day-time noise above 55dB(A)~ ~In addition
115  III,    10.  5.  1|     cardiovascular effects, excessive noise is known to affect sleep,
116  III,    10.  5.  1|    consumption / urban sprawl. Still, noise, air quality and adequate
117  III,    10.  5.  1|         products, energy performance, noise, air, waste, food, water,
118  III,    10.  5.  1|                 Green Paper on future noise policy. Communication COM(
119  III,    10.  5.  1|            Stansfeld S, et al (2000): Noise and health in the urban
120  III,    10.  5.  1|              A, (2007): Environmental noise, sleep and health. Sleep
121  III,    10.  5.  1|              in relation to classroom noise, Scand J Work Environ Health.
122  III,    10.  5.  1|            Kobe, Japan.~ ~WHO (2000): Noise and health. Health and environment
123  III,    10.  5.  2|             pollution, water quality, noise exposure and access to green
124  III,    10.  5.  3|           Exposures to vibrations and noise - which were reported by
125  III,    10.  5.  3|           exposures to vibrations and noise as well as forced body positions,
126  III,    10.  5.  3|          working environment, such as noise or dangerous chemicals.
127  III,    10.  5.  3|          directives, such as the 2003 noise directive, provide more
128  III,    10.  5.  3|               eliminating or reducing noise risks to a minimum, taking
129  III,    10.  5.  3|       measures. According to the 2003 noise directive the control of
130  III,    10.  5.  3|              directive the control of noise risks includes:~- working
131  III,    10.  5.  3|            that need less exposure to noise~- the choice of work equipment
132  III,    10.  5.  3|           emitting the least possible noise~- the design and layout
133  III,    10.  5.  3|             and training of workers~- noise reduction by technical means~-
134  III,    10.  5.  3|           workplace and its systems~- noise reduction through a better
135  III,    10.  5.  3|         Member States relating to the noise emission in the environment
136  III,    10.  5.  3|         arising from physical agents (noise), which replaces Council
137  III,    10.  5.  3|             from the risks related to noise exposure at work, setting
138   IV,    12.  2    |            such bar-related issues as noise level and customer behaviour.
139   IV,    12.  4    |               quality, water quality, noise; 'European Environment and
140   IV,    12. 10    |           like ionising radiation) or noise and waste disposal. The
141   IV,    12. 10    |          population against hazardous noise is under the responsibility
142   IV,    12. 10    |         EU-Directive on environmental noise (2002/49/EG) is being implemented
143   IV,    12. 10    |             exposure to environmental noise are laid down in the Federal
144   IV,    12. 10    |            Act, 1993.~- Environmental Noise Regulations, 2006.~- Residential
145   IV,    12. 10    |              stressors~ intermediate~ Noise: Decree 2004/1051 of 28/
146   IV,    12. 10    |              about air traffic:~htt ~ Noise: special objective of public
147   IV,    12. 10    |    intermediate~Decision 1830/11/2007 Noise maps~Occupational health
148   IV,    12. 10    |      Occupational health regulations ~Noise: public health law regarding
149   IV,    12. 10    |           policy~Public health policy~Noise~Road traffic noise~ ~High
150   IV,    12. 10    |             policy~Noise~Road traffic noise~ ~High noise levels~Domain
151   IV,    12. 10    |             Road traffic noise~ ~High noise levels~Domain of objective
152  Key,   Ap5.  0.  0|       nitrogen~nitrosamines~N-nitroso~noise~non-communicable~non-hodgkin~