1-500 | 501-1000 | 1001-1500 | 1501-2000 | 2001-2500 | 2501-2901
     Part,  Chapter, Paragraph

2501   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                  funded by the DG SANCO of the European Commission. The aim of this
2502   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        validate a professional European Training Program on Organ
2503   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        are:~- To build a solid European collaborative partnership
2504   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                    Care Professionals from the European Union countries with the
2505   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        validate a professional European Training Program On Organ
2506   IV,    11.  5.  5    |               involvement levels~ ~Alliance-O (European Group for Coordination of
2507   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                   EUROCET (E-Ten):~To create a European donation and transplant
2508   IV,    11.  5.  5    |                        institutional bodies.~ ~European Quality System for Tissue
2509   IV,    11.  5.  5    |              activities required by the future European Directive.~ ~EUSTITE: (Public
2510   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                         11.5.6. Policy tools~ ~European Commission~ ~Since 1999,
2511   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                 envisaged in the future.~ ~The European Commission has already undertaken
2512   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                      two projects to develop a European Training Program on Organ
2513   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                       to create a consensus on European common standards regarding
2514   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                   supporting the creation of a European registry on organs, cells
2515   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                        duplication. A separate European research project is focusing
2516   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                        practices among certain European countries. Another project
2517   IV,    11.  5.  6    |              improvement of organ donation – a European consensus document~1997Recom 16
2518   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                  Europe~1987 3rd Conference of European Ministers of Health (Paris,
2519   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                   organ transplantation and to European co-operation~ – Procurement
2520   IV,    11.  5.  6    |                     and Finland and results of European co-operation~1987 Renal
2521   IV,    11.  5.  7    |                      Future developments~ ~The European Commission is addressing
2522   IV,    11.  6.  1    |                       many central and Eastern European countries witnessed a resurgence
2523   IV,    11.  6.  1    |                     among the highest spending European countries, such as France,
2524   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                       currently play a role in European health systems), cost sharing
2525   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                       payments) (see below).~ ~European health systems are characterized
2526   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                   unique trend in time for all European countries.~ ~While in Western
2527   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                        the central and Eastern European region shows a more consistent
2528   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                       expenditure, 1990-2005~ ~European healthcare systems rely
2529   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                       funding in seven Western European countries: Austria, Belgium,
2530   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                        to purchase PHI in some European countries, usually in the
2531   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                   exists to some extent in all European health systems. The three
2532   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                 healthcare expenditure in many European countries and are the second
2533   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                Mossialos 2008).~ ~Although all European countries require cost sharing
2534   IV,    11.  6.  2    |                         In central and Eastern European countries there has been
2535   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                    relatively comprehensive in European countries, although pressures
2536   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                 differentiated environments of European healthcare and political
2537   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                   deterioration of health, and European reference networks for specific
2538   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                        adjustment methods.~The European Public Health Outcome Research
2539   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                        among the participating European countries. It represents
2540   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                  outcome indicators adopted in European and Extra-European countries
2541   IV,    11.  6.  4    |                        requirements of ongoing European Commission projects.~The
2542   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                       of Life in Europe. First European Quality of Life Survey 2003.
2543   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   Quality of Life Survey 2003. European Foundation for the Improvement
2544   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   Official Publications of the European Communities.~ ~Balabanova
2545   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2546   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                       countries. Policy brief. European Observatory on Health Systems
2547   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   World Health Organization.~ ~European Commission (2003): Human
2548   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                    available at http ey.pdf]~ ~European Commission (2006): "Eurobarometer
2549   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  Organization on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2550   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  Organization on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2551   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                      Goldman M, Wood K (2007): European research on cell and organ
2552   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                     the Nuffield Trust and the European Observatory on Health Systems
2553   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Copenhagen, WHO on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2554   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                 Systems and Policies.~ ~HOPE - European Hospital and Healthcare
2555   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                     for health services in the European Union. Euro Observer. 6:
2556   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2557   IV,    11.  6.  5    |            community-based care. Policy brief. European Observatory on Health Systems
2558   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                    Public Health Policy in the European Community. W.W. Holland
2559   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        for Europe. Copenhagen, European Observatory on Health Systems
2560   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        cost containment in the European Union. Ashgate, Aldershot.~ ~
2561   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        health insurance in the European Union. Copenhagen, World
2562   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  Organization on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2563   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Copenhagen, WHO on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2564   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   pharmaceutical prices in the European Union. Regulating pharmaceuticals
2565   IV,    11.  6.  5    |               Copenhagen, WHO on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2566   IV,    11.  6.  5    |            effectiveness and efficiency of the European health care systems." Health
2567   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2568   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                  Organization on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems
2569   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                    DRGs): A comparison of nine European countries." Health Care
2570   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        Benefit Basket" in nine European countries. Evidence from
2571   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                   countries. Evidence from the European Union Health BASKET Project."
2572   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                        Health BASKET Project." European Journal of Health Economics
2573   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                         The role of HTA in the European Union. Financing Sustainable
2574   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                       Sarrut B et al. (1992): "European survey of independent drug
2575   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                     for health services in the European Union. Brussels, European
2576   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                      European Union. Brussels, European Commission DG Employment
2577   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                       new member states of the European Union. Paris, Institut des
2578   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                    Brussels, Commission of the European Communities.~ ~van de Ven
2579   IV,    11.  6.  5    |                       insurance market in five European countries." Health Policy
2580   IV,    12.Acr        |                       Adjusted Life Years~EACH~European Association for Children
2581   IV,    12.Acr        |                      of disease estimates~EFTA~European free trade Association~EPSCO~
2582   IV,    12.Acr        |                  Consumer Affairs Council~ERDF~European Regional Development Fund~
2583   IV,    12.Acr        |                  Regional Development Fund~ESF~European Social Fund~EUPHIN~European
2584   IV,    12.Acr        |                    European Social Fund~EUPHIN~European Public Health Information
2585   IV,    12.  1        |                      challenges to health. The European integration process started
2586   IV,    12.  1        |                 economic Community to become a European Union with economic, social
2587   IV,    12.  1        |                     and capitals is one of the European Union’s undoubted successes.
2588   IV,    12.  1        |                   their goods elsewhere in the European Union. Local rules on the
2589   IV,    12.  1        |                 practice undermines one of the European Union’s basic principles:
2590   IV,    12.  1        |                       each Member State of the European Union and this is still
2591   IV,    12.  1        |                     start, the Treaties of the European Community have recognised
2592   IV,    12.  1        |                    formally part of mainstream European policies. During the 70’
2593   IV,    12.  1        |                        precursor programmes at European Community level.~ ~Health promotion~
2594   IV,    12.  1        |                    relatively new-comer on the European scene arriving only in 1992
2595   IV,    12.  1        |                        in many policies of the European Union, now enlarged to 27
2596   IV,    12.  1        |                  standards, moving towards the European electronic health record.~
2597   IV,    12.  1        |              Environment ~Environmental~policy~European Environment~and Health Action
2598   IV,    12.  1        |                        through the creation of European agencies. This mix of legislation
2599   IV,    12.  1        |                   market authorization via the European Medicines Agency (EMEA),
2600   IV,    12.  1        |                       Co-operation between the European Commission and National
2601   IV,    12.  1        |                      new health initiatives at European and national level.~ ~The
2602   IV,    12.  1        |                      limited – is growing. The European Convention considered strengthening
2603   IV,    12.  2        |                                      12.2. The European strategy for health~ ~This
2604   IV,    12.  2        |                     the health strategy of the European Community, followed by a
2605   IV,    12.  2        |                    Treaty and supported by the European Public Health Programme.~ ~
2606   IV,    12.  2        |                         on 23 October 2007 the European Commission adopted a new
2607   IV,    12.  2        |                       future work on health at European level, and to put in place
2608   IV,    12.  2        |                        New Technologies.~ ~The European Commission will work to
2609   IV,    12.  2        |                      and improve the health of European citizens. Building on the
2610   IV,    12.  2        |              physical activity and health, the European Alcohol and Health Forum,
2611   IV,    12.  2        |                       Health Policy Forum, the European Commission will work closely
2612   IV,    12.  2        |                     Council conclusions.~ ~The European Union Council Conclusions,
2613   IV,    12.  2        |                    Presidency, called upon the European Commission as well as the
2614   IV,    12.  2        |                 National Ministries of Health, European and National representatives
2615   IV,    12.  2        |              interventions are in place in all European countries.~ ~Several WHO
2616   IV,    12.  2        |                    conference organised by the European Society of Cardiology and
2617   IV,    12.  2        |                  Society of Cardiology and the European Heart Network, with a special
2618   IV,    12.  2        |                     the quality of life in the European population by reducing the
2619   IV,    12.  2        |                      by the conclusions of the European Council of the 30 November
2620   IV,    12.  2        |                        With the support of the European Commission, the World Health
2621   IV,    12.  2        |                 Organization (WHO-Europe), the European Heart Network and the European
2622   IV,    12.  2        |                 European Heart Network and the European Society of Cardiology, the
2623   IV,    12.  2        |                     Society of Cardiology, the European Heart Health Charter was
2624   IV,    12.  2        |                   Charter was developed.~ ~The European Heart Health Charter has
2625   IV,    12.  2        |                launched on 12 June 2007 at the European Parliament in Brussels.
2626   IV,    12.  2        |                      control, spelt out in the European Heart Health Charter and
2627   IV,    12.  2        |                    Member States.~ ~Cancer~ ~A European Parliament Written Declaration
2628   IV,    12.  2        |                 colorectal cancer. In 2003 the European Council published recommendations
2629   IV,    12.  2        |                   published recommendations to European Member States for the implementation
2630   IV,    12.  2        |                organised screening programmes (European Council, 2003). Recommendations
2631   IV,    12.  2        |                  spread of best practice among European countries and pressure to
2632   IV,    12.  2        |                  competent Authorities in most European countries define, mainly
2633   IV,    12.  2        |                     care. In January 2006, the European Commission launched a specific
2634   IV,    12.  2        |                      in the disease across the European Union and at an international
2635   IV,    12.  2        |                       developing a coordinated European strategy for diabetes;~-
2636   IV,    12.  2        |                      Otocec Declaration (2004) European Diabetes week, Nov 2004
2637   IV,    12.  2        |                      Presidency in 2006;~- the European Parliament in April 2006
2638   IV,    12.  2        |                        in April 2006 urged the European Commission and the European
2639   IV,    12.  2        |                    European Commission and the European Council to make care and
2640   IV,    12.  2        |                      priority and to develop a European wide strategy to tackle
2641   IV,    12.  2        |            International Diabetes FederationEuropean Region (IDF Europe) and
2642   IV,    12.  2        |                  Europe) and the Federation of European Nurses in Diabetes (FEND)
2643   IV,    12.  2        |                      to the future work of the European Commission on one of Europe’
2644   IV,    12.  2        |                        in alcohol in the whole European Union accounts for 1.3%
2645   IV,    12.  2        |                        necessarily affected by European and domestic policy to reduce
2646   IV,    12.  2        |                     Evin was challenged in the European Court of Justice, it was
2647   IV,    12.  2        |                     and adolescents, 2001~http European Commission Road Safety Action
2648   IV,    12.  2        |                       Programme 2003-2010~http European Commission Communication
2649   IV,    12.  2        |                    alcohol strategy, 2006~http European alcohol and health forum,
2650   IV,    12.  2        |                     PHEPA: Primary Health Care European Project~http EUROCARE –
2651   IV,    12.  2        |                    treatment of addiction~http European Prospective Investigation
2652   IV,    12.  3        |                             12.3. The reviewed European social agenda~ ~Social Europe
2653   IV,    12.  3        |                 property and differences among European regions. Initiatives foreseen
2654   IV,    12.  3        |                       scene~ ~To this end, the European Commission intends to make
2655   IV,    12.  3        |                proposal to improve the role of European works Councils (EWCs) currently
2656   IV,    12.  3        |                        public health including European cooperation of health systems
2657   IV,    12.  3        |                       project.~ ~Moreover, the European Commission has recently
2658   IV,    12.  3        |                    institutions (including the European Parliament). The objectives
2659   IV,    12.  3        |                  better interaction with other European policies:~Many policies
2660   IV,    12.  4        |                      several health links with European Commission general directorates
2661   IV,    12.  4        |                        12.6. Health across the European Commission~ ~Directorate
2662   IV,    12.  4        |                    social and health services;~European Social Fund; Open Method
2663   IV,    12.  4        |                         water quality, noise; 'European Environment and Health Strategy',
2664   IV,    12.  4        |                  Strategy', COM(2003)338, and 'European Environment and Health Action
2665   IV,    12.  4        |                     third countries, including European Neighbourhood countries~
2666   IV,    12.  4        |                        Driving Hours~ ~Source: European Commission~http tm~Last
2667   IV,    12.  4        |                        the early nineties, the European Commission had established
2668   IV,    12.  4        |                      was created for the first European Commissioner in charge of
2669   IV,    12.  4        |                     Similarly, the work of the European Parliament Committee on
2670   IV,    12.  4        |           communications, making proposals for European co-operation and extending
2671   IV,    12.  4        |                agencies were created to advise European Institutions and Member
2672   IV,    12.  4        |                      and between these and the European bodies for what concerms
2673   IV,    12.  4        |                   tasks entrusted to it by the European Commission, and it works
2674   IV,    12.  4        |                    based in Luxembourg.~ECDC~ ~European Centre for Disease Prevention
2675   IV,    12.  4        |                  infectious diseases.~ ~ECHA~ ~European Chemicals Agency (Helsinki,
2676   IV,    12.  4        |                      publicly accessible~EEA~ ~European Environment Agency (Copenhagen,
2677   IV,    12.  4        |                  agents and the public.~EFSA~ ~European Food Safety Authority (Parma,
2678   IV,    12.  4        |                      internal market.~EMCDDA~ ~European Monitoring Centre for Drugs
2679   IV,    12.  4        |                      comparable information at European level concerning drugs and
2680   IV,    12.  4        |                   their consequences.~ ~EMEA~ ~European Medicines Agency (London,
2681   IV,    12.  4        |                     and animal health.~ ~ESA~ ~European Space Agency (Paris - France) –
2682   IV,    12.  4        |                        for Europe.~EUROFOUND~ ~European Foundation for the Improvement
2683   IV,    12.  4        |                        and analysis.~EU-OSHA~ ~European Agency for Safety and Health
2684   IV,    12.  4        |                       risk prevention.~ ~FRA~ ~European Union Agency for Fundamental
2685   IV,    12.  4        |                    data, provide advice to the European Union and its Member States,
2686   IV,    12.  4        |                     with DG Enterprise and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA)
2687   IV,    12.  4        |                        cooperation instrument, European development fund~EAC~Lifelong
2688   IV,    12.  4        |                        InstrumentTAIEX~EMPL~European Social Fund (2007-2013),
2689   IV,    12.  4        |                programmes co-financed with the European Regional Development Fund (
2690   IV,    12.  4        |                       Fund (2007-2013)~ ~RELEX~European Neighbourhood and Partnership
2691   IV,    12.  5        |                                      12.5. The European Public Health Programme~ ~
2692   IV,    12.  5        |                     Article 152 of the Treaty (European Council, 2002). A description
2693   IV,    12.  5        |                       adopted a proposal for a European Parliament and Council Decision
2694   IV,    12.  5        |                    This was done following the European Parliament’s first reading
2695   IV,    12.  5        |                     Programme went through the European Parliament in second reading
2696   IV,    12.  5        |                        on health status in the European Union based on all data
2697   IV,    12.  5        |                   cooperation with EUROSTAT. A European Health Portal (htt m) has
2698   IV,    12.  5        |              information, with a short list of European health indicators, including
2699   IV,    12.  5        |                       every year to the Spring European Council. The telematic implication
2700   IV,    12.  5        |               implication of the system is the European Public Health Information
2701   IV,    12.  5        |                 newsletter). Among others, the European Commission aims at producing
2702   IV,    12.  5        |                          Annex 12.1. System of European Community Health Indicators~ ~
2703   IV,    12.  5        |                  Health Programme, a System of European Community Health Indicators (
2704   IV,    12.  5        |                   structural framework for the European Community Health Indicators (
2705   IV,    12.  5        |                    Healthy Life Years (HLY) as European Structural Indicator~ ~Prior
2706   IV,    12.  5        |             feasibility study for HLY used the European Community Household Panel
2707   IV,    12.  5        |                      ECHP ended in 2001 and no European data was available for 2002
2708   IV,    12.  5        |                    2001). In this decision the European Union defines the tasks
2709   IV,    12.  5        |                      projects co-funded by the European Commission. Especially in
2710   IV,    12.  5        |                       the establishment of the European Community Health Indicators (
2711   IV,    12.  5        |                     Health Indicators) and the European Health Survey System under
2712   IV,    12.  5        |                       in order to complete the European Community Health Indicators
2713   IV,    12.  5        |                       action programmes of the European Union as a basis for the
2714   IV,    12.  5        |                       Union as a basis for the European health information and knowledge
2715   IV,    12.  5        |                     the elaboration of regular European health status reports.~ ~
2716   IV,    12.  5        |                   health status reports.~ ~The European Commission has also launched
2717   IV,    12.  5        |                       at bringing together top European scientists from all EU countries
2718   IV,    12.  5        |            contributing to the creation of the European Research Area. The reports
2719   IV,    12.  5        |                      both electronically – the European Public Health Report Series
2720   IV,    12.  6        |                     activity undertaken by the European Commission is the Public
2721   IV,    12.  6        |                     issues as appropriate. The European Public Health Forum has
2722   IV,    12.  6        |                        restricted, however, to European organizations and to bodies
2723   IV,    12.  7        |                   interventions on health. The European Observatory on Health System
2724   IV,    12.  7        |                     the health strategy of the European Union: The Paper includes
2725   IV,    12.  7        |                       preferably linked to the European Commission’s Integrated
2726   IV,    12.  8        |                  initiatives~ ~The role of the European Union on the international
2727   IV,    12.  8        |                     citizens living within the European Union. Article 152 of the
2728   IV,    12.  8        |                       competences given to the European Union in the public health
2729   IV,    12.  8        |                     candidate countries in the European mechanisms, meetings and
2730   IV,    12.  8        |                            Table 12.10. The 27 European Union Member States and
2731   IV,    12.  8        |                      establishing the Economic European Community, was approved
2732   IV,    12.  8        |                      health improvement.~ ~The European Economic Area~ ~Since 1992,
2733   IV,    12.  8        |                Economic Area~ ~Since 1992, the European Community has had a special
2734   IV,    12.  8        |                         who, together with the European Community Member States
2735   IV,    12.  8        |                      States form the so-called European Economic Area. Protocol
2736   IV,    12.  8        |                       EU agencies, such as the European medicines Agency in London
2737   IV,    12.  8        |                       Agency in London and the European Centre for disease prevention
2738   IV,    12.  8        |                    EFTA countries and from the European Commission services meet
2739   IV,    12.  8        |               participate fully in the current European Community Public Health
2740   IV,    12.  8        |                      particular in the Eastern European countries. The EU Structural
2741   IV,    12.  9        |                    Europe, especially with the European Pharmacopoeia. This has
2742   IV,    12.  9        |                      the relations between the European Union and candidate countries,
2743   IV,    12.  9        |                       candidate countries, the European free trade Association (
2744   IV,    12. 10        |                        taken place not only at European level during the last decades,
2745   IV,    12. 10        |                  deeply affected by changes at European level, also the contrary
2746   IV,    12. 10        |                 important developments also at European level (see Annex 12.3).
2747   IV,    12. 10        |                     documents available on the European Commission Public Health
2748   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European strategy for health~Intermediate~
2749   IV,    12. 10        |             Intermediate~National/Regional~Yes~European public health programme~
2750   IV,    12. 10        |                        National + Regional~Yes~European cooperation on health services~
2751   IV,    12. 10        |                     High~National/Regional~Yes~European Union directive proposal
2752   IV,    12. 10        |                 anti-smoking programs like the European smoke-free class competition (
2753   IV,    12. 10        |                smoke-free Hospitals (member of European network for smoke-free hospitals)~www –
2754   IV,    12. 10        |                      mix approach according to European guidelines.~Legal requirements
2755   IV,    12. 10        |                        see www. e) and http / (European data-bank for drug related
2756   IV,    12. 10        |                      is regulated according to European Directives which have been
2757   IV,    12. 10        |              recreational water~High priority~ European Regulations concerning drinking
2758   IV,    12. 10        |                       of implementation of the European Bathing water directive
2759   IV,    12. 10        |                            but to national and European regulations concerning genetic
2760   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~
2761   IV,    12. 10        |                      strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~European public health programme~ ~ ~ ~
2762   IV,    12. 10        |                 Ambient Air Regulations 2004~- European Communities (National Emissions
2763   IV,    12. 10        |                   Refinishing Products 2007.~- European Communities (control of
2764   IV,    12. 10        |                 Quality Regulations 2008~ ~ ~- European Communities (Good Agricultural
2765   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European strategy for health~High~
2766   IV,    12. 10        |                    services up to 2010~http ~ ~European public health programme~
2767   IV,    12. 10        |                  intention to participate in a European Human Bio Monitoring Pilot
2768   IV,    12. 10        |                     one of the elements of the European Environment and Health Action
2769   IV,    12. 10        |                         based on the system of European Community Health Education (
2770   IV,    12. 10        |                      Health Education (ECHI)~ ~European cooperation on health services~
2771   IV,    12. 10        |                       and informal networks.~ ~European Union directive proposal
2772   IV,    12. 10        |                       Greece participates in a European program with the title “
2773   IV,    12. 10        |                      project, co-funded by the European Space Agency (ESA), will
2774   IV,    12. 10        |               information can be integrated in European healthcare systems and civil
2775   IV,    12. 10        |                      way for the creation of a European user-driven telemedicine
2776   IV,    12. 10        |                     develop, and demonstrate a European outbreak early warning system
2777   IV,    12. 10        |                      tool for the national and European bodies in charge of epidemiological
2778   IV,    12. 10        |                surveillance and especially the European Center for Disease Control (
2779   IV,    12. 10        |                      the IPPC Directive in the European Union aims at the improvement
2780   IV,    12. 10        |                       campaign concerning “The European Day without Car” is organized
2781   IV,    12. 10        |                    relative legislation of the European Union and in particular
2782   IV,    12. 10        |                  national contact point of the European Union for the management
2783   IV,    12. 10        |                        an active member of the European Agency for Safety and Health
2784   IV,    12. 10        |                   Ministry participates in the European Campaign for Safety and
2785   IV,    12. 10        |                   Ministry participates in the European Week for Safety and Health
2786   IV,    12. 10        |                  country) and is member of the European Network of Smoke Free Hospitals.
2787   IV,    12. 10        |                        is funded partly by the European Union and by the European
2788   IV,    12. 10        |                      European Union and by the European Social Fund.~The program
2789   IV,    12. 10        |                        the four pillars of the European Employment Strategy, while
2790   IV,    12. 10        |                     politics, mentioned by the European Union and the WHO.~ ~o The
2791   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European public health programme~
2792   IV,    12. 10        |                     Directive 2006/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2793   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~
2794   IV,    12. 10        |                      strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~European public health programme~ ~
2795   IV,    12. 10        |                    Directive 2001/83/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council,
2796   IV,    12. 10        |                      CE and 2004/27/CE, of the European Parliament and of the Council
2797   IV,    12. 10        |                       Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
2798   IV,    12. 10        |                   safety is accordingly to the European Directives and regulations.~
2799   IV,    12. 10        |                        High~ At national level~European Guidelines for Hypertension
2800   IV,    12. 10        |              programmes on citizen empowerment~European strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~
2801   IV,    12. 10        |                      strategy for health~ ~ ~ ~European public health programme~
2802   IV,    13.Acr        |                       Adjusted Life Years~EACH~European Association for Children
2803   IV,    13.Acr        |                       and New Technologies~ERC~European Research Council~ESF~European
2804   IV,    13.Acr        |                  European Research Council~ESF~European Social Fund~FP7~Framework
2805   IV,    13.Acr        |              implementation is overseen by the European Commission’s Public Health
2806   IV,    13.Acr        |                     Agency.~ ~In addition, the European Commission, in collaboration
2807   IV,    13.  1        |                         in such a framework, a European collaboration is absolutely
2808   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                    tools, performed at global, European and local scale. EBD indicators
2809   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                       years (DALYs) in the WHO European Region according to the
2810   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                  health conditions. In the WHO European Region, the age group 15 –
2811   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                       years, living in the WHO European region (51 countries), 2-
2812   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                      Health Organization (WHO) European Region (at present comprising
2813   IV,    13.  2.  2    |                      DALYs annually in the WHO European Region.~· Tobacco smoking
2814   IV,    13.  2.  4    |                    individual countries of the European Region of WHO for the year
2815   IV,    13.  2.  4    |               preventable Burden of Disease in European countries (Table 13.8).~ ~ ~
2816   IV,    13.  2.  4    |                preventable risk factors in the European Union (Table 13.6) are smoking,
2817   IV,    13.  2.  4    |                     significant improvement in European health, resulting both in
2818   IV,    13.  3        |                        changes~ ~The ageing of European populations is the inevitable
2819   IV,    13.  3        |                     further toward a healthier European Union. Such a conclusion
2820   IV,    13.  3        |                     are compared. In 2006, the European Commission, Directorate-General
2821   IV,    13.  3        |                     challenge to opportunity” (European Commission 2006) and another
2822   IV,    13.  3        |                   health policies. The lack at European level, of a consensus methodological
2823   IV,    13.  3        |                       Within this context, the European cooperation is fundamental
2824   IV,    13.  4        |                      for Member-States and the European Union as a whole. Employment
2825   IV,    13.  4        |                      to each Member State. The European Years of Equal opportunities
2826   IV,    13.  4        |                 appropriate measures. In these European Years, several awareness-raising
2827   IV,    13.  4        |                     each Member State. The new European Social Fund (ESF) regulation (
2828   IV,    13.  4        |                  period. Working alongside the European Social Fund (ESF), it started
2829   IV,    13.  4        |                      the implementation of the European Employment Strategy and
2830   IV,    13.  5        |                     all levels of development. European countries intensively debate
2831   IV,    13.  5        |                     been reaffirmed by the WHO European Ministerial Conference on
2832   IV,    13.  5        |                       Member States of the WHO European Region commit themselves
2833   IV,    13.  5        |                      Member States, there is a European dimension to these issues.
2834   IV,    13.  5        |                    Successive rulings from the European Court of Justice established
2835   IV,    13.  5        |                        a representative of the European Parliament and 6 European
2836   IV,    13.  5        |                      European Parliament and 6 European NGOs representing civil
2837   IV,    13.  5        |                       civil society, including European doctors and patients, to
2838   IV,    13.  5        |                 healthcare developments in the European Union. Their report made
2839   IV,    13.  5        |             recognising the potential value of European cooperation in helping Member
2840   IV,    13.  5        |           communications, making proposals for European co-operation and extending
2841   IV,    13.  6.  2    |                     separate structures.~ ~The European Association for Children
2842   IV,    13.  6.  2    |                  Charter of Leiden. So far, 16 European countries have become members
2843   IV,    13.  6.  2    |                        of nurses varies across European states. However, this function
2844   IV,    13.  6.  2    |                      this is an area where the European Community is starting to
2845   IV,    13.  7        |                      introduced throughout the European Union in 2005. In 2006,
2846   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                     and execution. A number of European initiatives aim at enabling
2847   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                   development of clusters. The European Cluster Alliance is a first
2848   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                        brings together over 50 European partners such as ministries,
2849   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                   policies and initiatives, a "European Cluster Memorandum" is being
2850   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                   towards a common agenda. The European Cluster Alliance that was
2851   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                        of PRO INNO Europe. The European Cluster Memorandum is a
2852   IV,    13.  7.  1    |                 between regional, national and~European policy levels.~ ~
2853   IV,    13.  7.  2    |                       the sixth edition of the European Innovation Scoreboard. The
2854   IV,    13.  7.  2    |                    practice. The creation of a European Institute of Technology
2855   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                     the subtitle “Building the European research area of knowledge
2856   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                    Commission proposal and the European Parliament and Council Decision ,
2857   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                       initiating an autonomous European Research Council; (iii)
2858   IV,    13.  7.  3    |           strengthening the human potential of European research through support
2859   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                         and the development of European research careers (‘Marie
2860   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                      delivery of healthcare to European citizens. The “Information
2861   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                     with the priorities of the European Environment and Health Actions
2862   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                    focus. For this reason, the European Research Council (ERC) started
2863   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                      partnership, competing at European level, in all scientific
2864   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                      the formation of a common European Research Area. While the
2865   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                  possibilities provided by the European Research Council, the opportunities
2866   IV,    13.  7.  3    |                 prominently represented in the European research agenda. Transnational
2867   IV,    13.  7.  3    |               cooperation between national and European research funds have an important
2868   IV,    13.  7.  4    |               obviously very important, thus a European Group on Ethics and New
2869   IV,    13.  7.  4    |                        has been established at European level. The group is consulted
2870   IV,    13.  7.  4    |                        to be considered by the European Commission and Member States.~ ~
2871   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                 diseases and health systems at European level, in order to enable
2872   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                     needs of the society. In a European context, the EU Directive
2873   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                   health Information system at European level as described above.
2874   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                       the Work Group urges the European Commission to assess whether
2875   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                        is needed and hence the European Commission is strongly encouraged,
2876   IV,    13.  7.  5    |                  national, and subsequently at European level, these goals will
2877   IV,    13.  8        |                     policy making at national, European and international level
2878   IV,    13.  8        |                 different Member States of the European Union.~Comparable data at
2879   IV,    13.  8        |                       levels: local, national, European or international levels.~
2880   IV,    13.  8        |                      published in the web. The European Public Health Alliance is
2881   IV,    13.  8        |                    Public Health Alliance is a European Platform of health and health-related
2882   IV,    13.  8        |                      common to NGOs working at European level.~ ~These organizations
2883   IV,    13.  8        |                        correctly stated by the European Commission in the White
2884   IV,    13.  8        |                      through other channels.” (European Commission, 2001)~ ~Participating
2885   IV,    13.  8        |                decision making processes~ ~The European Commission has defined the
2886   IV,    13.  8        |                     the candidate countries.” (European Commission, 2001) In welcoming
2887   IV,    13.  8        |                    views of specific groups of European citizens to the European
2888   IV,    13.  8        |                       European citizens to the European Institutions;~· contributing
2889   IV,    13.  8        |              management; and~· contributing to European integration.~ ~In addition,
2890   IV,    13.  8        |                        groups initiated by the European Commission, in particular
2891   IV,    13.  8        |                   health-oriented policies. At European level, the European Commission
2892   IV,    13.  8        |                         At European level, the European Commission has set up many
2893   IV,    13.  8        |                       Health policy Forum, the European Forum on Services in the
2894   IV,    13.  8        |                  proper funding is needed.~The European Commission is bound to consult
2895   IV,    13.  8        |                     subsequent action from the European Commission comprise a Green
2896   IV,    13.  9        |                     EPC(2006)REP/238 final).~ ~European Commission (1995): Directive
2897   IV,    13.  9        |                      Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and the Council
2898   IV,    13.  9        |             Development (CHILD): Report to the European Commission; Centre for Health
2899   IV,    13.  9        |                     Management, Keele, UK, for European Commission Health and Consumer
2900   IV,    13.  9        |                 Priority for a Caring Society; European Journal of Public Health,
2901   IV,    13.  9        |                      en.pdf]~ ~WHO (2005): The European health report 2005. Public