1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1500 | 1501-2000 | 2001-2500 | 2501-2901
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

2001  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        dyes. There are similar European alert system and networks
2002  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        will be included in the European monitoring scheme. Article
2003  III,    10.  4.  2    |               spongiform encephalopathy.~ ~The European Community system for the
2004  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    This Directive required the European Member States to collect,
2005  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 legislation was adopted by the European Council and Parliament on
2006  III,    10.  4.  2(29)|                    Directive 2003/99/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2007  III,    10.  4.  2    |            particularly research projects.~The European Union Risk Analysis Information
2008  III,    10.  4.  2(33)|                  Decision No 2119/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2009  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         Several years ago, the European Commission established the
2010  III,    10.  4.  2    |                collected and analysed from all European Union Member States in order
2011  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    food-borne outbreaks to the European Commission and the European
2012  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    European Commission and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
2013  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   humans was acquired from the European Centre for Disease Prevention
2014  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      specific areas of several European countries.~ ~ ~Table 10.
2015  III,    10.  4.  2(34)|                             In August 2006 the European Commission set targets for
2016  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Treaty establishing the European Community.~A risk analysis
2017  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  utensils imported from China (European Commission, 2006).~ ~Persistence,
2018  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 considerable proportion of the European population still exceeds
2019  III,    10.  4.  2    |                          On 24 April 2002, the European Commission informed via
2020  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        during the 10 years. At European level, national estimates
2021  III,    10.  4.  2    |                published on the website of the European Commission39.~ ~Currently,
2022  III,    10.  4.  2(38)|                              Commission of the European Communities: Monitoring
2023  III,    10.  4.  2(38)|                Products of Plant Origin in the European Union, Norway, Iceland and
2024  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        and are reported to the European Commission on an annual
2025  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       basis as required by the European food monitoring programme.~ ~
2026  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     monitoring programme.~ ~At European level, harmonised provisions
2027  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    pesticides are covered. The European Commission has a food standards
2028  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       the Baby Food Directive (European Commission 2006). This stipulates
2029  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       US EPA, but also in some European countries, on anticholinergic (
2030  III,    10.  4.  2(40)|                               Commission f the European Communities:Monitoring of
2031  III,    10.  4.  2(40)|                Products of Plant Origin in the European Union, Norway,Iceland and
2032  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     protect public health, the European Commission has established
2033  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      On January 1st, 1993, the European Common Market came into
2034  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  foreseen by the treaty of the European Union.~ ~Since 1 January
2035  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     Market, but to the entireEuropean Economic Area” which includes,
2036  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      Iceland and Norway.~ ~The European Union Strategy for the implementation
2037  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     During the late 1990s, the European consumer was faced with
2038  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    within the EU. This led the European Commission to forcefully
2039  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       stressed at the Helsinki European Council in December 1999,
2040  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       identifying risks in the European food chain and, therefore
2041  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      the Member States and the European Commission to set EU-wide
2042  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       to the protection of the European consumer from intakes above
2043  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      protection for the entire European population. Risk managers
2044  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        the actual exposures of European consumes Article 32 ;~·
2045  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    based on questions from the European Commission, EFSA’s PRAPeR
2046  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       unit (self-tasking), the European Parliament or from Member
2047  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        on persistence in soil (European Community, 1997) is ongoing;
2048  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     and exposure assessment.~ ~European consultations are currently
2049  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      the responsibility of the European Commission and DG SANCO
2050  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      of 27 January 1997 of the European Parliament and the Council (
2051  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        in complete safety, the European Union has established a
2052  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      worked out by EFSA and in European Commission, considering
2053  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        EFSA, but also of other European Agencies(e.g. ECDL and EEA).
2054  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      risk managers such as the European Commission and EU Member
2055  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         by placing them in the European context and providing the
2056  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        requirements for future European food law. In particular,
2057  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   competent Authorities in the European Member States in enforcing
2058  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         15) was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council.
2059  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      been designated by the 27 European Member States.~ ~Table 10.
2060  III,    10.  4.  2(41)|                        Official Journal of the European Union l 160/98~
2061  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         EC) No 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2062  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2063  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       of the challenges facing European authorities is to identify
2064  III,    10.  4.  2    |                         10.4.2.6. References~ ~European Commission (2002): Decision
2065  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Decision No. 178/2002/CE of the European Parliament and the Council
2066  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and
2067  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 31/1,
2068  III,    10.  4.  2    |             February2002. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2005): Decision
2069  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 338, 22
2070  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2005. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1997): Regulation
2071  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Regulation No. 258/97/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council
2072  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 043, 14
2073  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     1997. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (1990): Decision
2074  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      EEC of the Council of the European Communities of 23 April
2075  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 117, 8
2076  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     1990. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (1997): Guidance
2077  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       97. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2001): Directive
2078  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Directive No. 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2079  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 106 ,
2080  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2001. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): Regulation
2081  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        No. 1829/2003/CE of the European Parliament and of the Council
2082  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 268/1,
2083  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2003. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): Decision
2084  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  Decision No. 1946/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2085  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 287/1,
2086  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2003. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2003): Regulation
2087  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Regulation No. 1830/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2088  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 268/24,
2089  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2003. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2000): Directive
2090  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Directive No. 2000/13/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2091  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 109, 6
2092  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2000. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2007): Decision
2093  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  Decision No. 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2094  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 12/3,
2095  III,    10.  4.  2    |                      2007 Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2006): Regulation
2096  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Regulation No. 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2097  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 404/26,
2098  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2006. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2002): Directive
2099  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Directive No. 2002/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2100  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 183/51,
2101  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2002. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2001) Directive
2102  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 52/19,
2103  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2001. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2006): Directive
2104  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 83/14,
2105  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2006.~Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission (2004): Regulation
2106  III,    10.  4.  2    |                 Regulation No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2107  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 165, 30
2108  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     2004. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission. (1989): Decision
2109  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 395, 30
2110  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       395, 30 December 1989.~ ~European Commission (1998): Council
2111  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 24, 30
2112  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       32. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (2004): Decision
2113  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   Decision No. 852/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2114  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 139, 30
2115  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        L 139, 30 April 2004.~ ~European Commission (2004) Decision
2116  III,    10.  4.  2    |                   Decision No. 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council
2117  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 139, 30
2118  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        L 139, 30 April 2004.~ ~European Commission (1995): Decision
2119  III,    10.  4.  2    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities No. L 332, 30
2120  III,    10.  4.  2    |                       332, 30 December 1995.~ ~European Commission (1976): Directive
2121  III,    10.  4.  2    |               vegetables. available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1986): Directive
2122  III,    10.  4.  2    |                  cereals. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission Directive 90/
2123  III,    10.  4.  2    |                     1990. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Commission, DG SANCO (2002):
2124  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Products of Plant Origin in the European Union, Norway, Iceland and
2125  III,    10.  4.  2    |                    food borne outbreaks in the European Union. The EFSA Journal,
2126  III,    10.  4.  2    |                Conference with support of ILSI European Risk Assessment of compounds
2127  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       of Independent States~EC~European Commission~EEA~European
2128  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        European Commission~EEA~European Environment Agency~EU~European
2129  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 European Environment Agency~EU~European Union~EWGLI~European Working
2130  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        EU~European Union~EWGLI~European Working Group for Legionella
2131  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     water availability in many European regions. Some parts will
2132  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        economic value for many European regions. Therefore, there
2133  III,    10.  4.  3    |                      discussing the quality of European drinking- and recreational
2134  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        WISE), which covers the European Water Framework Directive (
2135  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     Water Framework Directive (European Commission, 2000) and additional
2136  III,    10.  4.  3    |               Commission, 2000) and additional European water-related directives
2137  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    Report” (EEA, 2007), of the European Environment Agency and the
2138  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    events occur throughout the European Region, even in countries
2139  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     raw water supplies. In the European Union, most of the population
2140  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     certain parts of the WHO - European Region (especially Eastern
2141  III,    10.  4.  3    |                information from eight selected European countries shows there were
2142  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   There are regions in several European countries where As concentration
2143  III,    10.  4.  3    |                  country homes (SGU, 2007). At European level, it is estimated that
2144  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        the eastern part of the European Region, access to safe drinking
2145  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     public water supply in the European Union, 2002 or last available
2146  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 outbreaks occur throughout the European Region, even in countries
2147  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     information check with the European Working Group for Legionella
2148  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    Waste water treatment~ ~The European Union is bringing together,
2149  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   major source of pollution of European waters. Waste water discharges
2150  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       in the proportion of the European population connected to
2151  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        5% of the population in European countries (Figure 10.4.3.
2152  III,    10.  4.  3    |                      Nordic- and some Northern European countries, which have the
2153  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        facilities. In Southern European countries coverage ranged
2154  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   derivation of time trends at European level difficult. The available
2155  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 treatment facilities, selected European countries,1980-2003~ ~Sewage
2156  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 residues have been observed in European rivers and lakes, with documented
2157  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   bilateral agreements between European countries are based on the
2158  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     Framework Directive (WFD) (European Commission, 2000) of the
2159  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       Commission, 2000) of the European Union. Within the Convention,
2160  III,    10.  4.  3    |                      the UNECE convention, the European Union adopted in December
2161  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     Framework Directive (WFD) (European Commission 2000), which
2162  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        water management in the European Union. The bearing idea
2163  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        that in order to ensure European citizens continued and sustainable
2164  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        for water management at European level. Water flows do not
2165  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   contaminating chemicals, the European Commission adopted a proposal
2166  III,    10.  4.  3    |                 surface waters from pollution (European Commission, 2006a). The
2167  III,    10.  4.  3    |                  catchments to consumer.~ ~The European Commission also supports
2168  III,    10.  4.  3    |           drinking-water Directive (98/83/EC) (European Commission, 1998a) sets
2169  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        basis. For arsenic most European Union Member States apply
2170  III,    10.  4.  3    |                      271/EEuropean Commission (European Commission, 1991). The target
2171  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       15/EEuropean Commission (European Commission, 1998b) amending
2172  III,    10.  4.  3    |                legislation. A first result is (European Commission, 2007) addressing
2173  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    Scarcity and Drought in the European Union.~
2174  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        commodity for the whole European region. Fortunately, there
2175  III,    10.  4.  3    |                        1992 Convention and the European Water Framework Directive
2176  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     supply of some 140 million European city dwellers comes from
2177  III,    10.  4.  3    |                         10.4.3.6. References~ ~European Commission (1976): Council
2178  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    water. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (1991): Directive
2179  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    Water. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (1998a): The
2180  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       EC. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (1998b): Commission
2181  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     EEC . Available at: htt ML~European Commission (2000): European
2182  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    European Commission (2000): European Water Framework Directive
2183  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       EC. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (2006a): The
2184  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    final. Available at: htt 97~European Commission (2006b): Bathing
2185  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     Directive 2006/7/EC of the European parliament and of the Council
2186  III,    10.  4.  3    |                   Directive 76/160/EEC. htt ML~European Commission (2007): Communication
2187  III,    10.  4.  3    |                     from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council:
2188  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    Scarcity and Drought in the European Union. COM (2007) 414 final.
2189  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    final. Available at: htt ML~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2190  III,    10.  4.  3    |                       Agency (EEA) (2005): The European Environment. State and outlook
2191  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    2005). Available at: htt df~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2192  III,    10.  4.  3    |                    2007). Available at: htt en~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2193  III,    10.  4.  4    |                      at the web portals of the European Consumers Association (BEUC) www g,
2194  III,    10.  4.  4    |                  Association (BEUC) www g, the European Association of Consumer
2195  III,    10.  4.  5    |                        WISE), which covers the European Water Framework Directive (
2196  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     Water Framework Directive (European Commission, 2000) and additional
2197  III,    10.  4.  5    |               Commission, 2000) and additional European water-related directives
2198  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   Report” (EEA, 2007) - of the European Environment Agency and the
2199  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      2005) as well as from the European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2200  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    complied with the mandatory European standards (Figure 10.4.5.
2201  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       Bathing water Directive (European Commission, 2006b) was published
2202  III,    10.  4.  5    |                         Directive 76/160/EEC) (European Commission, 1976) by the
2203  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       starting in 2008.~ ~Most European bathing waters are hosted
2204  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   human marine activities. The European Union is preparing a Thematic
2205  III,    10.  4.  5    |                activities depend.~ ~References~European Commission (2000): European
2206  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    European Commission (2000): European Water Framework Directive
2207  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       EC. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (2006a): The
2208  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    final. Available at: htt 97~European Commission (2006b): Bathing
2209  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     Directive 2006/7/EC of the European parliament and of the Council
2210  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   Directive 76/160/EEC. htt ML~European Commission (2007): Communication
2211  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council:
2212  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    Scarcity and Drought in the European Union. COM (2007) 414 final.
2213  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    final. Available at: htt ML~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2214  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       Agency (EEA) (2005): The European Environment. State and outlook
2215  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    2005). Available at: htt df~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2216  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    2007). Available at: htt en~European Environment Agency (EEA) (
2217  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     disposal~ ~Acronyms~ ~BEUC~European ConsumersAssociation~BTEX~
2218  III,    10.  4.  5    |                  Environment Action Program~EC~European Commission~EEA~European
2219  III,    10.  4.  5    |                        European Commission~EEA~European Environment Agency~EECCA~
2220  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 Caucasus and Central Asia~EFTA~European Free Trade Association (
2221  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   Iceland, Norway,~ETC/RWM~The European Topic Centre on Resource
2222  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       on Resource and Waste~EU~European Union~EUROSTAT~Statistical
2223  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities~HIA~Health impact
2224  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       all Member States of the European Union. The trend in waste
2225  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      the protection of soil at European level.~On the other hand,
2226  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      is primarily based on the European Environmental Agency (EEA)
2227  III,    10.  4.  5    |               generation of hazardous waste in European countries and in different
2228  III,    10.  4.  5    |                     buried in landfills.~ ~All European countries have experienced
2229  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       from 21%-35%. In Eastern European countries, the GDP share
2230  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       cannot be carried out at European level (EEA, 2007a).~ ~A
2231  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    have been operating in many European countries since the 1960s
2232  III,    10.  4.  5    |                        five years. Namely, the European Commission’s thematic strategy
2233  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      qualified majority of the European Council in December 2007.
2234  III,    10.  4.  5    |                       safely, which in most of European region means land filling.
2235  III,    10.  4.  5    |                 amended by Directive 94/31/EC (European Commission, 1994). It provides
2236  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      into force on 16.07.1999 (European Commission, 1999). The deadline
2237  III,    10.  4.  5    |                      treatment.~ ~References~ ~European Commission (1994): Council
2238  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    waste. Available at: htt ~ ~European Commission (1999): Council
2239  III,    10.  4.  5    |                    waste. Available at: htt ~ ~European Environment Agency (2007a):
2240  III,    10.  4.  5    |                   sites”. Available at:~htt ~ ~European Environment Agency (2007b):
2241  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     role in the development of European peoples and has resulted
2242  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      are still present in many European dwellings. Today’s concern
2243  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      inhaled by the residents (European Commission, 1988; Loftness
2244  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 average indoor temperatures in European homes (Wright et al, 2005).~ ~
2245  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     etc.). Using data from the European EXPOLIS study, it is estimated
2246  III,    10.  5.  1    |                  special concern for children (European Child Safety Alliance, 2006).~
2247  III,    10.  5.  1    |                        or commercial activity (European Commission, 1998). Most
2248  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    noise levels of 65 dBA. The European Commission stated that in
2249  III,    10.  5.  1    |                       are defined as critical (European Commission, 1996). City
2250  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     particulate matter in some European cities showed that as much
2251  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 resident number of the cities (European Environment Agency, 2006a).~ ~
2252  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    industrial heritage of many European cities gives rise to another
2253  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 medium-sized cities within the European Union and the candidate
2254  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     Health and Environment Pan European Programme~ ~The Transport,
2255  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     Health and Environment Pan European Programme (THE PEP) was
2256  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 campaigns are also relevant to European countries.~htt ~ ~Thematic
2257  III,    10.  5.  1    |                            EC Directives~ ~The European Commission has published
2258  III,    10.  5.  1    |                         Climate Change and the European Water Dimension – A report
2259  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    Dimension – A report to the European Water Directors. European
2260  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      European Water Directors. European Commission - Joint Research
2261  III,    10.  5.  1    |                       1998, pp. 1389-1396(8)~ ~European Child Safety Alliance (2006):
2262  III,    10.  5.  1    |                potentially dangerous products.~European Child Safety Alliance, Amsterdam.
2263  III,    10.  5.  1    |                Amsterdam. Available at:~htt C2~European Commission (1988): The Construction
2264  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      EEC) Available at: htt tm~European Commission (1996): Green
2265  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 Communication COM(96)540final.~European Commission (1998): Council
2266  III,    10.  5.  1    |                        Official Journal of the European Communities, 1998, L 330(
2267  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      accessed 18 July 2007).~ ~European Environment Agency (2006a):
2268  III,    10.  5.  1    |                   Official Publications of the European Communities.~European Environment
2269  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      the European Communities.~European Environment Agency (2006b):
2270  III,    10.  5.  1    |                   pollution at street level in European cities. EEA Technical Report
2271  III,    10.  5.  1    |                   Official Publications of the European Communities.~ ~Eurostat (
2272  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      systems large problems, a European inventory of small systems
2273  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 associated problems. Web-based European Knowledge Network on Water
2274  III,    10.  5.  1    |                         2006): Injuries in the European Union - Statistics summary
2275  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      Three Central and Eastern European (CEE) Cities. Journal of
2276  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      Housing statistics in the European Union (2004): National Board
2277  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 Elderly People Living at Home. European Journal of Public Health,
2278  III,    10.  5.  1    |                    Food and Rural Affairs~ECHI~European Community Health Indicators~
2279  III,    10.  5.  1    |                        Health Indicators~ECHIM~European Community Health Indicators
2280  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      Indicators Monitoring~EEA~European Environment Agency~EU~European
2281  III,    10.  5.  1    |                 European Environment Agency~EU~European Union~EUROSTAT~The Statistical
2282  III,    10.  5.  1    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities~IDB~Injury Database~
2283  III,    10.  5.  1    |                     Health and Environment Pan European Programme~UN~United Nations~
2284  III,    10.  5.  2    |                      are not representative on European scale.~ ~ ~
2285  III,    10.  5.  2    |                  Unpublished data from the 1st European Quality of Life Survey (
2286  III,    10.  5.  2    |                      is a trend visible in all European countries and relates to
2287  III,    10.  5.  2    |                        the available data on a European scale.~ ~Not much data is
2288  III,    10.  5.  2    |                         20~ ~ ~ ~Adapted from: European Foundation for the Improvement
2289  III,    10.  5.  2    |                         but there are no clear European trends for most of the available
2290  III,    10.  5.  2    |                           There seems to be no European policy tools that directly
2291  III,    10.  5.  2    |                services may be part of general European policy and regional development
2292  III,    10.  5.  2    |                     yet a clear picture on the European dimension of urban-rural
2293  III,    10.  5.  2    |                        Eurofound (2006): First European Quality of Life Survey:
2294  III,    10.  5.  2    |                 Transport and the Regions~EEA~ European Environment Agency~EU~ European
2295  III,    10.  5.  2    |                European Environment Agency~EU~ European Union~EURIPA~ European Rural
2296  III,    10.  5.  2    |                         European Union~EURIPA~ European Rural and Isolated Practitioners
2297  III,    10.  5.  2    |           Practitioners Association~Eurofound:~European Foundation for the Improvement
2298  III,    10.  5.  2    |                      Statistical Office of the European Communities~GDP~ Gross Domestic
2299  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        public health policies (European Commission, 2007).~There
2300  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    from previous projects that European data sources on diseases
2301  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      on working conditions are European Surveys carried out by the
2302  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     Surveys carried out by the European Foundation for Improvement
2303  III,    10.  5.  3    |                nineties. The fourth and latest European Working Conditions Survey
2304  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 context of the projectESAW - European Statistics on Accidents
2305  III,    10.  5.  3    |                developed by the project EODSEuropean Statistics on Occupational
2306  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      cases for 31 items of the European Schedule of Occupational
2307  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       to collect these data on European level. In September 2003,
2308  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     Commission published a new European Schedule on Occupational
2309  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      the ad-hoc-modules of the European labour force surveys in
2310  III,    10.  5.  3    |                  surveys in 1999 and 2002. The European labour force survey is an
2311  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        According to the fourth European Working conditions survey,
2312  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      conditions survey, 23% of European workers are absent from
2313  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       to 2.8 billion Euro in 7 European countries43. However, due
2314  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     2007).~ ~Work Accidents.~ ~European Statistics on Accidents
2315  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    time trends with respect to European member states. As we can
2316  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        According to the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey,
2317  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      differs remarkably across European member states. Whereas in
2318  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        10.5.3.1 summarizes the European workforce as assessed by
2319  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        as assessed by the 2005 European Union Labour Force Survey (
2320  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 million people resident in the European Union held a job or had
2321  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       below the 2001 Stockholm European Council target for 2010.~·
2322  III,    10.  5.  3    |                possible thanks to the repeated European Working Condition Survey.
2323  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     intensity has increased in European Member States. This is assessed
2324  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   Changes in the workforce~The European workforce has changed in
2325  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       of the workforce. In all European countries, the average age
2326  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 immigration of new groups into European Member States. The EU is
2327  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     enterprises has increased. European figures from Eurostat show
2328  III,    10.  5.  3    |                  change over the next decades. European Member States will need
2329  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     ministries on national and European policy level. This complicates
2330  III,    10.  5.  3    |                  Council Directive 89/391/EEC (European Commission, 1989). The term “
2331  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    national standards for OSH (European Commission, 2004). Health
2332  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       setting (WHO, 1986).~The European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (
2333  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        and is supported by the European Commission through the Programme
2334  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        edge of developments in European workplace health promotion.
2335  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       the quality model of the European Foundation for Quality Management.
2336  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        Quality Management. The European Network for Workplace Health Promotion
2337  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      related ill health in the European workforce. The ENWHP is
2338  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     the main provisions of the European Union since 1952, its legal
2339  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      by players at all levels: European, national, local and workplace,
2340  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        occupational problem at European level (European Agency for
2341  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     problem at European level (European Agency for Health & Safety
2342  III,    10.  5.  3    |                respectively (Eurofound, 2005).~European directives, Member States’
2343  III,    10.  5.  3    |                    supplemented by a series of European standards (EN standards).
2344  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        EN standards). The main European directives relevant to preventing
2345  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      more detailed principles (European Agency for Health & Safety
2346  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 scheduling~ ~The main relevant European Directives are:~- 89/391/
2347  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        days absence from work (European Agency for Health & Safety
2348  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        Requirements set in the European Directives, such as on workplaces,
2349  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        significant part of the European Union’s action. ‘Lighten
2350  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     was the theme for the 2007 European Campaign dedicated to MSDs.
2351  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     The Campaign continued the European union’s action on MSDs initiated
2352  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     initiated during the first European Week in 2000, ‘Turn your
2353  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   Legislation~According to the European Commission’s evaluation
2354  III,    10.  5.  3    |                         of EU25 member states (European Commission, 2004). In addition,
2355  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 Display Screen Equipment), the European Commission found out that
2356  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        three days fell by 20% (European Commission, 2007). There
2357  III,    10.  5.  3    |                         The evaluation report (European Commission, 2007) revealed
2358  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   affected. It is also stated (European Commission, 2004) that small
2359  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       compliance with relative European legislation derives from
2360  III,    10.  5.  3    |          multi-dimensional, multi-professional European and national health action
2361  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        of the brain in Europe. European Journal of Neurology 12 (
2362  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     minds at work in Europe. A European work-related public health
2363  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   health. Essen. www.enwhp.org~European Commission (1989): Council
2364  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 Brussels. Available at: htt ML~European Commission (2004): Communication
2365  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 Brussels. Available at: htt tm~European Commission (2004): Commission
2366  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       2004): Commission of the European Communities: First Annual
2367  III,    10.  5.  3    |                 Brussels. Available at: htt df~European Commission (2007): Improving
2368  III,    10.  5.  3    |              Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. COM (2007) 62.
2369  III,    10.  5.  3    |                           Available at: htt df~European Agency for Safety and Health
2370  III,    10.  5.  3    |                   Health. Available at: htt m.~European Agency for Safety and Health
2371  III,    10.  5.  3    |                      some Member States of the European Union. Available at: htt ts~
2372  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       diseases in the enlarged European Union. European Heart Journal
2373  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       enlarged European Union. European Heart Journal 27:1610-1619.~
2374  III,    10.  5.  3    |                        5.3.7. Acronyms~ ~ENWHP~European Network for Workplace Health Promotion~
2375  III,    10.  5.  3    |                Workplace Health Promotion~EODS~European statistics of occupational
2376  III,    10.  5.  3    |                     occupational diseases~ESAW~European statistics of injuries At
2377  III,    10.  5.  3    |                       of injuries At Work~EWCS~European Working Condition Survey~
2378  III,    10.  6.  1    |                voluntary organisations in most European countries.~ ~ ~
2379  III,    10.  6.  1    |                        relationships later on. European adolescents have three or
2380  III,    10.  6.  1    |                    comparative analysis of the European Survey of Crime and Safety (
2381  III,    10.  6.  2    |                       Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. DG Employment
2382  III,    10.  6.  2    |                    Social Affairs, 2004;~· the European projectClosing the Gap:
2383  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        women). In many Western European countries mortality differences
2384  III,    10.  6.  2    |                       in mortality in selected European Countries per cause~ ~Figure
2385  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      diseases. In many Western European countries, the 80s and 90s
2386  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      cent in the three Eastern European countries, as compared to
2387  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      cent in the three Western European countries. Among women,
2388  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        from some other Eastern European countries (Hungary) suggests
2389  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        1990s coming from eight European countries and indicating
2390  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      Chronic diseases in eight European countries~Moreover, the
2391  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        countries~Moreover, the European Commission has also released
2392  III,    10.  6.  2    |                       Population Ageing in Six European Countries”. DG Employment
2393  III,    10.  6.  2    |                     strategies and projects at European, national and local level
2394  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        determinants at global, European, national and community
2395  III,    10.  6.  2    |                     action in the frame of the European projectClosing the Gap:
2396  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      to health systems (htt ~ ~European level~The European Health
2397  III,    10.  6.  2    |                             European level~The European Health and Consumer Protection
2398  III,    10.  6.  2    |                      process to strengthen the European economy and - at the same
2399  III,    10.  6.  2    |                    health theme of the Finnish European Union (EU) Presidency in
2400  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        Ministry of Health, the European Commission and the WHO/EURO.~ ~
2401  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        mentioned activities at European and national level, we would
2402  III,    10.  6.  2    |             organisations have joined in a new European project calledDetermine’.
2403  III,    10.  6.  2    |                        calledDetermine’. The European Commission funded project
2404  III,    10.  6.  2    |                 diseases: an overview of eight European countries. Int J Epidemiol
2405  III,    10.  6.  3    |                       of a large sample of the European public. The EUICS Consortium
2406  III,    10.  6.  3    |                developed a new instrument, the European Crime and Safety Survey
2407  III,    10.  6.  3    |                        addresses new needs for European comparative data for policy-makers.
2408  III,    10.  6.  3    |                    three contact crimes in the European Crime and Safety Survey
2409   IV,    11.Acr        |                  Diagnosis Related Groups~ECHP~European Community Household Panel
2410   IV,    11.Acr        |                    Household Panel Survey~EMEA~European Medicines Agency~HOPE~European
2411   IV,    11.Acr        |                 European Medicines Agency~HOPE~European Hospital and Healthcare
2412   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                        to the health status of European citizens in many ways. Life
2413   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                       of health systems in the European Union.~ ~Primarily a descriptive
2414   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                represent important services in European health and social care systems,
2415   IV,    11.  1.  1    |                    while this chapter adopts a European comparative perspective,
2416   IV,    11.  1.  1    |             interpreted with caution.~ ~As all European health systems face their
2417   IV,    11.  1.  2    |              literature. Eurostat data and the European Health for all data (2007)
2418   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                      does not cover the entire European region, there have been
2419   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                      chapter also makes use of European survey data and existing
2420   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                evidence in the literature. The European Community Household Panel
2421   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                     health care use. The First European Quality of Life Survey (
2422   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                      2004), coordinated by the European Foundation for the Improvement
2423   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                       are also elicited in the European Social Survey (2002, 2004,
2424   IV,    11.  1.  2    |                        survey conducted by the European Commission in 2006 is available
2425   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                      health care trends in the European Union’s (EU) new Member
2426   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                    increasing cost pressure on European health systems, the role
2427   IV,    11.  1.  3    |                       countries. While Eastern European countries spend less than
2428   IV,    11.  1.  3    |              healthcare, the majority of other European countries spent between
2429   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                         Access to healthcare~ ~European governments are concerned
2430   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                       has been achieved in all European countries. However, even
2431   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                       waiting times identifies European countries with significant
2432   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                        al, 2004). Based on the European Community Household Panel
2433   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                   inpatient care among the ten European countries investigated (
2434   IV,    11.  1.  4    |                        in about half of the 11 European countries included in the
2435   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                     far available for 18 of 23 European countries in the OECD. For
2436   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                       in health facilities. At European level, the European Foundation
2437   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                         At European level, the European Foundation for Quality Management
2438   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                       improve compliance. Many European countries are developing
2439   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                     surveys coordinated by the European Commission are useful for
2440   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                     many argue that within the European region, cultural differences
2441   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                 research has been conducted at European level, although estimates
2442   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                        a Eurobarometer survey (European Commission, 2006). The survey
2443   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                       patient experiences. The European Social Survey from the years
2444   IV,    11.  1.  5    |                    well” (as also shown in the European Social Survey), while Greece,
2445   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                  Robinson et al, 2004).~ ~Most European health systems have in place
2446   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                  improvements. Currently, most European countries have moved from
2447   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                  Hanvoravongchai, 2003; HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare
2448   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                       been translated into the European context, each country has
2449   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               countries, what is common across European countries is that even when
2450   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                 increased transparency (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare
2451   IV,    11.  1.  6    |               alongside the DRG system (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare
2452   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                       develop DRG systems in 9 European countries (Denmark, England,
2453   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                      better controlled (HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare
2454   IV,    11.  1.  6    |                        the Central and Eastern European countries that have embarked
2455   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                       Malta. Among the Western European countries, those with systems
2456   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                 hospital sizes vary across the European region (Figure 11.2). When
2457   IV,    11.  2.  1    |                       some central and Eastern European countries (McDaid and Thornicroft,
2458   IV,    11.  2.  2    |              implementation is overseen by the European Commission’s Public Health
2459   IV,    11.  2.  2    |                 private enterprises.~ ~Several European governments have moved mental
2460   IV,    11.  3.  2    |            Pharmaceutical policy varies across European countries according to the
2461   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                        growth was seen in most European countries in the past decades.
2462   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                   market authorization via the European Medicines Agency (EMEA),
2463   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                    used in central and Eastern European countries, including the
2464   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                     mechanisms employed across European countries to encourage the
2465   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                    Table 11.8. Contribution of European countries to global prescription
2466   IV,    11.  3.  2    |                     Ireland and Italy. Eastern European pharmaceutical markets,
2467   IV,    11.  4        |                   improvement of the health of European citizens. The range of health
2468   IV,    11.  4        |                      duplication of efforts in European HTAincluding elements
2469   IV,    11.  4        |                          The current EU funded European Network for Health Technology
2470   IV,    11.  4        |                        on a draft proposal for European HTA Collaboration years
2471   IV,    11.  5.  1    |                   organisational issues.~ ~The European scenario of deceased organ
2472   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                    societies operate in Europe~European transplant organizations
2473   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                    organizations on web:~ ~The European Society for Organ Transplantation (
2474   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                      Slovenia and Croatia : ~ ~European transplant physician and
2475   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                         ERA-EDTA Registry: htt European Liver Transplant Registry: htt
2476   IV,    11.  5.  2    |                      Euroliver Foundation: htt European Homograft Bank (EHB): ht
2477   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                                        11.5.3. European survey on donation and transplantation
2478   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                       activities~ ~In 2003 the European Commission conducted a survey (
2479   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                 Commission conducted a survey (European Commission, 2003) related
2480   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                       Procurement in different European countries~Figure 11.12.
2481   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                   transplantation in different European countries~Figure 11.13.
2482   IV,    11.  5.  3    |                  export of organs in different European countries~Figure 11.14.
2483   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                       vary widely in different European countries (see Figure 11.
2484   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                   their relatives. Only 41% of European citizens have discussed
2485   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                      organs.~The creation of a European organ donor card which indicates
2486   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                       public awareness. 81% of European citizens support the use
2487   IV,    11.  5.  4    |             Eurotransplant, Scandiatransplant, European Transplant Network or the
2488   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                        regular meetings of the European organ exchange organisations
2489   IV,    11.  5.  4    |                        examples of the need of European cooperation.~ ~Quality and
2490   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        the transplant field at European level:~ ~The EU should finance
2491   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                     really include most of the European countries, in such a way
2492   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                       recently launched by the European Commission offers a unique
2493   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                       situation of research at European level. The two researchers
2494   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                   across Europe) funded by the European Commission within the 6th
2495   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                     weakening considerably the European position in the transplant
2496   IV,    11.  5.  5    |               transplant field; therefore, the European Commission decided to fund
2497   IV,    11.  5.  5    |           collaborative research activities at European level. TRIE is one of these
2498   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        and will provide to the European Commission tools and directions
2499   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        the mobilisation of the European transplant community. To
2500   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                      dedicated website (www ~ ~European research project in transplantation