Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

  1   II,     5.  1.  1|             is strong evidence that infection with a certain bacteria,
  2   II,     5.  1.  1|             main risk factor is the infection by some forms of genital
  3   II,     5.  1.  1|             cells, derived from HPV infection, take many years to progress
  4   II,     5.  1.  1|           and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection and alcohol drinking.~Dermatological
  5   II,     5.  3.  4|             is strong evidence that infection with a certain bacteria,
  6   II,     5.  3.  4|             main risk factor is the infection by some forms of genital
  7   II,     5.  3.  4|             cells, derived from HPV infection, take many years to progress
  8   II,     5.  3.  5|              Human Papilloma Virus) infection (Stewart and Kleihues, 2003).
  9   II,     5.  3.  5|      cervical lesions caused by HPV infection before becoming cervical
 10   II,     5.  3.  5|          countries have similar HPV infection exposure and the organised
 11   II,     5.  6.  3|      environmental triggers for RA. Infection may play a part in some
 12   II,     5.  6.  3|      prolapsed intervertebral disc, infection, spondyloarthropathy, fracture
 13   II,     5.  8.  2|             acute lower respiratory infection~ ~ ~Excludes:~with influenza ( J9 )~
 14   II,     5.  8.  2|             acute lower respiratory infection ( J4 )~J44.9~ ~Chronic obstructive
 15   II,     5.  9. FB|            a shift that occurs when infection rates decline.~ ~Obesity
 16   II,     5.  9.  7|            DS, Drake-Lee AB (2003). Infection, allergy and the hygiene
 17   II,     5. 12.  1|           and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection and alcohol drinking: the
 18   II,     5. 12.  4|           and C virus (HBV and HCV) infection (see also Chapter 6) and
 19   II,     5. 12.  5|      against HBV and control of HCV infection will also have favourable
 20   II,     5. 12.  5|          declined prevalence of HBV infection in younger generations.
 21   II,     5. 12.  7|     prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988
 22   II,     5. 12.  7|      incidence of hepatitis C virus infection: implications for the future
 23   II,     5. 12.  7|         action of hepatitis C virus infection and alcohol consumption
 24   II,     5. 12.  7|      lymphoma and hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review. Int
 25   II,     5. 12.  7|   epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis 5:558-
 26   II,     5. 12.  7|        pattern of hepatitis B virus infection over the past three decades
 27   II,     5. 14.  1|       initially caused by bacterial infection with the destruction of
 28   II,     6.  3.  1|          rates in the EU (Chlamydia infection and campylobacteriosis)
 29   II,     6.  3.  1|         hold at all: HIV, Chlamydia infection, hepatitis C, toxoplasmosis,
 30   II,     6.  3.  1|          the ‘trueincidence of an infection.~ ~This shift from a ‘clinic-based’
 31   II,     6.  3.  1|      HIV/AIDS and hospital-acquired infection treatment are included.
 32   II,     6.  3.  2|           as the consequence of the infection. Of 87 000 patients staying
 33   II,     6.  3.  2|         preventable by an intensive infection control programme that includes
 34   II,     6.  3.  2|     performance using risk-adjusted infection rates. Since the latter
 35   II,     6.  3.  2|          involvement of clinicians, infection control staff and microbiologists,
 36   II,     6.  3.  2|         intensive care patients) or infection types (surgical site infections,
 37   II,     6.  3.  2|        order to set up or reinforce infection control programmes with
 38   II,     6.  3.  3|                          6.3.3. HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections (
 39   II,     6.  3.  3|            1. Human papilloma virus infection~ ~Infection with human papilloma
 40   II,     6.  3.  3|         papilloma virus infection~ ~Infection with human papilloma virus (
 41   II,     6.  3.  3|                        6.3.3.2. HIV infection~ ~HIV remains one of the
 42   II,     6.  3.  3|         effect on the course of HIV infection, improving the quality of
 43   II,     6.  3.  3|            the possible location of infection. Overall, nearly half (47%)
 44   II,     6.  3.  3|        newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection believed to have been acquired
 45   II,     6.  3.  3|             EU are unaware of their infection. There is evidence to suggest
 46   II,     6.  3.  3|       populations at higher risk of infection and therefore best practices
 47   II,     6.  3.  3|           and syphilis.~ ~Chlamydia infection~ ~Chlamydia infection, caused
 48   II,     6.  3.  3|     Chlamydia infection~ ~Chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium
 49   II,     6.  3.  3|       European countries, Chlamydia infection is the most commonly reported
 50   II,     6.  3.  3|            in several countries the infection is not notifiable. Comparisons
 51   II,     6.  3.  3|          203 691 cases of Chlamydia infection were reported by 17 countries,
 52   II,     6.  3.  3|            1524 age group and that infection is reported more often in
 53   II,     6.  3.  3|       gonorrhoea. The extent of the infection can range from genital infection
 54   II,     6.  3.  3|    infection can range from genital infection to a variety of systemic
 55   II,     6.  3.  3|     Hepatitis B~ ~Hepatitis B is an infection of the liver caused by hepatitis
 56   II,     6.  3.  3|         asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. As for other types of acute
 57   II,     6.  3.  3|        acute viral hepatitis, acute infection may vary from mild to severe
 58   II,     6.  3.  3|            severe symptoms, and HBV infection in children usually goes
 59   II,     6.  3.  3|           and patients with chronic infection serve as a reservoir for
 60   II,     6.  3.  3|          important in spreading HBV infection. The infection remains concentrated
 61   II,     6.  3.  3|        spreading HBV infection. The infection remains concentrated in
 62   II,     6.  3.  3|        effective way to prevent HBV infection. Most of the EU Member States
 63   II,     6.  3.  3|      incidence of acute hepatitis B infection had been declining slowly
 64   II,     6.  3.  3|         infected develops a chronic infection and many of those go on
 65   II,     6.  3.  3|          recent introduction of HCV infection into the list of diseases
 66   II,     6.  3.  4|        illness or acute respiratory infection were not especially high
 67   II,     6.  3.  4|           current form. The risk of infection is almost entirely confined
 68   II,     6.  3.  4|     infected develop active TB. HIV infection increases the likelihood
 69   II,     6.  3.  4|             largely spared from the infection. No SARS cases were reported
 70   II,     6.  3.  4|          the most likely sources of infection with SARS-CoV would be exposure
 71   II,     6.  3.  5|          trend is seen for invasive infection with Haemophilus influenzae
 72   II,     6.  3.  5|           for invasive pneumococcal infection seem to remain stable across
 73   II,     6.  3.  5|              Bacterial infections~ ~Infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (
 74   II,     6.  3.  5|         incidence rates.~ ~Invasive infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae
 75   II,     6.  3.  5|      available against invasive Hib infection, and there has been a clearly
 76   II,     6.  3.  5|     Pertussis is an acute bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
 77   II,     6.  3.  5|      contaminated injuries, and the infection is not transmissible between
 78   II,     6.  3.  5|      measles and congenital rubella infection in the European Region of
 79   II,     6.  3.  5|             of rubella results from infection during the first trimester
 80   II,     6.  3.  5|             pregnancy, when rubella infection can cause miscarriage, foetal
 81   II,     6.  3.  6|             VTEC) causes an enteric infection, with often non-specific
 82   II,     6.  3.  6|             route for acquiring the infection. Controls of VTEC infections
 83   II,     6.  3.  6|        cattle are known reservoirs. Infection is often acquired by eating
 84   II,     6.  3.  6|          pig meat. Other sources of infection have been vegetables kept
 85   II,     6.  3.  6|         Listeria monocytogenes. The infection is mostly mild and self-limiting,
 86   II,     6.  3.  6|         Cholera is an acute enteric infection caused by the bacterium
 87   II,     6.  3.  6|     parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is asymptomatic in most
 88   II,     6.  3.  6|      toxoplasmosis is a very common infection in humans and animals, the
 89   II,     6.  3.  6|           Giardiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia intestinalis (
 90   II,     6.  3.  6|          surface waters and humans. Infection occurs after ingestion of
 91   II,     6.  3.  6|            The main source of human infection is the consumption of raw
 92   II,     6.  3.  7|           tularaemia, puumala virus infection, borreliosis, tick-borne
 93   II,     6.  3.  7|         rabies, and West Nile virus infection). Some of these diseases
 94   II,     6.  3.  7|             describe. Puumala virus infection (nephropathia epidemica)
 95   II,     6.  3.  7|             domestic animals. Human infection occurs through a variety
 96   II,     6.  3.  7|          urine of infected animals. Infection in humans may follow direct
 97   II,     6.  3.  7|            mosquito bites, although infection through organ transplantation
 98   II,     6.  3.  7|             in Romania in 1996, WNV infection has become recognised as
 99   II,     6.  3.  7|            countries. The origin of infection of most imported cases is
100   II,     6.  3.  7|             indicates that repeated infection increases the risk of the
101   II,     6.  4.  5|             training on hygiene and infection control standards) and the
102   II,     6.  4.  5|            d) reinforce and promote infection prevention programmes, in
103   II,     9.  1.  2|        maternal nutrition, maternal infection, maternal drug exposure,
104   II,     9.  2.  3|            under-reporting rates of infection).~ ~HIV/AIDS: In Europe
105   II,     9.  2.  3|           needs to be done to avoid infection and many children are unclear
106   II,     9.  3.  1|           the prevalence of chronic infection is low, but there is a notable
107   II,     9.  3.  1|             North-South gradient in infection patterns, with an infection
108   II,     9.  3.  1|         infection patterns, with an infection rate of 0.1% in the Northern
109   II,     9.  3.  1|     estimates of trends in terms of infection with HIV (rather than AIDS) (
110   II,     9.  3.  1|          are more vulnerable to HIV infection than men. Thirteen per cent
111   II,     9.  3.  1|           them at a greater risk of infection. Those who lack adequate
112   II,     9.  3.  1|           high risk of acquiring an infection. The gender stereotypes
113   II,     9.  3.  1|          repercussions from such an infection.~Neisseria gonorrhoea remains
114   II,     9.  3.  1|           and can occur years after infection. HPV produces genital warts
115   II,     9.  3.  1|        cancer shows evidence of HPV infection (Madeleine et al, 1997).
116   II,     9.  3.  1|        collect surveillance data on infection with genital warts. A vaccine
117   II,     9.  3.  1|        favours vaginal and urethral infection. It is important to identify
118   II,     9.  3.  1|            STI~Sexually transmitted infection~UNAIDS~The Joint United
119   II,     9.  3.  3|       behaviour and the risk of HIV infection that presents cross-national
120   II,     9.  4.  3|          under-diagnosed reserve of infection, as surveillance and epidemiological
121   II,     9.  4.  8|            STI~Sexually transmitted infection~TB~Tuberculosis~UK~United
122   II,     9.  5.  7|            STI~Sexually Transmitted Infection~UK~United Kingdom~UNIFEM~
123  III,    10.  2.  1|             health problems such as infection with HIV or hepatitis or
124  III,    10.  2.  1|         critical issue.~ ~While HIV infection in IDUs in Europe is mainly
125  III,    10.  2.  1|        hepatitis, and in particular infection caused by the hepatitis
126  III,    10.  2.  1|           people living with an HCV infection in the EU who have been
127  III,    10.  2.  1|       prevalence of markers for HBV infection varies to a greater extent
128  III,    10.  3.  3|          rates in the EU (Chlamydia infection and Campylobacteriosis)
129  III,    10.  3.  3|             a healthcare-associated infection and approximately 50 000
130  III,    10.  3.  3|        period. The end-stage of the infection, acquired immunodeficiency
131  III,    10.  3.  3|             of rubella results from infection during the first trimester
132  III,    10.  3.  3|             pregnancy, when rubella infection can cause miscarriage, foetal
133  III,    10.  3.  3|     Pertussis is an acute bacterial infection of the respiratory tract
134  III,    10.  3.  3|         from animals to humans. The infection can be acquired directly
135  III,    10.  3.  3|     parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The infection is asymptomatic in most
136  III,    10.  3.  3|           Giardiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Giardia intestinalis,
137  III,    10.  4.  2|      conditions (Table 10.4.2.3 The infection can be acquired directly
138  III,    10.  4.  2|            species~GE~Sepsis, wound infection~ ~High (V. vulnificus),~ ~ ~ ~
139  III,    10.  4.  2|         from animals to humans. The infection can be acquired directly
140  III,    10.  4.  2|            frequent vehicles of the infection. For Campylobacter outbreaks
141  III,    10.  4.  2|        remained the major source of infection, though the largest Campylobacter
142  III,    10.  4.  2|        current understanding of the infection and disease, and realistic
143  III,    10.  5.  1|            25 reported outbreaks of infection associated with private
144  III,    10.  5.  1|         19702000. Epidemiology and infection, 2003, 130:469–479.~Seltzer
145  III,    10.  5.  2| rural settings.~ ~Figure 10.5.2.12. Infection prevalence in urban and
146   IV,    12.  2    |           the Human Papilloma Virus infection (HPV), which is a risk factor
147   IV,    12. 10    |           and the management of HIV infection. According to the data the
148   IV,    12. 10    |              Incidence of chlamydia infection in the 1529 year age group~ ~