1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1500 | 1501-2000 | 2001-2500 | 2501-2901
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

1501  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      and cultural differences (European Comission, 2008).~ ~
1502  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       in tobacco control in 30 European countries, 2005-2007~ ~The "
1503  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       in Tobacco Control in 30 European Counrties 2005-2007" report (
1504  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 tobacco control activity in 30 European countries between 2005 and
1505  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       death and disease in the European Union. Tobacco causes one
1506  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        the developing world.~ ~European youth is particularly vulnerable
1507  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   should become a priority for European governments.~ ~
1508  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Tobacco or health in the European Union: past, present and
1509  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      past, present and future. European Commission, DG Health and
1510  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  McNeill A, Ramström L (2003): European Union policy on smokeless
1511  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        W, zur Hausen H (2003): European Code Against Cancer and
1512  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       62. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): European
1513  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    European Commission (2003): European Opinion Research Group Smoking
1514  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      183. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2004), ASPECT
1515  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Tobacco or health in the European Union: past, present and
1516  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      past, present and future. European Commission, DG Health and
1517  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     2004. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): SCENHIR –
1518  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Products, Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007. Available
1519  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     2007. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2008): SCENHIR1520  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Products, Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007. Available
1521  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       docs/scenihr_o_013.pdf~ ~European Network for Smoking Prevention (
1522  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Tobacco. Available at: htt ~ ~European Respiratory Society (ERS) (
1523  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health
1524  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       in tobacco control in 30 European countries, 2005 to 2007.
1525  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 inequalities in smoking in the European Union: applying an equity
1526  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Products, Preliminary Report. European Commission, 2007~Warren
1527  III,    10.  2.  1    |                                WHO (2002): The European health report 2002. European
1528  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   European health report 2002. European Series no. 97. Copenhagen:
1529  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Statistical Database of the European Union~OECD Health Data.
1530  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      alcohol and medicine~ECAS~European Comparative Alcohol Study~
1531  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     marketing of Alcohol~ESPAD~European Schools Project on Alcohol
1532  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      PHEPA~Primary Health Care European Project~WHO~World Health
1533  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Baumberg (2006) are:.~ ~European Commission~ ~· Updated country
1534  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       APN), co-financed by the European Commission (http://www.ias.
1535  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Commission-funded projects~ ~· European Comparative Alcohol Study (
1536  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        comparative surveys~ ~· European Schools Project on Alcohol
1537  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     patterns of drinking~ ~The European Union is the heaviest drinking
1538  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       levels visible in non-EU European countries such as Iceland
1539  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        age. Data from the 2003 European School Survey Project on
1540  III,    10.  2.  1    |                consumption.~ ~Each year in the European Union, it has been estimated
1541  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   which took place in Southern European Countries after the 70s
1542  III,    10.  2.  1    |                estimated that each year in the European Union, alcohol causes:~-
1543  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     and premature death in the European Union is due to alcohol,
1544  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    death and ill-health in the European Union~ ~Economic costs of
1545  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        the central and eastern European countries, the proportions
1546  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        in alcohol in the whole European Union accounts for 1.3%
1547  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        necessarily affected by European and domestic policy to reduce
1548  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     Evin was challenged in the European Court of Justice, it was
1549  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      adolescents, 2001~http ~ ~European Commission Road Safety Action
1550  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Programme 2003-2010~http ~ ~European Commission Communication
1551  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 alcohol strategy, 2006~http ~ ~European alcohol and health forum,
1552  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     PHEPA: Primary Health Care European Project~http ~ ~EUROCARE –
1553  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 treatment of addiction~http ~ ~European Prospective Investigation
1554  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Perspective - Report to the European Commission. London: Institute
1555  III,    10.  2.  1    |                          Accessed June 2007.~ ~European Court of Justice (ECJ) (
1556  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       in Middle Aged Men in 11 European Countries: Comparison of
1557  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Burden of Disease in the European Region - Implications for
1558  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      alcohol policy in the WHO European Region, Stockoholm 13-15
1559  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Adjusted Life Year~EMCDDA~European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
1560  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and Drug Addiction~ESPAD~European School Survey Project on
1561  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Problem Opioid Use~REITOX~European Information Network on Drugs
1562  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    haveb been collected by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
1563  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      of different drugs in the European Union and Norway~ ~Cannabis
1564  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     from more than 40% in some European countries to below 10% in
1565  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       to 34)~ ~Drug use in the European Union has generally increased
1566  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    suggested that around 1% of European adults, or about 3 million
1567  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   during the 90s in almost all European countries. This trend seems
1568  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 provided to the EMCDDA and the European Centre for the Epidemiological
1569  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       several countries of the European Union. In Estonia, Latvia
1570  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 cocaine use more than doubled. European data on drug users entering
1571  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       tools and policies~ ~The European Union has developed a specific
1572  III,    10.  2.  1    |                problems have been a concern at European Union level since the late
1573  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       eighties, with the first European action plan to combat drug
1574  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   adopted in 1990. The current European drug strategy runs for the
1575  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   agreed targets.~ ~Almost all European countries now have a national
1576  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  possible to talk about common European patterns of drug use.~ ~
1577  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Europe: a project of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
1578  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Addiction, 99: 1315-1322.~ ~European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
1579  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     2006. Available at: htt ~ ~European School Survey Project on
1580  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        12 Member States of the European Union, European Commission,
1581  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  States of the European Union, European Commission, Luxembourg.~
1582  III,    10.  2.  1    |                              Acronyms~ ~EGOHID European Global Oral Health Indicators
1583  III,    10.  2.  1    |               improving the performance of the European dental health system could
1584  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    data are available yet on a European scale (Bourgeois et al,
1585  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      was observed in most East European countries i.e. Lithuania (
1586  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      accounts for 18.5% of the European oral hygiene market. Total
1587  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 recommendations issue from the European health Strategy (2007) underlined
1588  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         O'Mullane DM (2006): A European perspective on fluoride
1589  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Surveillance in Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators
1590  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       in Europe recommended by European Global Oral Health Indicators
1591  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      In Press).~ ~ ~Council of European Dentists’ (CED) (2007):
1592  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        CED) (2007): Council of European Dentistsposition paper “
1593  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        paperResponses to the European Commission’s discussion
1594  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     toothpaste: conclusions of European Union-funded multicentre
1595  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 frequently used across the WHO European Region. It emphasizes the
1596  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        to 10% of deaths in the European Region (WHO, 2002; WHO,
1597  III,    10.  2.  1    |            physical activity prevalence in the European Union. Data is currently
1598  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Candidate and EFTA Countries.~ ~European surveys~ ~a) Eurobarometer
1599  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     conducted on behalf of the European Commission in all member
1600  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       all member States of the European Union. Starting with Eurobarometer
1601  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      62.0: The citizens of the European Union and Sport (TNS Opinion
1602  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        multicentre studies~ ~- European Youth Heart study (Riddoch
1603  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       year-old children in the European Region, 2001/2002~ ~In most
1604  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  selected countries in the WHO European Region, 2001/2002~ ~Impact
1605  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         of total DALYs) in the European WHO Region alone. In many
1606  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      minutes of brisk walking (European Commission, 2000a). It has
1607  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        by cycling and walking (European Commission, 2000b).~ ~In
1608  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     last ten years by both the European Commission and WHO. Some
1609  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        a side event of the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1610  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    document Steps to health: a European framework to promote physical activity
1611  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  working documents for the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1612  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Member States of the WHO European Region, experts and policy-makers
1613  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Member States of the WHO European Region in promoting physical activity
1614  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     who.int/healthy-cities).~ ~European Commission~ ~In 2005, the
1615  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  physical activity and health (European Commission, 2005a). Under
1616  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Under the leadership of the European Commission, the platform
1617  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    under the leadership of the European Commission and to provide
1618  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        problem.~ ~In 2007, the European Union launched the White
1619  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Obesity related health issues (European Commission, 2007a). The
1620  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: a European dimension for the prevention
1621  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  obesity and chronic diseases (European Commission, 2005b, RIVM,
1622  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       part of this goal.~ ~The European Commission is preparing
1623  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Paper on Urban Mobility (European Commission, 2007b).~ ~The
1624  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Commission, 2007b).~ ~The European Commission has also published
1625  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        a White Paper on Sport (European Commision, 2007c), which
1626  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       the role of sport in the European Union, including physical activity.
1627  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 accompanied by an Action Plan (European Commission, 2007d), which
1628  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     Medicine, 25(2):100104.~ ~European Commission (2000a): EU Transport
1629  III,    10.  2.  1    |              Statistical pocketbook. Brussels, European Commission Directorate-General
1630  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Energy and Transport.~ ~European Commission (2000b): WalCyng:
1631  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       modes safer. Brussels.~ ~European Commission (2005a): EU platform
1632  III,    10.  2.  1    |        physical activity and health. Brussels, European Commission, Directorate-General
1633  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Consumer Protection. [ht ~ ~European Commission (2005b): Green
1634  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: a European dimension for the prevention
1635  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Brussels, Commission of the European Communities (COM(2005) 637
1636  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        2005) 637 final.~[ht ~ ~European Commission (2007a): White
1637  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. [ht ~ ~European
1638  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   European Communities. [ht ~ ~European Commission (2007b): GREEN
1639  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       urban_mobility_en.pdf]~ ~European Commission (2007c): WHITE
1640  III,    10.  2.  1    |               whitepaper/wp_on_sport_en.pdf]~ ~European Commission (2007d): COMMISSION
1641  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       physical activity across European Union countries: the Eurobarometer
1642  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      62.0: The citizens of the European Union and Sport. Requested
1643  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Organization (WHO) (2006b): European Strategy for the Prevention
1644  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Regional Office for Europe: European Charter on Counteracting
1645  III,    10.  2.  1    |                Challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies
1646  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     Europe: Steps to health: a European framework to promote physical activity
1647  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Dietary Reference Intake~EHES~European Heath Examination Survey~
1648  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Examination Survey~EHIS~European Health Interview Survey~
1649  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Health Interview Survey~EHN~European Hearth Network~FBDG~Food-Based
1650  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        growing rapidly in many European countries for both women
1651  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       the Member States of the European Union (EU) (Commission of
1652  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         EU) (Commission of the European Communities, 2005; WHO,
1653  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      is progressing in the WHO European region(53, Member States)
1654  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      trends (Commission of the European Communities, 2005). In 2002,
1655  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       was prepared for the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1656  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005a; Statistical
1657  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005b; Statistical
1658  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005c; Statistical
1659  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005d; Statistics
1660  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  contrast to national surveys, European surveys can be used for
1661  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        are carried out in many European countries and provide valuable
1662  III,    10.  2.  1    |                          To overcome this, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
1663  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        is developing a concise European food consumption database
1664  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         EFSA has established a European Network of Food Consumption
1665  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   members, each representing a European country and responsible
1666  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    consumption surveys of each European country represented in the
1667  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        represented in the EFSA European Network of Food Consumption
1668  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     consumption surveys of the European countries represented in
1669  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        represented in the EFSA European Network of Food Consumption
1670  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Food and nutrient intake in European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
1671  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        of food to consumers.~ ~European studies on dietary intake
1672  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       an ongoing project – the European Union DAFNE (DAta Food NEtworking) –
1673  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     data from 75 surveys in 16 European countries(15 EU Member States
1674  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      web (htt ~ ~A total of 23 European countries participated in
1675  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  countries participated in the European Food Consumption Survey
1676  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   research is continued in the European Food Consumption Validation(
1677  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 hazardous chemicals within the European population. One of the main
1678  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    consumption patterns.~ ~The European Prospective Investigation
1679  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  intake data were collected at European level.~ ~The rationale of
1680  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        is to establish a large European prospective cohort study
1681  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    from 27 study centres in 10 European countries (France, Italy,
1682  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 national surveys from fourteen European countries was realised in
1683  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      was realised in the first European Nutrition and Health Report
1684  III,    10.  2.  1(24)|                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005d), Cyprus (
1685  III,    10.  2.  1(24)|                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005c), Czech Republic (
1686  III,    10.  2.  1(24)|                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005a), Slovakia (
1687  III,    10.  2.  1(24)|                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005b), Slovenia (
1688  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities, 2005a) and
1689  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 school-age children in the WHO European Region will be overweight
1690  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        lost (Commission of the European Communities, 2005; National
1691  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Health Organization (WHO) European Region (at present comprising
1692  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    total population in the WHO European Region (James et al, 2004).~ ~
1693  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        countries, the northern European states and Austria, and
1694  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      fifty all over the world (European Commission, 2005). The main
1695  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  deficiency is endemic in many European countries, especially in
1696  III,    10.  2.  1    |               consumption is generally high in European States so that its use should
1697  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      is generally high in most European countries, iron is considered
1698  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      maintain stores. Overall, European soils are poor in selenium
1699  III,    10.  2.  1    |              appropriate for a large number of European citizens to:~ ~· have a
1700  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       7.6. Comparisons between European Hearth Network (EHN) and
1701  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     last ten years by both the European Commission and the WHO:~ ~·
1702  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Global Epidemic” (1997)~· European Council Resolution on “Health
1703  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         Health and Nutrition” (European Council, 2000a)~· WHO/FAO
1704  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  physical activity and health (European Commission, 2005a). This
1705  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    under the leadership of the European Commission and to provide
1706  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: A European dimension for the prevention
1707  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  obesity and chronic diseases (European Commission, 2005b; RIVM,
1708  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       2005b; RIVM, 2006)~· The European Charter on counteracting
1709  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       November 2006 at the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1710  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Office for Europe, 2007b)~· European Parliament resolution on
1711  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     Related to Health Issues” (European Commission, 2007)~· Second
1712  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 Commission, 2007)~· Second WHO European Action Plan for Food and
1713  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     and food-borne diseases.~· European Parliament resolution of
1714  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       follow-up actions of the European Charter on Counteracting
1715  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      the Member States and the European Community. When dealing
1716  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Most countries in the WHO European Region have developed nutrition
1717  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   background paper for the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1718  III,    10.  2.  1    |                background document for the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1719  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      in the White Paper of the European Commission (Commission of
1720  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Commission (Commission of the European Communities, 2007), monitoring
1721  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Europe is establishing a European childhood obesity surveillance
1722  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      within the context of the European Community Health Indicators–
1723  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   response” (Commission of the European Communities, 2007).~ ~In
1724  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         In September 2007, the European Union adopted a wide-ranging
1725  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      for Fruit and Vegetables (European Council, 2007a) to promote
1726  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       Overweight and Obesity' (European Commission, 2007), which
1727  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    need for coherent action at European level and draws attention
1728  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      could play in shaping the European diet, especially to combat
1729  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     the following declaration (European Council 2007b): "In light
1730  III,    10.  2.  1    |                            In keeping with the European Commission's commitment
1731  III,    10.  2.  1    |               demonstrating its added value at European level and analysing the
1732  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  identified four options for a European 'School Fruit Scheme':~Option
1733  III,    10.  2.  1    |                certainly not be developed on a European level but at the most on
1734  III,    10.  2.  1    |              foodstuffs to the final consumer (European Council, 2000b) is the main
1735  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       health claims for foods (European Council, 2006a) was adopted
1736  III,    10.  2.  1    |                          Regulation 1925/2006 (European Council, 2006b) harmonises
1737  III,    10.  2.  1    |                          Directive 2002/46/EC (European Council, 2002) establishes
1738  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Commission Directive 2001/15/EC (European Commission, 2001) and Commission
1739  III,    10.  2.  1    |               Commission Directive 2006/34/EC (European Commission, 2006).~ ~
1740  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 developments~ ~In adopting the European Charter on counteracting
1741  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 objectives” (Commission of the European Communities, 2007).~ ~Action
1742  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   Action key areas for the WHO European Action Plan for Food and
1743  III,    10.  2.  1    |                challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategy
1744  III,    10.  2.  1    |                challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategy
1745  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    cure. Lancet 360:473-482.~ ~European Food Sicurety Agency EFSA (
1746  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Womens Health 48:338345.~ ~European Commission (2001): Directive
1747  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    CELEX:32001L0015:EN:HTML]~ ~European Commission (2005a): EU platform
1748  III,    10.  2.  1    |        physical activity and health. Brussels, European Commission, Directorate-General
1749  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~European Commission (2005b): Green
1750  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: a European dimension for the prevention
1751  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Brussels, Commission of the European Communities (COM(2005):
1752  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       2005): 637 final.~[ht ~ ~European Commission (2006): Directive
1753  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    2006:083:0014:01:EN:HTML]~ ~European Commission (2007): White
1754  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. [ht ] (report
1755  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 accessed on 8 October 2007).~ ~European Council (2000a): Council
1756  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       C20 of 23 January 2001].~European Council (2000b): Directive
1757  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Directive 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
1758  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     CELEX:32000L0013:EN:HTML].~European Council (2002): Directive
1759  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    Directive 2002/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
1760  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      CELEX:32002L0046:EN:HTML]~European Council (2006a): Regulation (
1761  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       EC): No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council
1762  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      2006:404:0009:01:EN:HTML]~European Council (2006b): Regulation (
1763  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       EC): No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council
1764  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     2006:404:0026:01:EN:HTML].~European Council (2007a): COUNCIL
1765  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        273:0001:0030:EN:PDF]~ ~European Council (2007b): Council
1766  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 overview of trends since 1983. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
1767  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       burden of disease in the European Union. Stockholm, National
1768  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      WHO Regional Publications European Series, No. 96. [ht ] (report
1769  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    four different definitions. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
1770  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: a European dimension for the prevention
1771  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  preschool children in Cyprus. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
1772  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities (2005a): Health
1773  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities. [database online,
1774  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities (2005b): Health
1775  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities. [database online,
1776  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities (2005c): Health
1777  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities. [database online,
1778  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities (2005d): Health
1779  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities.~[database online,
1780  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  suggested approach. Brussels, European Centre for Health Policy;
1781  III,    10.  2.  1    |                  Office for Europe (2005): The European health report 2005Public
1782  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     Office for Europe (2006a): European Charter on Counteracting
1783  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        developments in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen, World
1784  III,    10.  2.  1    |                    2007a): Proposed Second WHO European Action Plan for Food and
1785  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        for Europe (2007b): WHO European Ministerial Conference on
1786  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     2007c): Steps to health: a European framework to promote physical activity
1787  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        fruit and vegetables in European children and their mothers,
1788  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   Weichselbaum E (eds) (2005): European Nutrition and Health Report
1789  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     and energy intakes for the European Community. Commission of
1790  III,    10.  2.  1    |                   Community. Commission of the European Communities, Directorate
1791  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       other plant foods in the European Prospective Investigation
1792  III,    10.  2.  1    |                         EPIC): cohorts from 10 European countries. Public Health
1793  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Group (2002): Summary - European food consumption survey
1794  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      Nutr 56 Suppl 2: S1-S3.~ ~European Commission (2005): Promoting
1795  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       and physical activity: a European dimension for the prevention
1796  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       farm to fork statistics. European Commission. Agriculture
1797  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       of dairy products in the European Prospective Investigation
1798  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     hour dietary recalls in 10 European countries. Public Health
1799  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      product consumption in 10 European countries: the European
1800  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        European countries: the European Prospective Investigation
1801  III,    10.  2.  1    |                     added fats and oils in the European Prospective Investigation
1802  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       EPIC): centres across 10 European countries as assessed by
1803  III,    10.  2.  1    |                        Meat consumption in the European Prospective Investigation
1804  III,    10.  2.  1    |                       hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation
1805  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      alcohol consumption in 10 European countries participating
1806  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation
1807  III,    10.  2.  1    |                      consumption within the 10 European countries participating
1808  III,    10.  2.  1    |                 countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer
1809  III,    10.  2.  3    |                     139/85-89, quite common in European countries and about 2 times
1810  III,    10.  2.  4    |                   Consumer Protection~ ~of the European Commission~DNA~Deoxyribonucleic
1811  III,    10.  2.  4    |                     Deoxyribonucleic Acid~EGAN~European Genetic AlliancesNetwork~
1812  III,    10.  2.  4    |                    AlliancesNetwork~EURORDIS~European Organisation for Rare Diseases~
1813  III,    10.  2.  4    |                       and Development~Orphanet~European Database of Rare Diseases
1814  III,    10.  2.  4    |                   PHGEN~Public Health Genomics European Network~REACH~Registration,
1815  III,    10.  2.  4    |              statistics in genomics. Up to now European health statistics cover
1816  III,    10.  2.  4    |                 disease and mutation specific. European networks like Orphanet and
1817  III,    10.  2.  4    |                        have a low frequency in European populations. Rare diseases
1818  III,    10.  2.  4    |                       context of genomics. The European Union has regulated certain
1819  III,    10.  2.  4    |                     are well grounded. Several European initiatives such as EGAN,
1820  III,    10.  2.  4    |                         Public Health Genomics European Network (PHGEN)” is currently
1821  III,    10.  2.  4    |                        is currently drafting a European policy perspective which
1822  III,    10.  2.  4    |                         The Commission and the European Parliament are obliged to
1823  III,    10.  2.  4    |                        become difficult. Thus, European and global initiatives are
1824  III,    10.  2.  4    |                       a dangerous combination? European Journal of Public Health,
1825  III,    10.  2.  5    |                       available in Europe. The European Community Health Indicator (
1826  III,    10.  2.  5    |                        relevant section.~ ~The European Early Promotion Project (
1827  III,    10.  2.  5    |                  provides the only comparative European data on early mother-child
1828  III,    10.  2.  5    |                    cancer is increasing in the European population. The cancer appears
1829  III,    10.  2.  5    |                        Cox A, Day C (2002) The European Early Promotion Project:
1830  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    children and workers. Every European citizen today is exposed
1831  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    skin cancers in the Western European population is connected
1832  III,    10.  3.  1    |                 Environmental Noise Directive (European Commission, 2002), exposure
1833  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        these activities to the European Commission. However, it
1834  III,    10.  3.  1    |                       EEA report 10, 2005),the European Environment Agency (EEA)
1835  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        press May 2007) and the European Union Scientific Committee
1836  III,    10.  3.  1    |                       A pooled analysis of all European epidemiological studies
1837  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     radon exposure. Almost all European countries have monitoring
1838  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     maps. The vast majority of European countries do not consider
1839  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     years) annually in the WHO European region (GLOBOCAN, 2002).
1840  III,    10.  3.  1    |          socio-economic status and in Northern European populations. This is probably
1841  III,    10.  3.  1    |                       incidence differ between European countries. Sharp increases
1842  III,    10.  3.  1    |                   increase further in Southern European countries. However, in some
1843  III,    10.  3.  1    |                      some Northern and Western European countries incidence rates
1844  III,    10.  3.  1    |                 Electromagnetic fields~ ~Every European citizen is today exposed
1845  III,    10.  3.  1    |                       of higher frequency. The European Union Scientific Committee
1846  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     exposures above 0.4 µT. In European countries, the proportion
1847  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        childhood leukaemia. In European countries the incidence
1848  III,    10.  3.  1    |                          60 dB(A) in different European countries~ ~The main health
1849  III,    10.  3.  1    |                   Network (CALM, 2007).~ ~Some European countries estimate that
1850  III,    10.  3.  1    |                  Europe cover either the whole European region with generic data
1851  III,    10.  3.  1    |                   generic data or parts of the European region (e.g. regions or
1852  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        ionizing radiation, the European Commission issued a Recommendation (
1853  III,    10.  3.  1    |                    ozone depleting substances. European countries have successfully
1854  III,    10.  3.  1    |                      technical evidence.~ ~The European Parliament and Council adopted
1855  III,    10.  3.  1    |                   should be implemented at pan European level. The complete phasing-out
1856  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        individual data from 13 European case-control studies. Brit.
1857  III,    10.  3.  1    |                         The fourth assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen~
1858  III,    10.  3.  1    |                        Agency, Copenhagen~EEA (European Environment Agency), 2005.
1859  III,    10.  3.  1    |                      10/2005. EEA, Copenhagen.~European Commission (2002): Noise
1860  III,    10.  3.  1    |                         Noise directive (htt )~European Union Scientific Committee
1861  III,    10.  3.  1    |                     WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 23 and 91~World
1862  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  Environment Action Program~EC~European Commission~ECB~European
1863  III,    10.  3.  2    |                        European Commission~ECB~European Chemicals Bureau~ECHA~European
1864  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 European Chemicals Bureau~ECHA~European Chemicals Agency~EEA~European
1865  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  European Chemicals Agency~EEA~European Environment Agency~EECCA~
1866  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 Caucasus and Central Asia~EPER~European Pollutant Emission Register~
1867  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 Pollutant Emission Register~EU~European Union~European PRTR~European
1868  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     Register~EU~European Union~European PRTR~European Pollutant
1869  III,    10.  3.  2    |                   European Union~European PRTR~European Pollutant Release and Transfer~
1870  III,    10.  3.  2    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities~GDP~Gross Domestic
1871  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       4% of world imports. The European chemical industry is the
1872  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 respect to economic turn-over. European legislation is distinguishing
1873  III,    10.  3.  2    |                        diseases of adults. The European environment and health action
1874  III,    10.  3.  2    |                      production and trade. The European Union adopted in December
1875  III,    10.  3.  2    |                      chemical products~Source: European Environment Agency (2007)~ ~ ~ ~
1876  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     based on extracts from the European Environment Agency (EEA)
1877  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       based on a wide array of European and global information sources.
1878  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       national authorities and European Commission Services.~ ~·
1879  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       Commission Services.~ ~· European Chemicals Bureau http /.
1880  III,    10.  3.  2    |                              In the future the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA)
1881  III,    10.  3.  2    |                          Chemical production~ ~European countries contribute significantly
1882  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     has been available via the European Pollutant Emission Register (
1883  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       progress report from the European commission, EU countries
1884  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     information to the public (European Commission, 2007).~ ~Globalisation
1885  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  health problems. 14 of the 16 European companies that belong to
1886  III,    10.  3.  2    |                    typical representative of a European industrialised and urbanised
1887  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 exposures at low doses~Source: European Environment Agency & Joint
1888  III,    10.  3.  2    |                    cancer is increasing in the European population. The cancer appears
1889  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       the EU Mercury strategy (European Commission, 2005), and UNEPs
1890  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       data on lead exposure of European citizens are necessary and
1891  III,    10.  3.  2    |                          Biomonitoring~ ~Every European citizen has man-made chemicals
1892  III,    10.  3.  2    |                    round in 1987/8 included 12 European countries and indicated
1893  III,    10.  3.  2    |                      Control (IPPC) Directive (European Commission, 1996), through
1894  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     have to be reported to the European Pollutant Emission Register (
1895  III,    10.  3.  2    |              negotiation. REACH is seen as the European contribution to SAICM. Its
1896  III,    10.  3.  2    |                 picture – and also include the European human health fingerprint
1897  III,    10.  3.  2    |                verbraucher nachen Produkten.~ ~European Chemical Industry Council (
1898  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     2003. Available at: htt ~ ~European Chemical Industry Council (
1899  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     2015: Perspectives for the European Chemical Industry.~ ~CEFIC (
1900  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       9). Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1996): COUNCIL
1901  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  control.~Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): Report
1902  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     2005. Available at: htt ~ ~European Pollutant Emission Register (htt ~ ~
1903  III,    10.  3.  2    |                      Emission Register (htt ~ ~European Commission (2005): Communication
1904  III,    10.  3.  2    |              Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Community
1905  III,    10.  3.  2    |                       strategy website: htt ~ ~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
1906  III,    10.  3.  2    |                     2005. Available at: htt ~ ~European Environment Agency (2007):
1907  III,    10.  3.  2    |                        A Joint Report from the European Environment Agency and the
1908  III,    10.  3.  2    |                  Office for Europe. Copenhagen:European Environment Agency. Available: htt f [
1909  III,    10.  3.  3    |                                Acronyms~ ~ECDC~European Centre for Diseases Control~
1910  III,    10.  3.  3    |                      under surveillance by the European Centre for Diseases Control (
1911  III,    10.  3.  3    |                    three million people in the European Union catch a healthcare-associated
1912  III,    10.  3.  4    |                       on the Epidemiology~ECCP~European Climate Change Programme~
1913  III,    10.  3.  4    |                      loss each year in the WHO European Region. Between 1990 and
1914  III,    10.  3.  4    |                        76.250 deaths in the 25 European Union countries26, affecting
1915  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     rainfall: in recent years, European countries have been experiencing
1916  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     are the most vulnerable.~ ~European Ministers acknowledged already
1917  III,    10.  3.  4    |                   Menne & Ebi, 2006). The 2005 European Commission’s Communication "
1918  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     global climate change. The European Council and Parliament have
1919  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     pre-industrial levels. The European Council expressed the need
1920  III,    10.  3.  4    |                   reductions and requested the European Commission to deepen its
1921  III,    10.  3.  4    |                       respond to this request (European Commission, 2007).~ ~The
1922  III,    10.  3.  4    |                measures. A second phase of the European Climate Change Programme (
1923  III,    10.  3.  4    |                   started in October 2005. The European Commission has since come
1924  III,    10.  3.  4    |                 overview of events recorded in European Union countries. Extreme
1925  III,    10.  3.  4    |                   extreme weather events in 25 European Union countries, 19902006~ ~
1926  III,    10.  3.  4    |                      help Member States in the European Region to adopt measures
1927  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     ageing populations in many European countries, this is of particular
1928  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     during heatwave 2003 in 25 European Union countries~Vulnerability
1929  III,    10.  3.  4    |                      Cold-related mortality in European populations has declined
1930  III,    10.  3.  4    |                   frequent natural disaster in European Union countries, with important
1931  III,    10.  3.  4    |                       of related deaths in the European Region, 19902006~ ~Exposure
1932  III,    10.  3.  4    |                        6 million people in the European Union during the period
1933  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     Southern Europe and in the European islands, droughts represent
1934  III,    10.  3.  4    |                     died from wildfires in the European Region, and the devastation
1935  III,    10.  3.  4    |                    state that the situation in European Union countries fortunately
1936  III,    10.  3.  4    |                          At the same time, the European Region should address the
1937  III,    10.  3.  4    |                Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt.~ ~European Commission, 2007~Ahern et
1938  III,    10.  4.  1    |                  Environment Action Program~EC~European Commission~EC4MACS~European
1939  III,    10.  4.  1    |                    European Commission~EC4MACS~European Consortium for Modelling
1940  III,    10.  4.  1    |                       of Air Pollution and~EEA~European Environment Agency~EECCA~
1941  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities~ExternE~Externalities
1942  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      Today, the drivers of the European air pollution problem are
1943  III,    10.  4.  1    |                  problem are different between European regions. However, traffic
1944  III,    10.  4.  1    |                        chapter is based on the European Environment Agency (EEA)
1945  III,    10.  4.  1    |                   national authorities and the European Commission Services.~ ~WHO
1946  III,    10.  4.  1    |                        Research consortia.~ ~· European Commission : ht CAFE CBA: htt
1947  III,    10.  4.  1    |                    data that have been used in European air pollution management.
1948  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      data, compared to current European guidelines, target values
1949  III,    10.  4.  1    |                         including children) in European cities, where PM10 is monitored,
1950  III,    10.  4.  1    |                         For 14% of people, the European Union (EU) limit value of
1951  III,    10.  4.  1    |             statistical life expectancy of the European population by approximately
1952  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     annually in a selection of European cities (WHO, 2004). The
1953  III,    10.  4.  1    |               pollution impact made within the European Commission Clean Air For
1954  III,    10.  4.  1    |               Commission Clean Air For Europe (European Commission, 2005d) programme
1955  III,    10.  4.  1    |                   particularly important since European children spend more than
1956  III,    10.  4.  1    |              prevalence in children across the European study centres (ISAAC) varied
1957  III,    10.  4.  1    |                        light of the total time European children and adults spend
1958  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     quality. There are several European directives that regulate
1959  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     outdoor air quality but no European guidelines for indoor air
1960  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     for the listed pollutants (European Commission, 2005a; European
1961  III,    10.  4.  1    |                    European Commission, 2005a; European Commission 2005b).~The air
1962  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      information.~In 2001, the European Commission launched the
1963  III,    10.  4.  1    |                       of the other pollutants (European Commission, 2005b).~Following
1964  III,    10.  4.  1    |                        policy of South-eastern European countries is driven by the
1965  III,    10.  4.  1    |                     References~ ~AirBase – the European air quality database. Copenhagen,
1966  III,    10.  4.  1    |                  quality database. Copenhagen, European Environment Agency, 2006 (
1967  III,    10.  4.  1    |                      accessed 7 March 2007).~ ~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
1968  III,    10.  4.  1    |                         The fourth assessment. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen~ ~
1969  III,    10.  4.  1    |               Environment Agency, Copenhagen~ ~European Environment Agency (EEA) &
1970  III,    10.  4.  1    |                            and the new www. ~ ~European Commission (2005a): Proposed
1971  III,    10.  4.  1    |                        accessed August 2007)~ ~European Commission (2005b): Commission
1972  III,    10.  4.  1    |                    2005). Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission, Clean Air for
1973  III,    10.  4.  1    |                           Access April 2005)~ ~European Commission (2005d): Science
1974  III,    10.  4.  1    |                  europe (CAFE) Programme. 10th European Health Forum Gastain.~ ~
1975  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Cumulative Risk Assessment~EFSA~European Food Safety Authority~EU-RAIN~
1976  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       Safety Authority~EU-RAIN~European Union Risk Analysis Information
1977  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      of food safety within the European Union face unprecedented
1978  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         As a consequence, most European countries and the EU institutions
1979  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       GFL) and established the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA).
1980  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Regulation is the protection of European public health while at the
1981  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     consumer confidence in the European food supply. Indeed, this
1982  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       of the challenges facing European authorities is to identify
1983  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     consumer confidence in the European food supply, an innovative
1984  III,    10.  4.  2    |               identified several weaknesses in European food legislation systems,
1985  III,    10.  4.  2    |                establishment of an independent European food authority;~· an improved
1986  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       On 28th January 2002 the European Parliament and the Council
1987  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    which are undertaken by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).~ ~
1988  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        and the creation of the European Food Safety Authority, the
1989  III,    10.  4.  2    |                continue to be exercised by the European institutions.~ ~Risk assessment
1990  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        risk communication: the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)~ ~
1991  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       Founding Regulation, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
1992  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament on 28 January
1993  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      on 28 January 2002.~ ~The European Food Authority would base
1994  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      with the EU institutions (European Commission, European Parliament
1995  III,    10.  4.  2    |             institutions (European Commission, European Parliament and the Council,
1996  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  advice mainly coming from the European Commission, the European
1997  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       European Commission, the European Parliament and EU Member
1998  III,    10.  4.  2    |           methodologies across the Panels, the European Union and internationally.~ ~
1999  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      scientific data to ensure European risk assessment is supported
2000  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       a border post within the European Union.~There are two categories